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首页 [价格理论及应用](Price.Theory.and.Applications).赫舒拉发(H…

[价格理论及应用](Price.Theory.and.Applications).赫舒拉发(Hirshleifer).扫描版.pdf

[价格理论及应用](Price.Theory.and.Appl…

上传者: 不胜曦嘘 2012-02-20 评分 3 0 31 4 141 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《[价格理论及应用](Price.Theory.and.Applications).赫舒拉发(Hirshleifer).扫描版pdf》,可适用于经济金融领域,主题内容包含ThispageintentionallyleftblankP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:PRICETHEORYAND符等。

ThispageintentionallyleftblankP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:PRICETHEORYANDAPPLICATIONSSEVENTHEDITIONThisnewseventheditionofPriceTheoryandApplicationsaddsextensivediscussionofinformation,uncertainty,andgametheoryItcontainsmorethanrealworldexamplesillustratingtheapplicabilityofeconomicanalysisnotonlytomainlineeconomictopicsbutalsotoissuesinpolitics,history,biology,thefamily,andmanyotherareasThesediscussionsgenerallydescriberecentresearchpublishedinscholarlybooksandarticles,givingstudentsagoodideaofthescientificworkdonebyprofessionaleconomistsInaddition,atappropriateplacesthetextprovides“Applications”representingmoreextendeddiscussionsofselectedtopicsincludingrationinginwartime(Chapter),importquotas(Chapter),allegedmonopolisticsuppressionofinventions(Chapter),minimumwagelaws(Chapter),theeffectsofSocialSecurityonsaving(Chapter),fairdivisionofdisputedproperty(Chapter),andwhetheroneshouldpayransomtoakidnapper(Chapter)JackHirshleiferisDistinguishedProfessorofEconomics,Emeritus,attheUniversityofCalifornia,LosAngeles(UCLA)HeistheauthororcoauthorofthesixpreviouseditionsofPriceTheoryandApplicationsandtheauthororcoauthorofsixotherbooks,includingTheAnalyticsofUncertaintyandInformation(,withJohnGRiley)andTheDarkSideoftheForce(),bothpublishedbyCambridgeUniversityPressProfessorHirshleiferisaFellowoftheAmericanAcademyofArtsandSciencesandtheEconometricSociety,aformerpresidentoftheWesternEconomicAssociation,andaformervicepresidentoftheAmericanEconomicAssociation,whichnamedhimaDistinguishedFellowinHehasservedontheeditorialboardsoftheAmericanEconomicReview,theJournalofEconomicBehaviorandOrganization,andtheJournalofBioeconomicsAmihaiGlazerisProfessorofEconomicsattheUniversityofCalifornia,IrvineHehastaughtattheHebrewUniversity,CarnegieMellonUniversity,andtheUniversityofTampere,FinlandTheauthorofmorethanarticlesinprofessionaljournals,ProfessorGlazeriscoauthorwithJackHirshleiferofthefiftheditionofPriceTheoryandApplications,coauthorwithLaurenceRothenbergofWhyGovernmentSucceedsandWhyItFails(),andcoeditorwithKaiKonradofConflictandGovernance()HeisacoeditorofthejournalEconomicsofGovernanceDavidHirshleiferistheRalphMKurtzProfessorofFinanceattheOhioStateUniversityHepreviouslytaughtattheAndersonSchoolofUCLAandtheUniversityofMichiganBusinessSchoolThecoauthorwithJackHirshleiferofthesixtheditionofPriceTheoryandApplications,DavidHirshleiferhasservedasadirectoroftheAmericanFinanceAssociation,aseditoroftheReviewofFinancialStudies,andasassociateeditororcoeditorofseveralotherjournalsinfinance,economics,andcorporatestrategyHispapershavereceivedanumberofresearchawards,includingtheSmith–BreedenAwardfortheoutstandingpaperintheJournalofFinanceiP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:iiP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:PRICETHEORYANDAPPLICATIONSDecisions,Markets,andInformationSEVENTHEDITIONJACKHIRSHLEIFERUniversityofCalifornia,LosAngelesAMIHAIGLAZERUniversityofCalifornia,IrvineDAVIDHIRSHLEIFEROhioStateUniversityiiiCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBNISBNJackHirshleifer,AmihaiGlazer,andDavidHirshleiferInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressISBNISBNISBNCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackpaperbackpaperbackeBook(EBL)eBook(EBL)hardbackP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:ContentsPrefacepagexiiipartoneintroductionTheNatureandScopeofEconomicsEconomicsasaSocialScience“EconomicMan”RationalityHumanGoals–TheSelfInterestAssumptionIgnoranceandUncertaintyMarketandNonmarketInteractionsAllocationbyPrices–TheMarketSystemBehaviorwithinOrganizationsPositiveandNormativeAnalysis:“Is”versus“Ought”ElementsoftheEconomicSystemDecisionMakingAgentsintheEconomyScarcity,ObjectsofChoice,andEconomicActivitiesMicroeconomicsandMacroeconomicssummaryquestionsWorkingToolsEquilibrium:SupplyDemandAnalysisBalancingSupplyandDemandHowChangesinSupplyandDemandAffectEquilibriumAlgebraofSupplyDemandAnalysisAnApplication:IntroducingaNewSupplySourceTaxesonTransactionsAnApplication:InterdictingSupplyPriceCeilingsandPriceFloorsFindinganOptimumTheLogicofTotal,Average,andMarginalConceptsHowTotal,Average,andMarginalMagnitudesAreRelatedAnApplication:Foraging–WhenIsItTimetoPackUpandLeavevP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:viCONTENTSsummaryquestionsparttwopreference,consumption,anddemandUtilityandPreferenceTheLawsofPreferenceUtilityandPreferenceCardinalversusOrdinalUtilityUtilityofCommodityBasketsCharacteristicsofIndifferenceCurvesMoreonGoodsandBadsAnApplication:CharityTheSourcesandContentofPreferencessummaryquestionsConsumptionandDemandTheOptimumoftheConsumerTheGeometryofConsumerChoiceOptimumoftheConsumer(CardinalUtility)OptimumoftheConsumer(OrdinalUtility)ComplementsandSubstitutesTheConsumer’sResponsetoChangingOpportunitiesTheIncomeExpansionPathTheEngelCurvePriceExpansionPathandDemandCurveIncomeandSubstitutionEffectsofaPriceChangeAnApplication:HowCantheGiffenCaseComeAboutHowLikelyIsItFromIndividualDemandtoMarketDemandAnApplication:SubsidyversusVouchersummaryquestionsApplicationsandExtensionsofDemandTheoryTheEngelCurveandtheIncomeElasticityofDemandTheDemandCurveandthePriceElasticityofDemandTheCrossElasticityofDemandFittingaDemandCurveConstantSlopeversusConstantElasticityGeneralDemandFunctionsDeterminantsofResponsivenessofDemandtoPriceMultipleConstraints–RationingCouponRationingPointRationingsummaryquestionsP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:CONTENTSviipartthreethefirmandtheindustryTheBusinessFirmWhyFirmsEntrepreneur,Owner,ManagerEconomicProfitversusAccountingProfitTheSeparationofOwnershipandControlTheOptimumoftheFirminPureCompetitionTheShutdownDecisionAnApplication:DivisionofOutputamongPlantsCostFunctionsShortRunversusLongRunRisingCostsandDiminishingReturnsAnApplication:PeakversusOffPeakOperationsummaryquestionsEquilibriumintheProductMarket–CompetitiveIndustryTheSupplyFunctionFromFirmSupplytoMarketSupply:TheShortRunLongRunandShortRunSupplyExternalEconomiesandDiseconomiesFirmSurvivalandtheZeroProfitTheoremTheBenefitsofExchange:ConsumerSurplusandProducerSurplusAnApplication:TheWaterDiamondParadoxAnApplication:BenefitsofanInnovationTransactionTaxesandOtherHindrancestoTradeTransactionTaxesSupplyQuotasAnApplication:ImportQuotasPriceCeilingsand“Shortages”summaryquestionsMonopolies,Cartels,andNetworksTheMonopolist’sProfitMaximizingOptimumPriceQuantitySolutionMonopolyversusCompetitiveSolutionsAnApplication:AuthorversusPublisherAnApplication:MonopolistwithCompetitiveFringeMonopolyandEconomicEfficiencyRegulationofMonopolyMonopolisticPriceDiscriminationMarketSegmentationBlockPricingPerfectDiscriminationCartelsP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:viiiCONTENTSNetworkExternalitiesDemandforaNetworkGoodMonopolyorCompetitionTheLockinIssuesummaryquestionsProductQualityandProductVarietyQualityQualityunderCompetitionandMonopolyAnApplication:SuppressionofInventionsCartelsandQualityVarietyProductVarietyunderMonopolyBlendingMonopolyandCompetition–MonopolisticCompetitionsummaryquestionsCompetitionAmongtheFew:OligopolyandStrategicBehaviorStrategicBehavior:TheTheoryofGamesPatternsofPayoffsAnApplication:PublicGoods–TwoPersonversusMultipersonPrisoners’DilemmaPureStrategiesMixedStrategiesDuopoly–IdenticalProductsQuantityCompetitionPriceCompetitionAnApplication:“MostFavoredCustomer”ClauseDuopoly–DifferentiatedProductsQuantityCompetitionPriceCompetitionOligopoly,Collusion,andNumbersAnApplication:The“Kinked”DemandCurveOligopolyandNumberssummaryquestionsDealingwithUncertainty–TheEconomicsofRiskandInformationDecisionsunderUncertaintyExpectedGainversusExpectedUtilityRiskAversionRiskBearingandInsuranceTheValueofInformationAsymmetricInformationAdverseSelection–TheLemonsProblemP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:CONTENTSixConveyingQualitythroughReputationDoPricesSignalQualityInformationasaPublicGoodConveyingInformation–AdvertisingHerdBehaviorandInformationalCascadesCopyright,Patents,andIntellectualPropertyRightssummaryquestionspartfourfactormarketsandincomedistributionTheDemandforFactorServicesProductionandFactorEmploymentwithaSingleVariableInputTheProductionFunctionDiminishingReturnsFromProductionFunctiontoCostFunctionTheFirm’sDemandforaSingleVariableInputProductionandFactorEmploymentwithSeveralVariableInputsTheProductionFunctionFactorBalanceandFactorEmploymentTheFirm’sDemandforInputsTheIndustry’sDemandforInputsMonopsonyintheFactorMarketAnApplication:MinimumWageLawssummaryquestionsResourceSupplyandFactorMarketEquilibriumTheOptimumoftheResourceOwnerAnApplication:TheIncentiveEffectsof“Welfare”andSocialSecurityPersonnelEconomics:ManagerialApplicationsofEmploymentTheoryThePrincipalAgentProblemPayingbythePieceSignallingFactorMarketEquilibriumFromIndividualSupplytoMarketSupplyDemandandSupplyTogetherAnApplication:SourcesofGrowingWageInequalityMonopoliesandCartelsinFactorSupplyThe“Functional”DistributionofIncomeTheTraditionalClassification:Land,Labor,andCapitalCapital,RateofReturn,andInterestEconomicRentsummaryquestionsP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:xCONTENTSpartfiveexchangeExchange,TransactionCosts,andMoneyPureExchange:TheEdgeworthBoxSupplyandDemandinPureExchangeAnApplication:MarketExperimentsinEconomicsExchangeandProductionImperfectMarkets:CostsofExchangeHowPerfectAreMarketsProportionalTransactionCostsLumpSumTransactionCostsTheRoleofMoneyMoneyasMediumofExchangeMoneyasTemporaryStoreofValueAnApplication:AuctionsTheEnglishAuctionSealedBidSecondPriceAuctionSealedBidFirstPriceAuctionTheDutchAuctionsummaryquestionspartsixeconomicsandtimeTheEconomicsofTimePresentversusFutureConsumptionChoicesoverTime:PureExchangeBorrowingLendingEquilibriumwithZeroNetInvestmentAnApplication:DoubleTaxationofSavingProductionandConsumptionoverTime:SavingandInvestmentInvestmentDecisionsandProjectAnalysisTheSeparationTheoremThePresentValueRuleTheRateofReturn(ROR)RuleRealInterestandMonetaryInterest:AllowingforInflationTheMultiplicityofInterestRatesAnApplication:TheDiscountRateforProjectAnalysisTheFundamentalsofInvestment,Saving,andInterestsummaryquestionspartsevenpoliticaleconomyWelfareEconomics:TheMarketandtheStateGoalsofEconomicPolicyEfficiencyversusEquityUtilitarianismP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:CONTENTSxiEfficiencyastheSumofConsumerSurplusandProducerSurplusEfficientAllocationsintheEdgeworthBox“Equity”ReconsideredAnApplication:HowtoDivideaCakeTheTheoremoftheInvisibleHand:TheRoleofPricesEfficientConsumptionEfficientProductionEfficientBalancebetweenProductionandConsumption“MarketFailures”MonopolyExternalitiesTheCoaseTheoremTheCommons:TheConsequencesofUnrestrictedAccessPublicGoodsEfficientProductionandConsumptionofPublicGoodsVoluntaryProvisionofNonexcludablePublicGoods–FreeRidingAnExtension:WeakestLinkversusBestShotModelsofPublicGoodsAppropriativeActivityandRentSeekingsummaryquestionsGovernment,Politics,andConflictTheOtherSideoftheCoin:GovernmentFailuresCorruptionasGovernmentFailurePoliticalCompetitionandItsLimitsPoliticsandSpecialInterestsVotingasanInstrumentofControlMajorityandMinority–“LogRolling”TheCyclingParadoxTheMedianVoterTheoremConflictandCooperationSourcesofCooperationandConflictConflictandGameTheoryAnApplication:ShouldYouPayRansomsummaryquestionsAnswerstoSelectedQuestionsNameIndexSubjectIndexP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:xiiP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:PrefaceTheoryisuselessunlessitleadstoapplicationsButrealworldproblemsremainabuzzing,bloomingconfusionabsentasystematictheorytoputtheminintellectualorderEarliereditionsofthisbookpioneeredanapproach,nottotallynewbutgivenunusualemphasisbyus,thatweavestogethereconomictheoryandrealworldapplicationsMostcurrentintermediatemicrotheorytextshavecometofollowourleadandalsonowtrytoenrichthetheoreticalexpositionwithselectedapplicationsOurenthusiasmforandexperienceindiscovering,describing,andanalyzinghowmicrotheoryworksoutintherealworldneverthelesslendaspecialstrengthtoPriceTheoryandApplicationsTothisendthemanybrief“Examples”thatdirectattentiontospecificapplicationsremain,asinpreviouseditions,ahallmarkofPriceTheoryandApplicationsThiseditioncontainsmorethanahundredsuchexamplesThesediscussionsgenerallydescriberecentresearchpublishedinscholarlybooksandarticlesandsoalsogivestudentsabetterideaofthescientificworkthatprofessionaleconomistsactuallydo(Themediatypicallypictureeconomistsasabandofsquabblingsoothsayers–somesayingbusinesswillbegood,othersalwayspredictingdoomStudentsmaybesurprisedtofindthatthereareanyscientificallyvalidatedresultsineconomics)Inaddition,atappropriateplacesthetextprovides“Applications”representingawiderangeoftopics,amongthemrationinginwartime(Chapter),importquotas(Chapter),allegedmonopolisticsuppressionofinventions(Chapter),minimumwagelaws(Chapter),theeffectsofSocialSecurityonsaving(Chapter),fairdivisionofdisputedproperty(Chapter),andwhetheryoushouldpayransomtoakidnapper(Chapter)TwootherkeythemesguidethistextFirst,thateconomicsisnotabodyoffactsorpropositionstobememorizedItisinsteadawayofthinkingabouttheworldTherearediligentstudentswhosay,“Prof,justtellmewhatpagesyouwantmetolearnandIguaranteeI’llknoweveryword”ButmemorizationisnotenoughEventheabilitytoderiveandprovelogicalormathematicalpropositionsdoesnotsufficeInsightandintuitionmustalsobecultivatedInsightandintuitiontelluswhattheoriesorpropositionsapplyinanygivencontextYetnoteverythingcanbelefttoinspirationInsightandintuitionhavetobeearnedbyhardintellectuallaborSecond,traditionaleconomictheoryhasbeenguiltyoftunnelvisioninfocusingsostrictlyonrationalisticindividualbehaviorandmarketinteractionsHumansarenotalwaysentirelyrational,andmarketinteractionsareonlyoneofthemanydomainsofsociallifeEconomicsasauniversalscienceappliesoutsidetheseboundaries,wheneverhumans(orevenanimals!)havetocopewithresourcescarcityMarketdecisionsareofxiiiP:JZPaggxmlCBHirshleiferJune,:xivPREFACEcourseamenabletoeconomicanalysisButsoarepersonalchoices(howmanychildrentohave,whethertoliveinthecityorthesuburbs,whomtoseekasfriends)andpoliticalones(balancingbetweenaffluenceanddefense,betweenregulationofimproperbehaviorandindividualfreedom,betweenreliefforpersonsunableorunwillingtoworkversusprovidingincentivestothosewhoareproductive)Accordingly,thetextemploysarangeofmaterialsfromscientificworkinanthropology,psychology,politicalscience,socialbiology,andotherfieldsthatallservetoillustrateeconomicprinciplesCriticsofeconomicssometimesobjectthat,underthepressuresofeverydaylife,peoplehavetomakedecisionswithoutusingesotericeconomicconceptssuchasmarginalanalysisButbiologistshavediscoveredthatmarginalanalysisexplainsmanyaspectsofthebehaviorofanimals(seethe“SmartAnts!”exampleinChapter),andhumansaresurelyclevererthanantsYetpeople,individuallyorcollectively,

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