关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 State_and_Trends_Updated_June_2011.pdf

State_and_Trends_Updated_June_2011.pdf

State_and_Trends_Updated_June_2…

上传者: 1144697281 2012-02-19 评分1 评论0 下载15 收藏0 阅读量651 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《State_and_Trends_Updated_June_2011pdf》,可适用于经济金融领域,主题内容包含WashingtonDC,JunestateandtrendsofthestateandtrendsoftheEnvironmentDepartme符等。

WashingtonDC,JunestateandtrendsofthestateandtrendsoftheEnvironmentDepartmentThisreportwaspreparedbyaWorldBankteamcomprisingofNicholasLinacre,AlexandreKossoyandPhilippeAmbrosi,withimportantcontributionsfromManelleAïtSahlia,VeroniqueBishop,BenoîtBosquet,ChristophedeGouvello,TaiseiMatsukiandMonaliRanade|StateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketNewApproachfortheReportWiththegoalofprovidingacomprehensivediscussionoftheissuesthatmostaffectedthecarbonmarketin,theauthorsoflastyear’sreporthaverestructuredStateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketforThereportstillprovidesanoverviewofthesizeandreachofthecarbonmarkets,aswellastheevolutionoftheKyotoflexibilitymechanisms,andofferspotentialsupplydemandscenariosforcomingyearsHowever,itnolongerincludesadetailedbreakdownofcarbontransactions,asinpreviousyearsInstead,thereportprovidesamoreindepthanalyticaldiscussionoftheregulationandpolicyissuesthatwillguidefuturecarbonmarketdevelopmentThefindingsandopinionsexpressedinthisreportarethesoleresponsibilityoftheauthorsandshouldnotbecitedwithoutpermissionTheydonotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsoftheWorldBankGroup,itsExecutiveDirectors,thecountriestheyrepresentorofanyoftheparticipantsinthecarbonfundsorfacilitiesmanagedbytheWorldBankTheWorldBankdoesnotguaranteetheaccuracyofthedataincludedinthisworkThisreportisnotintendedtoformthebasisofaninvestmentdecisionTheboundaries,colors,denominations,andotherinformationshowninthisworkdonotimplyanyjudgmentonthepartofTheWorldBankconcerningthelegalstatusofanyterritoryortheendorsementoracceptanceofsuchboundariesSectionphotocredit:JanGolinskiUNFCCCSectionphotocredit:VeerIncorporatedSectionphotocredit:VeerIncorporatedSectionphotocredit:DreamstimeLLCSectionphotocredit:VeerIncorporatedDesign:StudioGrafikPrinting:WestlandPrinters|StateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketStateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarket|AcknowledgementsThereportbenefittedgreatlyfromcolleaguesinthecarbonmarketwhoprovidedtheirwrittencontributionsandperspectives:OlgaChristyakova,MartinLawless,andDamienMeadowsWewishtoextendourgratitudetothosewhoofferedtheircooperationandinsightsduringtheelaborationofthisreport:EdwinAalders,SchwanBadirouGafari,EllysarBaroudy,JeanJacquesBarberis,FrançoisBeaurain,LucaBertali,AgnèsBiscaglia,MartinaBosi,AnaBucher,MarcosCastro,LanceCoogan,IsabelleCurien,KeithDavis,KarenDegouvedeNuncques,EduardoDopazo,JasonDunn,SašaEichberger,EmmanuelFages,LauraFidao,GregerFlodin,JamesFoster,JavierFreireColoma,MartinFrench,PranabGhosh,MatthewGray,PierreGuigon,IsabelHagbrink,KatherineHamilton,HenrikHasselknippe,CarinaHeimdal,AndrewHoward,RobertMHunt,DaigoKoga,WernerKornexl,GannaKorniyenko,BenoîtLeguet,GautierLeMaux,MarkLewis,ZijunLi,PeterLloyd,ThomasMarcello,AllisonMcManus,RachelMountain,AkikoNishimae,JohnO’Brien,KlausOppermann,MollyPetersStanley,VickyPollard,LeilaPourarkin,NeerajPrasad,BriceJMQuesnel,DavidRapin,HeikeReichelt,RenaudScardina,KaiUweBaraniSchmidt,GuidoSchmidtTraub,ChandraShekharSinha,TrevorSikorski,MiloSjardin,YvonSlingenberg,SaraStahl,AndyStone,AurelienTignol,SarahUnderwood,LaurentValiergue,JohnVirgoe,AlessandroVitelli,GeorgeWaldburg,XuemanWang,VikramWidge,YevgenYesyrkenov,PeterZapfel,IvanZelenko,ElizabethZelljadtWewouldalsoliketothankallofthosewhotooktimetorespondtothemarketsurveyWithoutyourresponsesthereportwouldbelessthanitisFinally,wewanttothankthemanymarketparticipantsstrugglingtomakeadifferenceonacriticalglobalissueTheStateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketreceivedfinancialsupportfromtheCFAssistProgram,managedbytheWorldBankInstitute(WBI)|StateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketListofAbbreviationsandAcronymsAAUAssignedAmountUnitAAUPAAAUPurchaseAgreementABGlobalWarmingSolutionsActofAssemblyBillACRAmericanCarbonRegistryADBAsianDevelopmentBankAfDBAfricanDevelopmentBankAMFAutoritédesMarchésFinanciersAWGKPAdHocWorkingGrouponFurtherCommitmentsforAnnexIPartiesundertheKyotoProtocolAWGLCAAdHocWorkingGrouponLongtermCollaborativeActionCAPEXCapitalExpendituresCARBCaliforniaAirResourcesBoardCARClimateActionReserveCCPcentralcounterpartiesCCSCarbonCaptureandStorageCCXChicagoClimateExchangeCDMCleanDevelopmentMechanismCERCertifiedEmissionReductionCFLCompactFluorescentLampCFTCCommoditiesFutureTradingCommissionCHMethaneCMMCoalMineMethaneCMPConferenceofthePartiesservingastheMeetingofthePartiestotheKyotoProtocolCPFCarbonPartnershipFacilityCOCarbonDioxideCOeCarbonDioxideEquivalentCOPConferenceofthePartiesCPACDMProgrammeActivityCPRSCarbonPollutionReductionSchemeCPFirstCommitmentPeriodundertheKyotoProtocolCRECommissionderégulationdel’énergieCRTClimateReserveTonneDNADesignatedNationalAuthorityDOEDesignatedOperationalEntityEBExecutiveBoardoftheCDMEBRDEuropeanBankforReconstructionandDevelopmentECEuropeanCommissionECXEuropeanClimateExchangeEEEnergyEfficiencyEITEconomyinTransitionEITEEmissionintensive,TradeexposedEREmissionReductionERPAEmissionReductionPurchaseAgreementERUEmissionReductionUnitESCEnergySavingsCertificateESSEnergySavingsSchemeETSEmissionsTradingSchemeEUEuropeanUnionEUAEuropeanUnionAllowanceEUETSEuropeanUnionEmissionsTradingSchemeEURIBOREuroInterbankOfferedRateFSBFinancialStabilityBoardGDPGrossDomesticProductGGASNewSouthWalesGreenhouseGasReductionSchemeGHGGreenhouseGasGISGreenInvestmentSchemeHFCHydrochlorofluorocarbonIFCInternationalFinanceCorporationIEAInternationalEnergyAgencyIFIInternationalFinancialInstitutionIFRSInternationalFinancialReportingStandardIMFInternationalMonetaryFundIRRInternalRateofReturnJVETSJapanVoluntaryEmissionsTradingSchemeJIJointImplementationJISCJointImplementationSupervisoryCommitteeKMKyotoMechanismLBFRLawonBankingandFinancialRegulationLDCLeastDevelopedCountryLEDSLowEmissionDevelopmentStrategieslCERLongtermCertifiedEmissionReductionLFGLandfillGasLoALetterofApprovalLRETLargescaleRenewableEnergyTargetLULUCFLandUse,LandUseChangeandForestryMADMarketAbuseDirectiveMCCFMultilateralCarbonCreditFundMDBMultilateralDevelopmentBankMiFiDMarketsinFinancialInstrumentsDirectiveMOPMeetingofthePartiesMRETMandatoryRenewableEnergyTargetMRVMeasurement,ReportingandVerificationNAMANationallyAppropriateMitigationActionNCCPNationalClimateChangePolicyNDRCNationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionNONitrousOxideNAPNationalAllocationPlanNPVNetPresentValueNZETSNewZealandEmissionsTradingSchemeNZUNewZealandUnitOECDOrganizationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentOTCOvertheCounterpCERPrimaryCertifiedEmissionReductionPDDProjectDesignDocumentPFCPerfluorocarbonPINProjectIdeaNotePMRPartnershipforMarketReadinessPoACDMProgrammeofActivities|StateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketStateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarket|POIProofofIdentityPPProjectParticipantRDResearchandDevelopmentRERenewableEnergyRECRenewableEnergyCertificateREDDReducingEmissionsfromDeforestationandForestDegradationREDDExtendsREDDbyincludingsustainableforestmanagement,conservationofforests,andenhancementofcarbonsinksREMITRegulationonEnergyMarketsIntegrityandTransparencyRETRenewableEnergyTargetRGGIRegionalGreenhouseGasInitiativeRMURemovalUnitsCERSecondaryCertifiedEmissionReductionSCFStrategicClimateFundSEISustainableEnergyInitiativeSFSulfurHexafluorideSMESmallandMediumsizeEnterpriseSRESSmallscaleRenewableEnergySchemetCOTonofCarbonDioxidetCOeTonofCarbonDioxideEquivalenttCERTemporaryCertifiedEmissionReductionUNUnitedNationsUNEPUnitedNationsEnvironmentProgrammeUNFCCCUnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChangeVATValueaddedTaxVCSVoluntaryCarbonStandardVCUVerifiedCarbonUnitsVERVerifiedEmissionReductionWBWorldBankWCIWesternClimateInitiativeWTIWestTexasIntermediateWTOWorldTradeOrganization|StateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketStateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarket|ContentsAcknowledgementsOverviewIntroductionInternationalDevelopmentsCancunConferenceandthePostEnvironmentImprovementstotheCleanDevelopmentMechanismandContinuingSupportforMarketMechanismsClimateFinanceandtheEstablishmentoftheGreenClimateFundRecognitionofDevelopingCountryContributionstoMitigationandaBetterRepresentationofForestryrelatedActivitiesBeyondCancunMarketPerceptionsConclusionsDomesticPolicyDevelopmentsAStoryofFragmentationAnnexICountriesNonAnnexICountriesLinkingEmissionsTradingSchemesConclusionsHowMarketParticipantsTransactRiskandRegulationTheChangingRegulatoryLandscapeTheImpactofFinancialMarketReformsOverthecounterMarketRegulationisComingDownthePikePrimaryIssuanceMarketEmissionAllowanceAuctionsSecondaryMarketsControllingRiskandEnsuringTransparencyandAccountabilityConclusionsCarbonandClimateFinanceKyotoMarketApostFacingLowDemandandLowSupplyCERsWhatDidorDidNotHappeninERUsWhatLiesAheadAAUsRespondingtotheLackofDemandVoluntaryMarketsMobilizingLowcarbonInvestmentBeyondCarbonRevenueStreamsNewAssetClassesComingtotheMarketREDDandREDDSustainableLandManagementAgriculturalSoilCarbonConclusionsOutlookDemandandSupplyBalanceDemandandSupplyBalanceThroughtoSovereignDemandPrivateSectorDemandSupplyThroughtoResidualDemandMtCOeWilltherebeEnoughEmissionReductionsGeneratedinDevelopingCountriesAfterConclusionsMethodologyAppendixAssumptionsforEstimatesofPotentialDemandforOffsetsfromnonAnnexICountriesGlossary|StateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketBoxesBoxTheEuropeanUnion’sApproachtoInternationalCreditsBoxNorthAmericanOffsetPricesBoxBriefHistoryofCarbonMarketFraudintheEUETSBoxAPointofViewontheEUETSBoxVoluntaryMarketsFiguresFigureCarbonMarketataGlance,MarketValues,–FigureRespondentsViewsonaFutureMultilateralFrameworkFigureRGGIForecastEmissionsTablesTableCarbonMarketataGlance,MarketValues,–TableCurrentStateClimateChangePoliciesinAustraliaTableCurrentProvinceClimateChangePoliciesinCanadaTableEUETSPhaseIIAuctionsTableAviationDirectiveSummaryTableSomeExamplesofUKComplementaryMeasuresTableCurrentClimateChangePoliciesinJapanTableOffsetSupplyandDemandForecastforCalifornia’sCapandtradeTableCurrentUSStateandRegionalClimateChangePolicyinNorthAmericaTableCurrentTradingPlatformsinChinaTableVoluntaryMarketPricesandVolumesTableSupplyandDemandinPerspective–KyotoMarketBalance,–TablePotentialDemand,ContractedSupply,andResidualDemand,–TableScenariosofPotentialDemandforOffsetsGeneratedinnonAnnexICountries–(MtCOe)TableEstimatesofPotentialSupplyUndertheCDMandJIupto(MtCOe)|StateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketStateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarket|OverviewHowLongCanaMarkeTBeinTranSiTionAfterfiveconsecutiveyearsofrobustgrowth,thetotalvalueoftheglobalcarbonmarketstalledat$billion(seeFigure),Sufferingfromthelackofpostregulatoryclarity,thevalueoftheprimaryCleanDevelopmentMechanism(CDM)marketfellbydoubledigitsforthethirdyearinarow,endinglowerthanitwasin,thefirstyearoftheKyotoProtocolTheAssignedAmountUnit(AAU)market,whichgrewinwithstrongsovereignsupport,shrankaswellinFinally,themarketthathadgrownmostinallowancesundertheUSRegionalGreenhouseGasInitiative(RGGI)sawthatyear’sgainserasedinAsthesesegmentsdeclined,thedominanceoftheEuropeanUnionAllowances(EUAs)marketbecamemorepronouncedthaneverEUAsaccountedforpercentofglobalcarbonmarketvalueinWiththevalueofthesecondaryCDMtransactionstakenintoaccount,theshareofthecarbonmarketprimarilydrivenbytheEUEmissionsTradingScheme(EUETS)rosetopercent,dwarfingtheremainingsegmentsofthemarket(seeTable)SecondaryCDMOtherOffsetsPrimaryCDMOtherAllowancesEUETSAllowancesCarbonMarketEvolution($billion)FigureCarbonMarketataglance,MarketValues,–CarbonMarketEvolution,values($billion),–EUETSAllowancesOtherAllowancesPrimaryCDMSecondaryCDMOtherOffsetsTotalSources:WorldBank,ThomsonReutersPointCarbon,BloombergNewEnergyFinanceandEcosystemMarketplaceNote:NumbersmaynotaddupduetoroundingTableCarbonMarketataglance,MarketValues,–Sources:WorldBank,ThomsonReutersPointCarbon,BloombergNewEnergyFinance,andEcosystemMarketplaceFordetailsonthemethodologyrefertotheMethodologySectionattheendofthereportStill,carbonvolumestradedcontractedbyoverpercentduringthesameperiodaspricesdeclinedinsomemarkets|StateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketTheglobalcarbonmarketstagnatedevenastheglobaleconomystabilizedandbeganatentativerecoveryinThecarbonmarketgrowthhaltedataparticularlyinopportunetime:provedtobethehottestonrecord,whileemissionlevelscontinuedtheirseeminglyinexorableriseIntheend,however,theyearmayberememberedmostforthepoliticalopportunitiesthatarose,yetwereultimatelyfailedtomaterializeIntheUnitedStates,therewasnotenoughsupporttopassfederalcapandtradelegislationTheJapaneseBasicActonGlobalWarming,whichpassedintheDiet’slowerhouse,washaltedwhenthegovernmentlostcontroloftheupperhouseafewmonthslaterAustralia’sSenatefailedtopasstheCarbonPollutionReductionSchemeandAustralia’sgovernmentsubsequentlychosetofreezeitsplansforadomesticcapandtradeschemeEventheyear’sraregoodnews,namelytheRepublicofKorea’sadoptionoftheFrameworkActonLowCarbonGreenGrowth,turnedsourwhenthegovernment,facinginternalopposition,decidedinearlytodelaytheimplementationofitscapandtradeschemeuntilAttheglobalregulatorylevel,inmidtheCDMExecutiveBoardtemporarilyhaltedissuanceofCertifiedEmissionReductions(CERs)fromhydrofluorocarbon(HFC)projectsoverbaselineconcernsAsconcernsrevealednottobesubstantiated,issuanceresumedattheendoftheyearNonetheless,theEuropeanCommissionsoonthereafterproposedqualitativerestrictionintheEUETSofcarbonoffsetsrelatedtoCDMindustrialgasprojectsTheproposalwasadoptedbytheEuropeanMemberStates,whichinJanuaryconfirmedthebanofCERsfromHFCandnitrousoxide(NO)adipicacidprojectsstarting,inSomeofthemostnotableeventsinandearlywereunfortunatelyrelatedtoframeworkloopholesandcriminalactivitiesdirectedagainsttheEUETSInadditiontothe“carousel”valueaddedtax(VAT)fraudthatsurfacedin,thelastmonthswitnessedthesaleofrecycledCERs,phishingattemptsonGermany’snationalregistriesandaseriesofsubsequentcybertheftsthatunderminedtheEuropeanmarket,highlightingsecurityshortcomingsandincreasingtheurgencyofstakeholders’pleastostrengtheninfrastructureNevertheless,therewereafewreasonsforguardedoptimisminEuropestartedtocraftitsroadmapformovingtowardacompetitivelowcarboneconomyinAlso,whiletheCopenhagenclimatesummitinfailedtomeetexpectations,progresswasachievedduringtheConferenceofthePartiesinCancunlastDecemberSuchprogresswaswelcomedbythemarketandhelpedtorestoresomeconfidenceinUNnegotiationsonclimatechangeStill,asPartiescontinuetheirdeliberations,muchremainstobedoneDifferencesamongmajoremittersregardingdomesticpriorities,approachesandambitionwillneedtoberesolvedbeforearobustandsustainableinternationalagreementcanemergeWhiletheinternationalregulatoryenvironmentremainsuncertain,nationalandlocalinitiativeshavenoticeablypickedupandmayofferthepotentialtocollectivelyovercometheinternationalregulatorygapThemostprominentoftheseinitiativesisCalifornia’scapandtradescheme,whichisexpectedtobeginoperatinginOtherlowcarboninitiatives,includingdomesticemissionreductiontargets,cleanenergycertificateprograms,voluntaryandprecompliancedomesticoffsettradingprograms,andcarbonexchanges,havegainedincreasingtractionindevelopingeconomiessuchasBrazil,China,India,andMexicoTheseinitiativessignalthat,onewayoranother,solutionsthataddresstheclimatechallengewillemergerankedasthewarmestyearonrecord,togetherwithand,WorldMeteorologicalOrganization(WMO)(http:wwwwmointpagesmediacentrepressreleasesprenhtml)tiedwithasthewarmestyearoftheglobalsurfacetemperaturerecord,beginningin,TheUSNationalOceanicandAtmosphericAdministration(NOAA)(http:wwwnoaanewsnoaagovstoriesglobalstatshtml)endedwithCOemissionconcentrationsofppm,NOAA,January,SomeoftheissuesevidencedinwereexplainedindetailintheStateandTrendsreport:http:siteresourcesworldbankorgINTCARBONFINANCEResourcesStateandTrendsoftheCarbonMarketlowrespdfAccessdateAprilOvermillionEuropeanUnionemissionallowances(EUAs)werereportedstolenfromatleastEuropeannationalregistriesfromNovemberuntilJanuaryAsaconsequence,thetransferofallowanceshasbeentemporarilysuspendedintheEuropeanregistriesandthespottradeofcarbonassetswasfrozenforseveraldaysearly(http:eceuropaeuclimanewsindexenhtm)UndertheAdHocWorkingGrouponFurth

类似资料

编辑推荐

幼儿家庭教育-经典故事.pdf

现代日本汉方处方手册.pdf

中国文化史知识丛书76[中国古代驿站与.pdf

吴晗史学论着选集+第2卷.pdf

作战指挥概论:作战指挥概论.pdf

职业精品

精彩专题

海归起薪低,怎么解

留学6年回归工作,底薪只有两千,海归“贬值”了吗?如何将海归的思维更加创新、语言优势,沟通更主动等这些优点发挥出来,不要自我评价太高,稳稳当当制定求职标准,写好求职简历,告别低薪不是问题。

用户评论

0/200
    暂无评论
上传我的资料

精选资料

热门资料排行换一换

  • 吕洞宾全集.pdf

  • 张三丰全集.pdf

  • 诊家正眼(士材三书之一).pdf

  • 职场:7个职场杀手.doc

  • 一位营销老总创业失败的故事.doc

  • 美国革命的激进主义.pdf

  • 《战争论》导读.doc

  • 我们濒危的价值观:美国道德危机 …

  • 堪舆秘笈1.pdf

  • 资料评价:

    / 84
    所需积分:1 立即下载

    意见
    反馈

    返回
    顶部