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首页 lonely planet 新疆.pdf

lonely planet 新疆.pdf

lonely planet 新疆.pdf

pedestrian_v 2012-02-13 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《lonely planet 新疆pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含XĪNJIĀNGXīnjiāngmeans‘NewFrontier’andtheprovince’sfarflunggeographyhasplac符等。

XĪNJIĀNGXīnjiāngmeans‘NewFrontier’andtheprovince’sfarflunggeographyhasplaceditinthebull’seyeofcompetingpowersforcenturiesFiercelyindependent,thepeopleoftheregionhaveneverreallybeenindependentToday,Xīnjiāng‘belongs’toChina,havingbeeninextricablytetheredtotheMiddleKingdomforcenturiesinanendlesspushpullrelationship,onewhichChinatodaymaintainsinstrictformXīnjiāngislikeawholeothercountryenclosedwithinChina’sbordersHerethelanguageisnotjustadifferentdialect,it’sacompletelydifferentlinguisticfamilyandit’snolongeraboutwhetheryoudipyourdumplingsinsoysauceorvinegar,it’showyouwantyourmuttoncookedWhatlieswithinsuchdesolatelandsthatmotivatesfarawayBeǐjīngAthumbnailsketch:it’slargerthanAlaska(onesixthofChina’sterritory)hyperrichwithSilkRoadhistorypopulatedbyamixedsaladofnearlyethnicminoritiesgeopoliticallycrucial,asitborderseightnationsandencompassesageographicalpaletteofshimmeringdesertaquarelles,taigapasturelanddottedwithflocksofsheepandgrandmountainrangesOh,anditsitsatopofChina’soilreservesIt’salsowoefullyunderappreciatedbymostofthetouristshoppingoffplanesinthefriendlyinvasionthatisthemodernGrandTourofChinaButthisisquicklychanging,asChinarampsuptheregion’sinfrastructureandtourismPRTheultimategoal,fardowntheline,forBěijīng,istoreestablish‘caravans’oftravellersalongtheoldSilkRoadXīnjiāng新疆„POPULATION:MILLION„wwwxinjianggovcnHIGHLIGHTS„Tradeacamelforabus(ordonkeycart)andhittheSilkRoad(p)orthepreternaturallylovelyKarakoramHwy(p)„IntoxicateyourselfwithalpineairandhuntforChina’sNessieatKanasLake(p)„HagglehappilyandmunchkebabsinKashgar(p),oneofAsia’sgreatestcrossroads„SingcampfiresongsaroundaKazakhyurtatTiānChí(p)„SweatyoursouloutattheFlamingMountains(p)aroundTurpanmunchgrapesafterwardsMountainsSilkRoadFlamingTiƒnChíLakeKanasHwyKarakoramKashgarLonelyPlanetPublicationsXĪNJIĀNGXĪNJIĀNGlonelyplanetcomXĪNJIĀNGlonelyplanetcomXĪNJIĀNG••HistoryHistoryNOMADSOASISDWELLERSTograspXīnjiāng,beginwiththeregion’stwoprincipalgroups:thepastoralnomads,northoftheTiānShānrange,andthesedentaryoasisdwellers,skirtingtheTarimBasinTheoriginalnomadsweretheXiongnu,whiletheearliestknownoasisdwellerswereanIndoEuropeangroupgenerallyreferredtoastheTochariansOvermillennia,theethnicitiescomprisingthesetwogroupshavechangedhoweverthegroupsthemselvesremainedthebasisofhumancivilisationinXīnjiāngSILKHORSESAlthoughevidenceofHotanesejadeinChinaindicatesthattrademusthaveexistedasfarbackasyearsago,significantmentionofthewesternregionsdoesn’tappearintheChineseannalsuntiltheHandynastyInthendcenturyBC,inthehopeofendingthedevastatingXiongnuraidsalongtheirborders,theChinesesoughtanalliancewiththefaroffYuezhiZhangQian,theChineseenvoychargedwithcompletingthemission,setoutinBCintothehithertounexploredwestHewasimmediatelytakenprisonerandheldforyearsbytheXiongnu,buthedidsucceedindiscoveringthenorthernandsouthernroutesaroundtheTaklamakanDesertandintoCentralAsia,aswellastheexceptionalFerghanahorsesWhileothergoodswereimportedintoChinaduringthistime,nonetookontheimportanceofthesuperiorCentralAsiansteedsBytheendofthendcenturyBC,theHanhadpushedtheirbordersfurtherwest,militarygarrisonswereestablishedalongthetraderoutesandsilkflowedoutoftheempireinreturnforthe‘HeavenlyHorse’BUDDHISMAlongwithgoodsfromthewestcameideasandlanguages,andbytherdcenturyADBuddhismhadtakenrootthroughouttheTarimBasinAnumberofpowerfulBuddhistcitystatesarose,chieflyinHotan,KuqaandTurpan,leavingbehindbeautifulartworkthatblendedKashmiri,Persian,IndianandevenGreekstylesInthethcentury,theTangdynastyreassertedtheimperialrulethathadbeenlostfollowingthecollapseoftheHan,andChineseinfluencewasonceagainfeltinXīnjiāngTHEUIGHURS,ISLAMTHEMONGOLSRecordsarescantbutit’sfairlycertainthattheswayoftheTangdynastywasneverabsoluteTheUighursheldquiteabitofcontrolthroughoutthethcentury,andtheAnLushanrebellion(AD–)sappedtheimperialstrengthevenmoreItwasduringKharakhanidruleinthethtothcenturiesthatIslamtookholdinwesternXīnjiāngthereligiondidn’tpenetratetheeasternareasuntilthethcenturyYīlí(Ili),HotanandKashgarfelltotheMongolsin(whoserulewastheonlyperiodwhentheSilkRoadswerecontrolledbyasingle,albeitfactious,power),andTimur,comingfromthewest,sackedKashgaragaininthelatethcenturyTheareawasunderthecontrolofTimur’sdescendantsorvariousMongoltribesuntiltheManchuarmymarchedintoKashgarinTHESTRUGGLEFORTURKESTANDuringthesands,aseriesofMuslimuprisingseruptedacrosswesternChina,andafterRussiantroopswerewithdrawnfromayearoccupationoftheYīlíregionin,wavesofUighurs,ChineseMuslims(Dungans)andKazakhsfledintoKazakhstanandKyrgyzstanInaKokandiofficernamedYaqubBegseizedKashgaria,proclaimedanindependentTurkestanandmadediplomaticcontactswithBritainandRussiaAfewyearslater,however,aManchuarmyreturned,YaqubBegcommittedsuicideandKashgariawasformallyincorporatedintoChina’snewlycreatedXīnjiāng(NewFrontier)provinceWiththefalloftheQingdynastyin,Xīnjiāngcameundertheruleofasuccessionofwarlords,overwhomtheKuomintang(KMTtheNationalistParty)hadverylittlecontrolTheonlyrealattempttoestablishanindependentstatewasinthes,whenaKazakhnamedOsmanledarebellionofUighurs,KazakhsandMongolsHetookcontrolofsouthwesternXīnjiāngandestablishedtheEasternTurkestanRepublicinJanuaryTheKMT,however,convincedtheMuslimstoabolishtheirnewrepublicinreturnforapledgeofrealautonomyFollowingthecommunisttakeover,aMuslimleagueopposedtoChineseruleformedinXīnjiāng,but,oddly,anumberofitsmostprominentleaderssubsequentlydiedinaplanecrashontheirwaytohold(km)ToLánzhŸuLhasa(km)ToAli(km)RiverRiverYarkandKeriyaCherchenRiverRiverRiverRiverixErtRiverUlunqurTarimHotanINNERMONGOLIAG„NSÙQNGH‡ITIBETALMATYBISHKEKJiƒyùguƒnHuƒtgŸuXNÍNGLiyuánSostZaysanJiquán(WLªMÙQÍ)Kuqa(Kù›rlè)Korla(Kèlƒm†y)KaramaiWuweiDnhuángGolmudDàcháidànHƒmì(Kùch‰)(Hétián)BakhtyGoma(Pishan)Karghilik(Yèchéng)Charklik(Ruòqiƒng)(Qi›mò)Cherchen(Yútián)KeriyaMaykapchigay„lƒ'shƒnkuBayanbulakZharkentKorgasOshKarakulGilgitÜRÜMQIHƒdádnLúntáiYníngKashgar(Kƒshí)TurpanPiraliWeìlíDàhéyánMoriChƒngjíShíhéziKuytunHoboksarQingheJímn†iBù'›rjnAltayKabaBàichéngZhaosuQapaqalJnghéBólèW‰nquánEminT†chéngNiya(Mínf‰ng)ArvatAksu(„kès)AkqiWshíQiraHotanLopTashkurganYarkand(Shƒch‰)MarkitYengisarShuleShufuArtushSilkRoadSouthernPassTorugartLoulanMiranLineofActualControlofChinaadministrationUndersnaitnuoMnulnuKsniatnuoMnutlAnƒhSnƒiTtisnanuoMsniat(m)FriendshipPeaktnuoMyalAPassIrkeshtamrimaP(m)Kongur(m)PeakofGod(m)MuztaghAtaLakeKanasLakeBalkashSayramLakeLakeLakeLopIssykKulLakeNorBostenBuddhaCavesKizilThousandBasinJungarPass(m)KhunjerabTaklamakanDesertTarimBasinTurpanBasinHamiBasin(Zhungarian)ChíTiƒnRUSSIAAFGHANISTANPAKISTANUZBEKISTANTAJIKISTANKYRGYZSTANKAZAKHSTANINDIAMONGOLIA(m)KHwyoramkraKaHwyertDesCrossXNJI„NGXNJI„NGXNJI„NGkmmilesandmaynotbecorrectthismaphavenotbeenauthenticatedTheexternalboundariesofIndiaonandmaynotbecorrectthismaphavenotbeenauthenticatedTheexternalboundariesofIndiaonXĪNJIĀNGXĪNJIĀNG••ClimatelonelyplanetcomXĪNJIĀNGlonelyplanetcomCENTRALXĪNJIĀNG••ÜrümqitalksinBěijīngOrganisedMuslimoppositiontoChineserulecollapsed,althoughtheKazakhOsmancontinuedtofightuntilhewascapturedandexecutedbythecommunistsinearlySinceChina’smaingoalhasbeentokeepalidonethnicseparatismwhilefloodingtheregionwithHansettlersTheUighursoncecomprisedoftheXīnjiāngpopulationtodaythatnumberhasdroppedbelowChina’sDeveloptheWestcampaign,launchedin,isongoingHanChinesearebeingenticedtomigratetowesternprovincesbysocialandeconomicincentivesBěijīnghasfunnellednearlyUS$billiontobuildinfrastructure(asmuchtoexploitvastoilandnaturalgasreservesasanything)inXīnjiāngClimateLikeitsgeography,Xīnjiāng’sclimateisoneofextremesTurpanisthehottestspotinthecountry(itgetsuptoCfromJunetoAugust),andtheTarimandJungarBasinsaren’tmuchbetteratthosetimesAsdauntingastheheatmayseem,spring(AprilandMay)isnotaparticularlygoodtimetovisit,withfrequentsandstormsandcloudsobscuringthelandscapeandmakingtraveldifficultUnlessyou’reupinthemountainsorinthefarnorth,theonethingyouwon’thavetoworryaboutisrainWinters(DecembertoFebruary)seethemercuryplummetbelowzerothroughouttheprovinceLateMaythroughJuneandSeptemberthroughmidNovember(especially)arethebesttimestovisitLanguageUighur,thetraditionallinguafrancaofXīnjiāng,ispartoftheTurkiclanguagefamilyandthusfairlysimilartootherregionallanguagesyoumightcomeacrosssuchasUzbek,KazakhandKyrgyzTheoneexceptionisTajik,whichisrelatedtoPersianNoticethebilingualsignsinChineseandArabicInfact,theArabicscript(usedphonetically–UighurhasnosimilaritiestotheSemiticlanguages)wasn’treinstituteduntiltheeraofDengXiaopingFromto,UighurwaswrittenwithaRomanalphabet–phasedout,it’ssaid,becauseoftheadvantagethisgaveUighursinlearningEnglishThismaysoundfarfetched,untilyourneighbouronthebusleansoveryourshoulderandstartspronouncingthewordsinyourbookfarmoreaccuratelythantheaverageChinesestudentManyUighurscan’t,orwon’t,speakMandarinSomeethnicrivalry,sure,butthemainreasonisthatasoftheearlystcentury,morethanofXīnjiāng’sschoolstaughtstrictlyinUighurWhetherthiswasbecauseofethnicprideorbecausetheysimplycouldn’tfindqualifiedteachers(arguablytrue,giventhatanelementaryschoolteacherinruralXīnjiāngearnslessthanashepherd)remainsdebatableLearnalittlebitofUighurtotravelmoreeasily(andmakedearfriendsforlife)LonelyPlanet’sCentralAsiaPhrasebookisagoodplacetostartGettingThereAwayDomestically,youcanflytoÜrümqifromvirtuallyeverywhereNewinternationalflightsareconstantlybeingproposed(thoughnotnecessarilyfinalised)YoucanflytoÜrümqifromanumberofCentralAsiancities,includingAlmaty(Kazakhstan),BishkekandOsh(Kyrgyzstan),Islamabad(Pakistan,viaKashgar),Novosibirsk(Russia),Moscow,Baku(Azerbaijan)andTashkent(Uzbekistan)There’salsocontinuedtalkofnewflightstoLahore(Pakistan)andPunjab(India)seasonalflightsgotoSeoulLinkingTashkentandLahorewithKashgarhasbeendebatedforeverThereareoverlandbordercrossingswithPakistan(KhunjerabPass),Kyrgyzstan(IrkeshtamandTorugartPasses)andKazakhstan(Korgas,Ālāshānkǒu,TǎchéngandJímǔnǎi)ApartfromĀlāshānkǒu,China’sraillinkwithKazakhstan,alloftheseborderscrossingsarebybus,thoughyoucangenerallygetabikeoverRememberthatbordersopenandclosefrequentlyduetochangesingovernmentpolicyadditionally,manyareonlyopenwhentheweatherpermitsIt’salwaysbesttocheckwiththePublicSecurityBureau(PSBGōngānjú)inÜrümqifortheofficialline,orLonelyPlanet’sThornTreetoseewhatothertravellersaresayingAnewcrossing,theKulmaPasstoTajikistan,mayopentoforeigntravelinthecomingyearsHeadingbackintoChina,theobviousrouteisthetrainrunningthroughGānsùMoreruggedapproachesarealongthesouthernSilkRoadfromCharkliktoQīnghǎi,andKarghiliktoAli(Tibet)GettingAroundTherailwaycomingfromGānsùsplitsintwonearTurpan,withonebranchheadingwestthroughÜrümqitoKazakhstan,andtheothergoingsouthwestalongtheTarimBasintoKashgarMorerailworkincludesanewraillinetoAltay,whichshouldbefinishedbyApartfromthis,travelaroundXīnjiānginvolvesalotofbussittingBearinmindthatalthoughflyingaroundtheprovincemayseemlikeatimesaver,flightsaresometimescancelleddueto‘badweather’(read:nopassengers)Thisisdecreasing,happily,butdayslongsandstormsarealsoalltoocommonCENTRALXĪNJIĀNGÜRÜMQI乌鲁木齐popmillionÜrümqi’sSilkRoadhistorydoesdominatetheperceptionsTravellersdisembarkhalfexpectingoasistentsandhawkersbellowingtheirkebabqualityWithallthatcartographicalearthtoneindicatingdesertnearby(triviaalert:it’sthefurthestplaceintheworldfromanocean–km),perhapstheyalsoexpecttheoddcamelortwochewingcontentedlyThus,manyarenotalittlebitsurprisedwhentheyfinditamodernandrelativelyefficientcityWithafewkebabsellersItsMongolianname,Ürümqi(WūlǔmùqíorWūshìinModernStandardChinese),hintsataplaceoffertilepasturelandThosehalcyondayshavesaidbyebyeinthisteemingcity,jumpstartedinthelatesbytheChinesegovernment’seffortstorelocateskilledHanheretosolidifyitasastrategicandeconomicbulwarkofChina’swest(read:oilexplorationandextraction)Itsskyscraperquotientmaybemodestcomparedtoeasternmegalopolises,butthecitydefinitelyhasahotwiredeconomyfastbecomingaCentralAsianhotshotApartfromtheprovincialmuseumandnearbyTiānChí,Ürümqiisbasicallyapracticalhub,fromwhereyoucanmakeallthenecessarypreparationsforvarioustripsthroughXīnjiāng,CentralAsiaorbackintoChinaTHEBEGINNINGORTHEENDUighurshave,withgoodreason,alwaysviewedHanChineseasinvaders,andrelationsbetweenthetwonationalitieshaveneverbeengoodHowever,tieshavebecomefarmorestrainedsincetheearlys,whencommunistChinabeganbolsteringtheXīnjiāngpopulationwithHansettlersAlthoughChinahasinvestedafairamountofmoneyindevelopingXīnjiāng’seconomyandinfrastructure,Uighursfrequentlyarguethatrealopportunity–economicorotherwise–isreservedforHanChineseLittleHanUighurinteractionisapparent,althoughthereissomeinthecapital,ÜrümqiThislongsimmeringUighurresentmentsawseveralriotsintheearlystensionsboiledoverinFebruarywhenMuslimseparatistsinthenortherncityofYīníngstartedseriousriotsthatledtoaswiftcrackdownbyChinesesecurityforcesAtleastninepeoplediedandnearlywereinjured,makingtheprotestthemostviolenttodate,accordingtotheChinesemediaHundredsofMuslimresidentswerearrestedfortheirrolesintheriots:threewereexecutedonthedayoftheirtrial,therestgivenlifesentencesInresponseseparatistsblewupthreebusesinÜrümqi,killingatleastninepassengersandwoundingmanyothersTheviolencereturnedtoYīnínginApril,whenamobattackedprisonvehiclestransportingsomeoftheconvictedFebruaryriotersAgain,severalpeoplewerekilledorwoundedInChinesesecretpoliceraidedanumberofUighurundergroundmosquesinKorlaoneprominentleaderandahandfulofothersweretriedandexecutedAndthiswasbeforeBěijīngtookfulladvantageoftheeventsfollowingtofurthercrackdownonUighurnationalismbylockinguporexecutingthousandsofsuspected‘Islamicterrorists’–with,ultimately,Washington’stacitapproval(andtherestoftheworld’scacophonicsilenc

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  • okww 2012-10-20 04:49:44

    有17页,是英文的

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