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首页 对外经济贸易大学_管理学原理_考点_精华_UIBE - 副本

对外经济贸易大学_管理学原理_考点_精华_UIBE - 副本.doc

对外经济贸易大学_管理学原理_考点_精华_UIBE - 副本

christmasher
2012-02-04 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《对外经济贸易大学_管理学原理_考点_精华_UIBE - 副本doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

CHAPTER·Manager(管理者)·Someonewhoworkswithandthroughotherpeoplebycoordinatingandintegratingtheirworkactivitiesinordertoaccomplishorganizationalgoals·FirstlineManagers(基层管理者)·Areatthelowestlevelofmanagementandmanagetheworkofnonmanagerialemployees·MiddleManagers(中层管理者)·Managetheworkoffirstlinemanagers·TopManagers(高层管理者)·AreresponsibleformakingorganizationwidedecisionsandestablishingplansandgoalsthataffecttheentireorganizationWhatIsManagement(什么是管理)·Coordinatingworkingactivities(协调)·ManagerialConcerns·Efficiency(效率)·“Doingthingsright”·Gettingthemostoutputfortheleastinputs·Effectiveness(效果)·“Doingtherightthings”·Attainingorganizationalgoals·FunctionalApproach(管理职能)·Planning(计划)·Defininggoals,establishingstrategiestoachievegoals,developingplanstointegrateandcoordinateactivities·Organizing(组织)·Arrangingworktoaccomplishorganizationalgoals·Leading(领导)·Workingwithandthroughpeopletoaccomplishgoals·Controlling(控制)·Monitoring,comparing,andcorrectingthework·ManagementRolesApproach(管理角色)·Interpersonalroles(人际)·Figurehead,leader,liaison·Informationalroles(信息)·Monitor,disseminator,spokesperson·Decisionalroles(决策)·Entrepreneur,Disturbancehandler,resourceallocator,negotiator·SkillsApproach(管理技能)·Technicalskills(技术技能)·Knowledgeandproficiencyinaspecificfield·Humanskills(人际技能)·Theabilitytoworkwellwithotherpeople·Conceptualskills(概念技能)·Theabilitytothinkandconceptualizeaboutabstractandcomplexsituationsconcerningtheorganization·AnOrganizationDefined·Adeliberatearrangementofpeopletoaccomplishsomespecificpurpose·CommonCharacteristicsofOrganizations·Haveadistinctpurpose(goal)·Composedofpeople·HaveadeliberatestructureCHAPTERScientificManagementTaylor’sFourPrinciplesofManagementDevelopascienceforeachelementofanindividual’swork,whichwillreplacetheoldruleofthumbmethod科学方法Scientificallyselectandthentrain,teach,anddeveloptheworker科学培训Heartilycooperatewiththeworkerssoastoensurethatallworkisdoneinaccordancewiththeprinciplesofthesciencethathasbeendeveloped忠心合作Divideworkandresponsibilityalmostequallybetweenmanagementandworkers职责平等FrankandLillianGilbreth吉尔布雷斯夫妇FocusedonincreasingworkerproductivitythroughthereductionofwastedmotionDevelopedthemicrochronometertotimeworkermotionsandoptimizeperformanceHenriFayol亨利法约尔BelievedthatthepracticeofmanagementwasdistinctfromotherorganizationalfunctionsDevelopedfourteenprinciplesofmanagementthatappliedtoallorganizationalsituationsDivisionofworkAuthorityDisciplineUnityofcommandUnityofdirectionSubordinationofindividualinteresttotheinterestsoftheorganizationRemunerationCentralizationScalarchainOrderEquityStabilityoftenureofpersonnelInitiativeEspritdecorpsMaxWeber马克斯韦伯Developedatheoryofauthoritybasedonanidealtypeoforganization(bureaucracy·OrganizationalBehavior(OB)·ThestudyoftheactionsofpeopleatworkpeoplearethemostimportantassetofanorganizationTheHawthorneStudies(霍桑实验·AseriesofproductivityexperimentsconductedatWesternElectricfromto·Experimentalfindings·Productivityunexpectedlyincreasedunderimposedadverseworkingconditions·Theeffectofincentiveplanswaslessthanexpected·Researchconclusion·Socialnorms,groupstandardsandattitudesmorestronglyinfluenceindividualoutputandworkbehaviorthandomonetaryincentivesCHAPERTheManager:OmnipotentorSymbolic·OmnipotentViewofManagement(管理万能论)·管理者应该直接对组织的成败负责·不同组织间效能或效率的差异是由于管理者的决策与行动差异所致·组织的绩效好坏难以归咎是管理者的直接影响但管理者仍要为组织绩效负起大部分责任·SymbolicViewofManagement(管理象征论)·组织的成败大部分是由于管理者无法掌握的外力所造成·管理者对成果的掌握能力会受到外部因素的影响和束缚·这些因素包括经济、市场(顾客)的变化、政府政策、竞争者行为、特定产业状况、专利技术的控制以及前任管理者的决策等·管理者透过行动象征性地控制和影响组织的运作·OrganizationalCulture·Asystemofsharedmeaningsandcommonbeliefsheldbyorganizationalmembersthatdetermines,inalargedegree,howtheyacttowardseachother·“Thewaywedothingsaroundhere”·Values,symbols,rituals,myths,andpractices·Implications:·Cultureisaperception·Cultureisshared·CultureisdescriptiveThesourceofanorganization’scultureandhowthatculturecontinues看书上HowEmployeesLearnCulture·Stories(故事)·Narrativesofsignificanteventsoractionsofpeoplethatconveythespiritoftheorganization·Rituals(仪式)·Repetitivesequencesofactivitiesthatexpressandreinforcethevaluesoftheorganization·MaterialSymbols·Physicalassetsdistinguishingtheorganization·Language·Acronymsandjargonofterms,phrases,andwordmeaningsspecifictoanorganizationCHAPERTheDecisionMakingProcess·TheDecisionMakingProcess(决策制定过程)·Identifyingaproblemanddecisioncriteriaandallocatingweightstothecriteria(界定问题设立决策的准则分配准则的权重)·Developing,analyzing,andselectinganalternativethatcanresolvetheproblem(发展、分析、选择能解决问题之方案)·Implementingtheselectedalternative(执行方案)·Evaluatingthedecision’seffectiveness(评估决策的效能)Step:IdentifyingtheProblem·Problem(问题)·Adiscrepancybetweenanexistinganddesiredstateofaffairs(理想情况与现实状况之间存在了某种差距)·CharacteristicsofProblems(问题的特性)·Aproblembecomesaproblemwhenamanagerbecomesawareofit(管理者察觉问题所在)·Thereispressuretosolvetheproblem(压力解决问题的动机)·Themanagermusthavetheauthority,information,orresourcesneededtosolvetheproblem(管理者必须有解决问题所需之职权、信息和各项资源)Step:IdentifyingDecisionCriteria·Decisioncriteriaarefactorsthatareimportant(relevant)toresolvingtheproblemStep:AllocatingWeightstotheCriteria·Decisioncriteriaarenotofequalimportance:·各个决策准则其重要性并不完全一致Step:DevelopingAlternatives步骤四:开发备择方案·Identifyingviablealternatives确认可行的方案·Alternativesarelisted(withoutevaluation)thatcanresolvetheproblem列出解决问题的各种可行方案(但不予以评估)Step:AnalyzingAlternatives·Appraisingeachalternative’sstrengthsandweaknesses评估每个方案的优劣·Analternative’sappraisalisbasedonitsabilitytoresolvetheissuesidentifiedinstepsand方案的评估是根据第二、三步骤所发展的准则透过这样的分析每个方案的优劣即可清楚呈现Step:SelectinganAlternative步骤六:选择方案·Choosingthebestalternative(选出最佳方案)·Thealternativewiththehighesttotalweightischosen选出得分最高的方案Step:ImplementingtheDecision步骤七:执行·Puttingthechosenalternativeintoaction·将决策付诸行动·Conveyingthedecisiontoandgainingcommitmentfromthosewhowillcarryoutthedecision将方案有关的讯息传给执行决策者并获得他们的认同与承诺Step:EvaluatingtheDecision’sEffectiveness步骤八:评估决策的效能·Thesoundnessofthedecisionisjudgedbyitsoutcomes决策正确与否可由决策的结果加以检视MakingDecisions(决策模式)·Rationality(理性)·Managersmakeconsistent,valuemaximizingchoiceswithspecifiedconstraints·Assumptionsarethatdecisionmakers:(理性假设)·Areperfectlyrational,fullyobjective,andlogical·Havecarefullydefinedtheproblemandidentifiedallviablealternatives·Haveaclearandspecificgoal·Willselectthealternativethatmaximizesoutcomesintheorganization’sinterestsratherthanintheirpersonalinterests·BoundedRationality(有限理性)·Managersmakedecisionsrationally,butarelimited(bounded)bytheirabilitytoprocessinformation·Assumptionsarethatdecisionmakers:(有限理性假设)·Willnotseekoutorhaveknowledgeofallalternatives·Willsatisficechoosethefirstalternativeencounteredthatsatisfactorilysolvestheproblemratherthanmaximizetheoutcomeoftheirdecisionbyconsideringallalternativesandchoosingthebest·EscalationofCommitment(承诺升级)·IncreasingorcontinuingacommitmenttopreviousdecisiondespitemountingevidencethatthedecisionmayhavebeenwrongWhatisIntuition(何谓直觉)·StructuredProblems(结构化问题)·Involvegoalsthatclear·Arefamiliar(haveoccurredbefore)·AreeasilyandcompletelydefinedinformationabouttheproblemisavailableandcompleteProgrammedDecision(程序化决策)·Arepetitivedecisionthatcanbehandledbyaroutineapproach·UnstructuredProblems(非结构化问题)·Problemsthatareneworunusualandforwhichinformationisambiguousorincomplete·Problemsthatwillrequirecustommadesolutions·NonprogrammedDecisions(非程序化决策)·Decisionsthatareuniqueandnonrecurring·DecisionsthatgenerateuniqueresponsesDecisionMakingConditions·Certainty(确定性决策)·管理者得以作出准确决策的最理想状况因为所有可能方案的结果都是已知·Risk(风险决策)·在风险情况下决策者可依据个人经验或资料预估各方案成败与结果的机率·Uncertainty(不确定性决策)·当管理者对可能的结果与机率一无所知时将迫使他们靠直觉、创意、征兆观察和胆识来作决策·Uncertainty(不确定性)·Limitedorinformationpreventsestimationofoutcomeprobabilitiesforalternativesassociatedwiththeproblemandmayforcemanagerstorelyonintuition,hunches,and“gutfeelings”·Maximax:theoptimisticmanager’schoicetomaximizethemaximumpayoff(最大收益最大化)找出每种可能决策的最好结果选择其中具有最大报酬的决策Maximin:thepessimisticmanager’schoicetomaximizetheminimumpayoff(最小收益最大化)找出每种决策的最差结果选择其中最大报酬的决策·Minimax:themanager’schoicetominimizehismaximumregret(最大遗憾最小化)找出每种决策的最大潜在遗憾选择其中最小的决策。于某特定决策和自然状态相关的潜在遗憾是再该自然状态确实发生的情况下管理者若选择最好的决策可得到的报酬提高的程度DecisionMakingStyles(决策风格)·DimensionsofDecisionMakingStyles·决策风格的维度·Waysofthinking(思考的方式)·Rational,orderly,andconsistent·Intuitive,creative,andunique·Toleranceforambiguity(模糊容忍度)·Lowtolerance:requireconsistencyandorder·Hightolerance:multiplethoughtssimultaneously·TypesofDecisionMakers(决策者类型)·Directive(命令型风格)·Useminimalinformationandconsiderfewalternatives·Analytic(分析型风格)·Makecarefuldecisionsinuniquesituations·Conceptual(概念型风格)·Maintainabroadoutlookandconsidermanyalternativesinmakinglongtermdecisions·Behavioral(行为型风格)·AvoidconflictbyworkingwellwithothersandbeingreceptivetosuggestionsCHAPERStrategicManagement(战略管理)·Thesetofmanagerialdecisionsandactionsthatdeterminesthelongrunperformanceofanorganization·Step:Identifyingtheorganization’scurrentmission,objectives,andstrategies·Mission:thefirm’sreasonforbeing·Thescopeofitsproductsandservices·Goals:thefoundationforfurtherplanning·Measurableperformancetargets·Step:Conductinganexternalanalysis·Theenvironmentalscanningofspecificandgeneralenvironments·Focusesonidentifyingopportunitiesandthreats·步骤二:外部环境分析·对特定环境与一般环境进行分析·评估组织可利用的机会有哪些?可能面临的威胁为何?·Step:Conductinganinternalanalysis·Assessingorganizationalresources,capabilities,activities,andculture:·Strengths(corecompetencies)createvalueforthecustomerandstrengthenthecompetitivepositionofthefirm·Weaknesses(thingsdonepoorlyornotatall)canplacethefirmatacompetitivedisadvantage·步骤三:内部环境分析·估算组织内部的资源、能力、活动和文化:·优势(核心能力)为顾客创造价值并加强企业的竞争力·弱势(组织表现较差的活动或组织需要但却未拥有的资源)将使企业处于不利的竞争条件StepsandcombinedarecalledaSWOTanalysis(Strengths,Weaknesses,Opportunities,andThreats·Step:Formulatingstrategies·Developandevaluatestrategicalternatives·Selectappropriatestrategiesforalllevelsintheorganizationthatproviderelativeadvantageovercompetitors·Matchorganizationalstrengthstoenvironmentalopportunities·Correctweaknessesandguardagainstthreats·Step:Implementingstrategies·Implementation:effectivelyfittingorganizationalstructureandactivitiestotheenvironment·Theenvironmentdictatesthechosenstrategyeffectivestrategyimplementationrequiresanorganizationalstructurematchedtoitsrequirements·Step:EvaluatingResults·Howeffectivehavestrategiesbeen·Whatadjustments,ifany,arenecessaryEXPLAINTHEROLEOFRESOURCESCAPABILITIESANDCORECOMPETENCIESINTHEINTERNALANALYSIS看书上TypesofOrganizationalStrategies·CorporateLevelStrategies(公司层战略)·Topmanagement’soverallplanfortheentireorganizationanditsstrategicbusinessunits(一组管理决策和行动它决定了组织的长期绩效。)·TypesofCorporateStrategies·Growth(增长):expansionintonewproductsandmarkets(向新产品和新市场扩张)·Stability(稳定):maintenanceofthestatusquo(维持现状)·Renewal(重建):redirectionofthefirmintonewmarkets(重定向企业转向新的市场)·GrowthStrategy(增长战略)·Seekingtoincreasetheorganization’sbusinessbyexpansionintonewproductsandmarkets(寻求扩大组织的规模向新产品和新市场扩张)·TypesofGrowthStrategies·Concentration(集中战略)·Verticalintegration(纵向一体化战略)·Horizontalintegration(横向一体化传略)·Diversification(多元化战略)·Concentration(集中战略)·Focusingonaprimarylineofbusinessandincreasingthenumberofproductsofferedormarketsserved·VerticalIntegration(纵向一体化战略)·Backwardverticalintegration:attemptingtogaincontrolofinputs(becomeaselfsupplier)·Forwardverticalintegration:attemptingtogaincontrolofoutputthroughcontrolofthedistributionchannelandorprovidecustomerserviceactivities(eliminatingintermediaries)·HorizontalIntegration(横向一体化传略)·Combiningoperationswithanothercompetitorinthesameindustrytoincreasecompetitivestrengthsandlowercompetitionamongindustryrivals·RelatedDiversification(相关多元化)·Expandingbymergingwithoracquiringfirmsindifferent,butrelatedindustriesthatare“strategicfits”·UnrelatedDiversification(非相关多元化)·Growingbymergingwithoracquiringfirmsinunrelatedindustrieswherehigherfinancialreturnsarepossible·BCGMatrix(BCG矩阵)·DevelopedbytheBostonConsultingGroup·Considersmarketshareandindustrygrowthrate·Classifiesfirmsas:·Cashcows:lowgrowthrate,highmarketshare(现金牛)·Stars:highgrowthrate,highmarketshare(明星)·Questionmarks:highgrowthrate,lowmarketshare(问号)·Dogs:lowgrowthrate,lowmarketshare(售狗)·BusinessLevelStrategy(事业层战略)·AstrategythatseekstodeterminehowanorganizationshouldcompeteineachofitsSBUs(strategicbusinessunits)寻求决定组织应该怎么在每项事业(战略事业单位)上展开竞争。·CompetitiveAdvantage(竞争战略)·Anorganization’sdistinctivecompetitiveedgethatissourcedandsustainedinitscorecompetencies·QualityasaCompetitiveAdvantage(质量作为竞争优势)·Differentiatesthefirmfromitscompetitors·Cancreateasustainablecompetitiveadvantage·Representsthecompany’sfocusonqualitymanagementtoachievecontinuousimprovementandmeetcustomers’demandforqualityFiveCompetitiveForces(五种竞争力量)·ThreatofNewEntrants(新进入者的威胁)·Theeaseordifficultywithwhichnewcompetitorscanenteranindustry·ThreatofSubstitutes(替代威胁)·Theextenttowhichswitchingcostsandbrandloyaltyaffectthelikelihoodofcustomersadoptingsubstitutesproductsandservices·BargainingPowerofBuyers(购买者的议价能力)·Thedegreetowhichbuyershavethemarketstrengthtoholdswayoverandinfluencecompetitorsinanindustry·BargainingPowerofSuppliers(供应商的议价能力)·Therelativenumberofbuyerstosuppliersandthreatsfromsubstitutesandnewentrantsaffectthebuyersupplierrelationship·CurrentRivalry(目前的竞争状况)·Intensityamongrivalsincreaseswhenindustrygrowthratesslow,demandfalls,andproductpricesdescendCompetitiveStrategies(竞争战略)·CostLeadershipStrategy(成本领先战略)·Seekingtoattainthelowesttotaloverallcostsrelativetootherindustrycompetitors(以成为产业中成本最低的生产者为目标)·DifferentiationStrategy(差异化战略)·Attemptingtocreateauniqueanddistinctiveproductorserviceforwhichcustomerswillpayapremium(试图提供独特的产品或服务给愿意付出较高价格的顾客)·FocusStrategy(聚焦战略)·Usingacostordifferentiationadvantagetoexploitaparticularmarketsegmentratheralargermarket(运用成本优势或差异性优势来开发特定市场而非服务广大的市场)CHAPERDefiningOrganizationalStructure·WorkSpecialization(、工作专门化)traditionalandcontemporaryviews看书上·Thedegreetowhichtasksintheorganizationaredividedintoseparatejobswitheachstepcompletedbyadifferentperson(组织中分工的程度即将任务拆解成几个步骤再由不同的人分段完成)·Overspecializationcanresultinhumandiseconomiesfromboredom,fatigue,stress,poorquality,increasedabsenteeism,andhigherturnover(过度分工可能导致人力不经济的现象无聊、疲劳、压力、质量降低、旷职率与流动率上升)DepartmentalizationbyType(、部门化)·Functional职能部门化·Groupingjobsbyfunctionsperformed(按职能将工作归类)·Advantages·Efficienciesfromputtingtogethersimilarspecialtiesandpeoplewithcommonskills,knowledge,andorientations·Coordinationwithinfunctionalarea·Indepthspecialization·Disadvantages·Poorcommunicationacrossfunctionalareas·Limitedviewoforganizationalgoals·Product产品部门化·Groupingjobsbyproductline(按生产线归类工作)AllowsspecializationinparticularproductsandservicesManagerscanbecomeexpertsintheirindustryClosertocustomers–Duplicationoffunctions–Limitedviewoforganizationalgoals·Geographic地区部门化·Groupingjobsonthebasisofterritoryorgeography(以区域或地理作为划分工作的基础)·Advantages·Moreeffectiveandefficienthandlingofspecificregionalissuesthatarise·Serveneedsofuniquegeographicmarketsbetter·Disadvantages·Duplicationoffunctions·Canfeelisolatedfromotherorganizationalareas·Process过程部门化·Groupingjobsonthebasisofproductorcustomerflow(依产品或顾客的流动方向来划分工作)Moreefficientflowofworkactivities–Canonlybeusedwithcertaintypesofproducts·Customer客户部门化·Groupingjobsbytypeofcustomerandneeds(以顾客群以及顾客需求为基础来划分工作)Customers’needsandproblemscanbemetbyspecialistsDuplicationoffunctionsLimitedviewoforganizationalgoalsEXPLAINCROSSFUCTIONALTEAMS看书上ChainofCommand(、指挥链)·Thecontinuouslineofauthoritythatextendsfromupperlevelsofanorganizationtothelowestlevelsoftheorganizationandclarifieswhoreportstowho从组织高层到基层的一条连续性的职权关系能明确指出谁该向谁报告·Authority(职权)·Therightsinherentinamanagerialpositiontotellpeoplewhattodoandtoexpectthemtodoit·职位所赋予的权力可指示属下该做的事以及期望属下需达成的工作·Responsibility(职责)·Theobligationorexpectationtoperform·接受被指派的工作的义务·UnityofCommand(统一指挥)·Theconceptthatapersonshouldhaveonebossandshouldreportonlytothatperson·员工只应对一位管理者负责的概念Discussthetraditionalandcontemporaryviewsofchainofcommand看书上·SpanofControl(、管理跨度)·Thenumberofemployeeswhocanbeeffectivelyandefficientlysupervisedbyamanager(管理者可以有效率和有效果地指挥的员工数)·Widthofspanisaffectedby:(管理跨度的影响因素)·Skillsandabilitiesofthemanager(管理者的技能)·Employeecharacteristics(员工的特性)·Characteristicsoftheworkbeingdone(工作的特性)·Similarityoftasks(工作的相似性)·Complexityoftasks(工作的复杂性)·Physicalproximityofsubordinates(部属本质的相近性)·Standardizationoftasks(任务的标准化程度)Discussthetraditionalandcontemporaryviewsofspanofcontrol看书上·、集权和分权·Centralization(集权化)·Thedegreetowhichdecisionmakingisconcentratedatasinglepointintheorganizations·组织的决策权掌握在单一管理者的集中程度·Organizationsinwhichtopmanagersmakeallthedecisionsandlowerlevelemployeessimplycarryoutthoseorders·在某些组织里最高管理者决定所有的决策而基层管理者和员工则只是执行高阶主管的命令而已·Decentralization(分权化)·Organizationsinwhichdecisionmakingispusheddowntothemanagerswhoareclosesttotheaction·组织的决策下授由直接负责执行的管理者来担任·EmployeeEmpowerment(对员工授权)·Increasingthedecisionmakingdiscretionofemployees·增加员工自行作决策的能力FactorsthatInfluencetheAmountofCentralization·MoreCentralization·Environmentisstable·Lowerlevelmanagersarenotascapab

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