首页 老曹收藏-美国穆斯林历史百科.((美)Edward.E.Curtis.Ⅳ).pdf

老曹收藏-美国穆斯林历史百科.((美)Edward.E.Curtis.Ⅳ).pdf

老曹收藏-美国穆斯林历史百科.((美)Edward.E.Cur…

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简介:本文档为《老曹收藏-美国穆斯林历史百科.((美)Edward.E.Curtis.Ⅳ)pdf》,可适用于文学艺术领域,主题内容包含EncyclopediaofMuslimAmericanHistoryWEEncyclopediaofMuslimAmericanHistoryEd符等。

EncyclopediaofMuslimAmericanHistoryWEEncyclopediaofMuslimAmericanHistoryEditedbyEdwardECurtisIVWEEncyclopEdiaofMusliMaMEricanHistoryCopyrightFactsOnFileAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystems,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherForinformationcontact:FactsOnFile,IncAnimprintofInfobasePublishingWeststStreetNewYorkNYlibraryofcongresscataloginginpublicationdataEncyclopediaofMuslimAmericanhistoryeditedbyEdwardECurtisIVpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexeISBN:ISBN(acidfreepaper)MuslimsUnitedStatesHistoryEncyclopediasICurtis,EdwardE,–EME'dcFactsOnFilebooksareavailableatspecialdiscountswhenpurchasedinbulkquantitiesforbusinesses,associations,institutions,orsalespromotionsPleasecallourSpecialSalesDepartmentinNewYorkat()or()YoucanfindFactsOnFileontheWorldWideWebathttp:wwwfactsonfilecomTextdesignbyErikaKArroyoCompositionbyLinaFarinellaCoverprintedbySheridanBooks,AnnArbor,MichBookprintedandboundbySheridanBooks,AnnArbor,MichDateprinted:JunePrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaperIslamhasalwaysbeenapartofAmerica’sstoryThefirstnationtorecognizemycountrywasMoroccoInsigningtheTreatyofTripoliin,oursecondPresident,JohnAdams,wrote,“TheUnitedStateshasinitselfnocharacterofenmityagainstthelaws,religionortranquilityofMuslims”Andsinceourfounding,AmericanMuslimshaveenrichedtheUnitedStatesTheyhavefoughtinourwars,theyhaveservedinourgovernment,theyhavestoodforcivilrights,theyhavestartedbusinesses,theyhavetaughtatouruniversities,they’veexcelledinoursportsarenas,they’vewonNobelPrizes,builtourtallestbuilding,andlittheOlympicTorchAndwhenthefirstMuslimAmericanwasrecentlyelectedtoCongress,hetooktheoathtodefendourConstitutionusingthesameHolyKoranthatoneofourFoundingFathersThomasJeffersonkeptinhispersonallibraryMoreover,freedominAmericaisindivisiblefromthefreedomtopracticeone’sreligionThatiswhythereisamosqueineverystateinourunion,andover,mosqueswithinourbordersThat’swhytheUnitedStatesgovernmenthasgonetocourttoprotecttherightofwomenandgirlstowearthehijabandtopunishthosewhowoulddenyitSolettherebenodoubt:IslamisapartofAmericaAndIbelievethatAmericaholdswithinherthetruththatregardlessofrace,religion,orstationinlife,allofussharecommonaspirationstoliveinpeaceandsecuritytogetaneducationandtoworkwithdignitytoloveourfamilies,ourcommunities,andourGodThesethingsweshareThisisthehopeofallhumanityPresidentBarackObama,speakinginCairo,Egypt,June,WEWEListofEntriesviiiListofDocumentsxiAbouttheEditorxiiAcknowledgmentsxiiiIntroductionxvNoteonTransliterationxviiiBoardofAdvisersxixListofContributorsxxChronologyxxiiEntriesA–ZAppendix:SpeechbyPresidentBarackObama,Cairo,Egypt,June,BibliographyContentsviiiWEAbdelRahman,OmarAbdulJabbar,KareemAbdulMalik,AhmedAbdulRauf,FeisalAbdulRauf,MahmoudAbdulWahad,TariqAbdurRahim,ShareefAbdusSalaam,SheilaablutionAbouElFadl,KhaledAddeynuAllaheUniversalArabicAssociationadhanAfricanAmericanMuslimsAfricanAmericanMuslimslavesAfricanMuslimimmigrantsAgaKhanagricultureAhmadiMuslimAmericansAkkad,MoustaphaAkram,WaliAli,DuséMohamedAli,MuhammadAli,NobleDrewAlianzaIslámicaAmer,GhadaAmericanArabAntiDiscriminationCommittee(ADC)AmericanIndianMuslimsAmericanIslamicCollegeAmericanMuslimAllianceAmericanMuslimCouncilAMILAalAmin,JamilAbdullahArabAmericanMuslimsArabicAshuraassimilationAssociationofMuslimScientistsandEngineersAssociationofMuslimSocialScientistsofNorthAmericaAssociationofPhysiciansofPakistaniDescentofNorthAmericaAtlanta,GeorgiaATribeCalledQuestautobiographyAzizahBaquaqua,MahommahGardoBaraka,AmiriBawaMuhaiyaddeenFellowshipBektashiSufiOrderBilaliofSapeloIslandBlakey,ArtBosnianAmericanMuslimsBosnianWarBoston,MassachusettsBoyScoutscalligraphyCarson,AndréDCedarRapids,IowacemeterieschaplainsChappelle,DaveChicago,Illinoischildren’sliteratureChirri,MohamadJawadChishtiSufiOrderClarenceXClay,akaAlivUnitedStatesCleveland,OhiocoffeehousesColumbianExpositionofcontraceptioncookbooksCouncilonAmericanIslamicRelationsCrane,RobertDicksonDaralIslamcommunity(NewMexico)datingDaudiBohrasdemographicsDetroit,MichigandhikrdietarylawsdiscriminationdivorcedressDruzecommunityecologyeducationEllison,KeithMEricBandRakimErtegun,AhmetEstevanicoethnicityListofEntriesEverlastEzaldeen,MuhammadfamiliesFard,WDFarrakhan,LouisalFaruqi,Isma‘ilfatwaFederationofIslamicAssociationsintheUnitedStatesandCanadafeministsfilmFiqhCouncilofNorthAmericaFivePercentersfoodFruitofIslamFulwoodvClemmerfuneralsGeorgiaseacoastGirlScoutsGreatDepressionGuantánamoBayGülenMovementGullahhajjHajjiAliHalvetiJerrahiOrderHammad,SuheirHashmi,ZarinaHassen,AliyaHathout,HassanMuhammadHathout,MaherMuhammadhealthcarehijabhiphopHIVAIDSholidaysHope,LynnIbrahima,AbdulRahmanIjaz,MansoorimambargahImmigrationActofIndonesianAmericanMuslimsinterfaithmovementsInternationalInstituteofIslamicThoughtInternetIranianAmericanMuslimsIraqWarIshmaelitesIslamiccalendarIslamicCenterofWashington,DCIslamicCircleofNorthAmericaIslamicfinanceIslamicMedicalAssociationofNorthAmericaIslamicPartyofNorthAmericaIslamicschoolsIslamicSocietyofNorthAmericaIslamicthoughtIsmail,VehbiIsma‘iliMuslimAmericansjamaatkhanaJamal,AhmadjazzJesusJobBenSolomonKabbani,MuhammadHishamKaroub,HussienKasem,CaseyKathwari,FarooqKebe,LamenKhaalis,HamaasAbdulKhan,FazlurRahmanKhan,InayatKhan,VilayatInayatLADO(LatinoAmericanDawahOrganization)Lang,JeffreyLastPoetsLateef,YusufLatinaoMuslimAmericanslawLebanesecivilwarlesbian,gay,bisexual,andtransgenderMuslimsLewis,SamuelLindh,JohnPhilipWalkerLosAngelesMajid,SattiMalcolmXMamout,YarrowmarriageMaryamiyyaSufiOrderMattson,IngridMayfield,BrandonMelungeonsmenMevleviSufiOrderMillionManMarchmissionariesMohammed,WDMoorishScienceTempleMoorishScienceTemple,IncvSmithMosDefmosquesandIslamiccentersMountVernonMuhammad,ClaraMuhammad,ElijahMuhammad,ProphetofIslamMuhammadSpeaksmusicMuslimAllianceinNorthAmericaMuslimAmericanSocietyMuslimGirlsTrainingGeneralCivilizationClassMuslimPublicAffairsCouncilMuslimStudentsAssociationMuslimSunriseMuslimWakeUp!NaqshbandiSufiOrderNasNationalBasketballAssociationNationalFootballLeagueNationofIslamNativeDeenNeshat,ShirinNewark,NewJerseyNewYorkCityNimatullahiSufiOrderNoor,QueenNorthDakotaOlajuwon,HakeemO’LonevEstateofShabazzPadilla,JoséPhiladelphia,PennsylvaniaphilanthropyPIEDADpoetrypoliticsprayerprisonprogressiveMuslimsQadiriRifa‘iSufiOrderQur’anQureshey,SafiradioRahman,FazlurreligiousliferevivalismSaid,NicholasSaid,OmaribnListofEntriesixSalafiMuslimsSaviour’sDaySchuon,FrithjofsemaSeptember,ShadhiliSufiOrderShakir,Zaidshari‘aShi‘aMuslimAmericansSiddiqi,MuzammilHSikander,ShahziasocialworkersSomaliMuslimimmigrantsSouthAsian–AmericanMuslimsStaton,DakotastereotypesSufiOrderoftheWestSufiRuhaniatInternationalSufismSunniMuslimAmericansTablighiJama‘attaqwacoreToledo,OhioTurkishAmericanMuslimsTyner,McCoyUnitedStatesforeignrelationsUnitedStatesmilitaryUSAPATRIOTActVietnamWarWadud,AminaWahhabismWahhaj,SirajWebb,AlexanderRussellwhiteMuslimAmericanswomenWorksProgressAdministrationWorldCommunityofalIslamintheWestWorldTradeCenterbombingofWorldWarIWorldWarIIwrestlersWuTangClanYee,JamesyouthYusuf,HamzaZakaria,FareedZaytunaInstituteZerhouni,EliasAdamZewail,AhmedHasanxEncyclopediaofMuslimAmericanHistoryxiWE“LivingFloraAndDead,”byAhmadDin()InterviewwithKatieBrownofSapeloIsland(s)WPAInterviewwithMikeAbdallah()MuhammadSadiq’sMissionaryWork(–)HolyKoranoftheMoorishScienceTempleofAmerica,byNobleDrewAli()InterviewwithKassamRameden,WorldWarIVeteranandFarmer()MahommahBaquaquaEscapesinNewYork()AMuslimCongressmanSupportsIsrael()AChristianMissionaryamongMuslimAmericansinChicago()“OurProphet,Muhammad,”byImamVehbyIsma‘il()AMuslimInvocationattheChicagoWorld’sFair()“TheStatusofMuslimCivilRightsintheUnitedStates,”bytheCouncilonAmericanIslamicRelations()“MyExperienceswithPorkProducts,”byAsmaGullHasan()InterfaithDialogue,byCongressmanKeithMEllison()FBIFileonWDFard()BlackBooksBulletinInterviewsMinisterAbdulFarrakhan()FatwaConcerningNobleDrewAli()MuslimWomen’sStudiesinAmerica,byLeilaAhmed()“WhatWeTeach”and“SupremeMathematics,”byNationsofGodsonEarth()InterviewwithBenSullivan,GrandsonofaMuslimSlave()“HajjinaWheelchair,”byBettyHasanAmin()BillClintonHostsEidalFitrattheWhiteHouse()AbdulRahmanIbrahimaandHenryClay()AmericanIslamicCongress,“FivePillarsofInterfaithDialogue”()OnlineAdviceforMuslimParents,bySouhailHasanMulla(–)“TheTribeofIshmael,”byOscarMcCulloch()MuslimJazzArtists,byDizzyGillespie()MemoirsofJob,SonofSolomon()TheodoreDwight,Jr,onLamenKebe()“FatwaagainstTerrorism,”bytheFiqhCouncilofNorthAmerica()MalcolmXwithMrsFannieLouHamer()MatrimonialsfromIslamicHorizons()FirstMuslimInvocationintheUSSenate,byWDMohammed()JuanitaRichardsonBey,“DiodeMio”()“WhattheMuslimsWant”and“WhattheMuslimsBelieve,”byElijahMuhammad()“HowMessengerMuhammad’sDietaryLawsSavedMyLife,”byAllenX()AlIslam:TheReligionofHumanity,byDaoudAhmedFaisal()WPAInterviewwithMaryJuma()PoemsofDanielAbdalHayyMooreMuslimsinAmericanPolitics,byZahidBukhari()“TheInnerQur’an,”byMRBawaMuhaiyaddeen()AutobiographyofNicholasSaid()“TheLifeofOmaribnSaid,WrittenbyHimself”()“firstwritingsince,”bySuheirHammad()AzizahalHibriontheIslamicLegalRightsofMarriedWomen()“America,–,”byInayatKhan(ca)“AwakeningofIslam,”byDuséMohamedAli()FirstMuslimInvocationinCongress,bySirajWahhaj()IslaminAmerica,byAlexanderRussellWebb()“FeminineParticipationinIslamicAffairs,”byAliyaAlOgdieHassen()ListofDocumentsxiiWEEdwardECurtisIVisMillenniumChairoftheLiberalArtsandprofessorofreligiousstudiesandAmericanstudiesatIndianaUniversity–PurdueUniversityIndianapolis(IUPUI)HeistheauthororeditorofseveralbooksonMuslimAmericanandAfricanAmericanhistory,includingTheColumbiaSourcebookofMuslimsintheUnitedStatesandMuslimsinAmerica:ShortHistory,whichwasnamedoneofthebestbooksofbyPublishersWeeklyAformerNEHFellowattheNationalHumanitiesCenter,hehasalsobeenawardedCarnegie,Fulbright,andMellonfellowshipsProfessorCurtisholdsadoctorateinreligiousstudiesfromtheUniversityofSouthAfrica,amaster’sdegreeinhistoryfromWashingtonUniversityinStLouis,andabachelor’sdegreeinreligionfromKenyonCollegeAbouttheEditorxiiiWEAllacademicworkisaprocessofcollaboration,butperhapsnoacademicworkrequiresmorecollaborationthananencyclopediaAftertwoyearsofworkingwithmorethanpeopleonthisreference,Iamleftwithaprofoundfeelingofgratitudefortheirhardwork,patience,andpersistenceThesecolleaguesdeservemostofthecreditforcreatingaworkofscholarshipthatwillhelptoopenanewareaofstudyinUShistoryforhighschoolandcollegestudents,thegeneralpublic,andprofessionalscholarsalikeWorkingforonlytokenpayandaskedtowritemultipledraftsoftheirentries,thewritersinthisvolumetrulyexemplifythequesttoseekknowledgeforitsownsakeandforthebettermentofhumansocietiesWhenDrAndrewGyory,executiveeditoratFactsOnFile,Inc,approachedmewiththeideaofbecominggeneraleditorofthisencyclopedia,IfirstcontactedProfessorRichardMartin,aseniorscholarinIslamicstudiesandeditorofalargeencyclopedia,foradviceRichwarnedmeabouttheperilsofencyclopediawriting,but,naively,IjumpedinanywayIttookmeayeartofigureouthowtoruntheprojectefficientlyIn,Iwrotetoagroupofmypeers,allpublishedexpertsonsomeaspectofMuslimAmericanaffairs,andaskedthemtoadvisemeonthecontentsoftheencyclopediaThesescholars,whobecamemembersoftheBoardofAdvisers,includedsomeofthemostestablishednamesinthefieldandsomerelativelyyoungerscholarswithnewideasandapproachesIthencomposedalistofapproximatelypossibleencyclopediaentries,andmyadvisers,alongwithAndrewGyory,offeredmecounselonwhattopicsIhadignoredandwhattopicscouldbeexcludedLater,Idrewupalistoforiginaldocumentstobeincludedinthereference,andthisgroupofscholarsonceagainofferedtheiradviceWhilethesepersonssharenoblameformisjudgmentsonmypart,IamtrulygratefulfortheirmodelcollegialityManyoftheadvisersalsowroteentriesthemselves,suggestedotherpossibleauthors,andofferedtheirguidancetofellowcontributorsIamespeciallygratefultoSallyHowell,whobecamemyshaykha,orguru,onallmatterspertainingtoDetroit,oneofthemostimportantsitesofMuslimAmericanhistorySallyansweredquestionsandsharedoriginalsourcesandphotographsfromherownresearchHerpioneeringarchivalworkhaslaidamoresolidfoundationforfutureresearchontheArabAmericanandMuslimAmericanpastBecausemuchofthecurrentresearchonMuslimsintheUnitedStatesfocusesoncontemporaryaffairsratherthanMuslimAmericanhistory,findingauthorsforeachoftheentrieswasnotalwayseasyIsentouthundredsofinvitationsIstoppedcountingatonepointtonearlyeveryonewhohadpublishedonsomeaspectofMuslimAmericantopicsBoardmembersKambizGhaneaBassiri,RichardBrentTurner,MelaniMcAlister,andMarciaHermansenputmeintouchwithsomeoftheirstudents,asdidJudithWeisenfeldOnmybehalf,EvaSajooattheInstituteforIsmailiStudiesinLondonrecruitedsometalentedscholarsassociatedwiththeinstituteColleagueswhoaremembersoftheHistoryofAmericanReligionandAmericanAcademyofReligion’sStudyofIslamSectionlistservsrespondedgenerouslytomycallforcontributorsBruceBurnside,WilliamBrown,JeffDiamant,andNataliaSlainwrotemorethantheirfairshare,andSonjaSpeardeservesspecialmentionforhercontributionstothereferenceThefirstarticlesbegantoarriveinJanuary,andthelastbatcharrivedinMayTypically,theeditorialprocessproceededasfollows:Ireadandeditedeachentry,usuallysendingtheentrybacktotheauthorforrevisionsandqueriesAftertheauthorhadsubmittedareviseddraft,IeditedthepieceagainandforwardedittoAndrewGyoryforhiscommentsHesuggestedadditionalrevisions,andthentheentryAcknowledgmentswasreturnedtotheauthorforathirddraftAftertheauthorwasfinished,IeditedthepieceonceagainandsentitbacktoAndrewAttimes,theprocesswentonforanotherround,andsometimesmore,untilDrGyoryacceptedtheentryIamespeciallygratefultotheauthorsfortheirpatienceandresolveinstickingwithmethroughthissometimesfrustratingprocess,whichresultedinaworkthathasbeenasrigorouslyreviewedasmostrefereedacademicresearchIthankAndrewGyoryforconceptualizingtheproject,invitingmetobecomegeneraleditor,andthenofferingmetheassistancethatIneededincompletingitHisinfluencecanbeseeninthecontentsofeachentry,andthereferenceisstrongerforthedebatesthatensuedbetweenusovereverythingfromwordchoicetoarticlecontentAndrew’shardworkandsheertalentputhiminaveryeliteclassofeditorsinthepublishingindustryUnlikesomeofmyotherprojects,thesheersizeandorganizationalchallengesofthisonemeantthatitoccupiedmoreofmypsychicspaceandemotionallifethanIwouldhavelikedIamespeciallygratefultoReganZwaldforherpatienceandsupportShelistenedtome,madevaluablesuggestions,andgavemestrengthduringthesummerofwhenfewentrieshadbeensubmittedandIwasreadytogiveupOurjointcommutestoandfromworkbecamecriticalmomentsformetoreflectontheprojectFrombeginningtoend,theIUSchoolofLiberalArtsatIUPUIofferedanextraordinarylevelofinstitutionalsupportandfinancialassistancefortheprojectDebbieDale,administrativesecretaryfortheDepartmentofReligiousStudies,helpedmestayintouchwithcontributors,typeddocuments,kepttrackofwordcounts,madelibrarytrips,andassistedinmanyotherwaysTheIUPUIUniversityLibrary’sinterlibraryloanstaffwasasessentialasalways,helpingmetounearthraredocumentsforinclusioninthereferenceTheencyclopediaalsobenefitedfromtheeditorialassistanceofLauraJarrettandthephotoeditingofAgaMillhouseIwanttothankalloftherightsholdersandauthorswhoallowedtheirtextsandimagestobereprinted,especiallyLeilaAhmed,Ala

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