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老曹收藏-美国穆斯林历史百科.((美)Edward.E.Curtis.Ⅳ).pdf

老曹收藏-美国穆斯林历史百科.((美)Edward.E.Cur…

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EncyclopediaofMuslim-AmericanHistoryWEEncyclopediaofMuslim-AmericanHistoryEditedbyEdwardE.CurtisIVWEEncyclopEdiaofMusliM-aMEricanHistoryCopyright2010FactsOnFileAllrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystems,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisher.Forinformationcontact:FactsOnFile,Inc.AnimprintofInfobasePublishing132West31stStreetNewYorkNY10001libraryofcongresscataloging-in-publicationdataEncyclopediaofMuslim-Americanhistory/editedbyEdwardE.CurtisIV.p.cm.Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.e-ISBN:978-1-4381-3040-8ISBN978-0-8160-7575-1(acid-freepaper)1.Muslims—UnitedStates—History—Encyclopedias.I.Curtis,EdwardE.,1970–E184.M88E8762010973'.088297—dc222009024875FactsOnFilebooksareavailableatspecialdiscountswhenpurchasedinbulkquantitiesforbusinesses,associations,institutions,orsalespromotions.PleasecallourSpecialSalesDepartmentinNewYorkat(212)967-8800or(800)322-8755.YoucanfindFactsOnFileontheWorldWideWebathttp://www.factsonfile.comTextdesignbyErikaK.ArroyoCompositionbyLinaFarinellaCoverprintedbySheridanBooks,AnnArbor,Mich.BookprintedandboundbySheridanBooks,AnnArbor,Mich.Dateprinted:June2010PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica10987654321Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper.IslamhasalwaysbeenapartofAmerica’sstory.Thefirstnationtorec-ognizemycountrywasMorocco.InsigningtheTreatyofTripoliin1796,oursecondPresident,JohnAdams,wrote,“TheUnitedStateshasinitselfnocharacterofenmityagainstthelaws,religionortranquilityofMuslims.”Andsinceourfounding,AmericanMuslimshaveenrichedtheUnitedStates.Theyhavefoughtinourwars,theyhaveservedinourgovernment,theyhavestoodforcivilrights,theyhavestartedbusinesses,theyhavetaughtatouruniversities,they’veexcelledinoursportsarenas,they’vewonNobelPrizes,builtourtallestbuilding,andlittheOlympicTorch.AndwhenthefirstMuslimAmericanwasrecentlyelectedtoCon-gress,hetooktheoathtodefendourConstitutionusingthesameHolyKoranthatoneofourFoundingFathers—ThomasJefferson—keptinhispersonallibrary.Moreover,freedominAmericaisindivisiblefromthefreedomtopracticeone’sreligion.Thatiswhythereisamosqueineverystateinourunion,andover1,200mosqueswithinourborders.That’swhytheUnitedStatesgovernmenthasgonetocourttoprotecttherightofwomenandgirlstowearthehijabandtopunishthosewhowoulddenyit.Solettherebenodoubt:IslamisapartofAmerica.AndIbelievethatAmericaholdswithinherthetruththatregardlessofrace,religion,orstationinlife,allofussharecommonaspirations—toliveinpeaceandsecurity;togetaneducationandtoworkwithdignity;toloveourfami-lies,ourcommunities,andourGod.Thesethingsweshare.Thisisthehopeofallhumanity.—PresidentBarackObama,speakinginCairo,Egypt,June4,2009WEWEListofEntries............................viiiListofDocuments.........................xiAbouttheEditor..........................xiiAcknowledgments........................xiiiIntroduction.............................xvNoteonTransliteration..................xviiiBoardofAdvisers.........................xixListofContributors........................xxChronology.............................xxiiEntriesA–Z...............................1Appendix:SpeechbyPresidentBarackObama,Cairo,Egypt,June4,2009...............609Bibliography.............................616ContentsviiiWEAbdel-Rahman,OmarAbdul-Jabbar,KareemAbdul-Malik,AhmedAbdulRauf,FeisalAbdul-Rauf,MahmoudAbdul-Wahad,TariqAbdur-Rahim,ShareefAbdus-Salaam,SheilaablutionAbouElFadl,KhaledAddeynuAllaheUniversalArabicAssociationadhanAfrican-AmericanMuslimsAfrican-AmericanMuslimslavesAfricanMuslimimmigrantsAgaKhanagricultureAhmadiMuslimAmericansAkkad,MoustaphaAkram,WaliAli,DuséMohamedAli,MuhammadAli,NobleDrewAlianzaIslámicaAmer,GhadaAmerican-ArabAnti-DiscriminationCommittee(ADC)AmericanIndianMuslimsAmericanIslamicCollegeAmericanMuslimAllianceAmericanMuslimCouncilAMILAal-Amin,JamilAbdullahArab-AmericanMuslimsArabicAshuraassimilationAssociationofMuslimScientistsandEngineersAssociationofMuslimSocialScientistsofNorthAmericaAssociationofPhysiciansofPakistaniDescentofNorthAmericaAtlanta,GeorgiaATribeCalledQuestautobiographyAzizahBaquaqua,MahommahGardoBaraka,AmiriBawaMuhaiyaddeenFellowshipBektashiSufiOrderBilaliofSapeloIslandBlakey,ArtBosnian-AmericanMuslimsBosnianWarBoston,MassachusettsBoyScoutscalligraphyCarson,AndréD.CedarRapids,IowacemeterieschaplainsChappelle,DaveChicago,Illinoischildren’sliteratureChirri,MohamadJawadChishtiSufiOrderClarence13XClay,a/k/aAliv.UnitedStatesCleveland,OhiocoffeehousesColumbianExpositionof1893contraceptioncookbooksCouncilonAmerican-IslamicRelationsCrane,RobertDicksonDaral-Islamcommunity(NewMexico)datingDaudiBohrasdemographicsDetroit,MichigandhikrdietarylawsdiscriminationdivorcedressDruzecommunityecologyeducationEllison,KeithM.EricB.andRakimErtegun,AhmetEstevanicoethnicityListofEntriesEverlastEzaldeen,MuhammadfamiliesFard,W.D.Farrakhan,Louisal-Faruqi,Isma‘ilfatwaFederationofIslamicAssociationsintheUnitedStatesandCanadafeministsfilmFiqhCouncilofNorthAmericaFivePercentersfoodFruitofIslamFulwoodv.ClemmerfuneralsGeorgiaseacoastGirlScoutsGreatDepressionGuantánamoBayGülenMovementGullahhajjHajjiAliHalveti-JerrahiOrderHammad,SuheirHashmi,ZarinaHassen,AliyaHathout,HassanMuhammadHathout,MaherMuhammadhealthcarehijabhip-hopHIV/AIDSholidaysHope,LynnIbrahima,AbdulRahmanIjaz,MansoorimambargahImmigrationActof1965Indonesian-AmericanMuslimsinterfaithmovementsInternationalInstituteofIslamicThoughtInternetIranian-AmericanMuslimsIraqWarIshmaelitesIslamiccalendarIslamicCenterofWashington,D.C.IslamicCircleofNorthAmericaIslamicfinanceIslamicMedicalAssociationofNorthAmericaIslamicPartyofNorthAmericaIslamicschoolsIslamicSocietyofNorthAmericaIslamicthoughtIsmail,VehbiIsma‘iliMuslimAmericansjamaatkhanaJamal,AhmadjazzJesusJobBenSolomonKabbani,MuhammadHishamKaroub,HussienKasem,CaseyKathwari,FarooqKebe,LamenKhaalis,HamaasAbdulKhan,FazlurRahmanKhan,InayatKhan,VilayatInayatLADO(LatinoAmericanDawahOrganization)Lang,JeffreyLastPoetsLateef,YusufLatina/oMuslimAmericanslawLebanesecivilwarlesbian,gay,bisexual,andtransgenderMuslimsLewis,SamuelLindh,JohnPhilipWalkerLosAngelesMajid,SattiMalcolmXMamout,YarrowmarriageMaryamiyyaSufiOrderMattson,IngridMayfield,BrandonMelungeonsmenMevleviSufiOrderMillionManMarchmissionariesMohammed,W.D.MoorishScienceTempleMoorishScienceTemple,Inc.v.SmithMosDefmosquesandIslamiccentersMountVernonMuhammad,ClaraMuhammad,ElijahMuhammad,ProphetofIslamMuhammadSpeaksmusicMuslimAllianceinNorthAmericaMuslimAmericanSocietyMuslimGirlsTraining—GeneralCivilizationClassMuslimPublicAffairsCouncilMuslimStudentsAssociationMuslimSunriseMuslimWakeUp!NaqshbandiSufiOrderNasNationalBasketballAssociationNationalFootballLeagueNationofIslamNativeDeenNeshat,ShirinNewark,NewJerseyNewYorkCityNimatullahiSufiOrderNoor,QueenNorthDakotaOlajuwon,HakeemO’Lonev.EstateofShabazzPadilla,JoséPhiladelphia,PennsylvaniaphilanthropyPIEDADpoetrypoliticsprayerprisonprogressiveMuslimsQadiri-Rifa‘iSufiOrderQur’anQureshey,SafiradioRahman,FazlurreligiousliferevivalismSaid,NicholasSaid,OmaribnListofEntriesixSalafiMuslimsSaviour’sDaySchuon,FrithjofsemaSeptember11,2001ShadhiliSufiOrderShakir,Zaidshari‘aShi‘aMuslimAmericansSiddiqi,MuzammilH.Sikander,ShahziasocialworkersSomaliMuslimimmigrantsSouthAsian–AmericanMuslimsStaton,DakotastereotypesSufiOrderoftheWestSufiRuhaniatInternationalSufismSunniMuslimAmericansTablighiJama‘attaqwacoreToledo,OhioTurkish-AmericanMuslimsTyner,McCoyUnitedStatesforeignrelationsUnitedStatesmilitaryUSAPATRIOTActVietnamWarWadud,AminaWahhabismWahhaj,SirajWebb,AlexanderRussellwhiteMuslimAmericanswomenWorksProgressAdministrationWorldCommunityofal-IslamintheWestWorldTradeCenterbombingof1993WorldWarIWorldWarIIwrestlersWu-TangClanYee,JamesyouthYusuf,HamzaZakaria,FareedZaytunaInstituteZerhouni,EliasAdamZewail,AhmedHasanxEncyclopediaofMuslim-AmericanHistoryxiWE“LivingFlora—AndDead,”byAhmadDin(1924)18InterviewwithKatieBrownofSapeloIsland(1930s)22WPAInterviewwithMikeAbdallah(1939)29MuhammadSadiq’sMissionaryWork(1921–1923)34HolyKoranoftheMoorishScienceTempleofAmerica,byNobleDrewAli(1927)45InterviewwithKassamRameden,WorldWarIVeteranandFarmer(1939)59MahommahBaquaquaEscapesinNewYork(1854)78AMuslimCongressmanSupportsIsrael(2008)94AChristianMissionaryamongMuslimAmericansinChicago(1920)107“OurProphet,Muhammad,”byImamVehbyIsma‘il(1959)111AMuslimInvocationattheChicagoWorld’sFair(1893)121“TheStatusofMuslimCivilRightsintheUnitedStates,”bytheCouncilonAmerican-IslamicRelations(2005)129“MyExperienceswithPorkProducts,”byAsmaGullHasan(2000)148InterfaithDialogue,byCongressmanKeithM.Ellison(2008)170FBIFileonW.D.Fard(1963)182BlackBooksBulletinInterviewsMinisterAbdulFarrakhan(1978)187FatwaConcerningNobleDrewAli(1931)191MuslimWomen’sStudiesinAmerica,byLeilaAhmed(2000)195“WhatWeTeach”and“SupremeMathematics,”byNationsofGodsonEarth(1992)204InterviewwithBenSullivan,GrandsonofaMuslimSlave(1938)216“HajjinaWheelchair,”byBettyHasanAmin(2001)226BillClintonHostsEidal-FitrattheWhiteHouse(2000)252AbdulRahmanIbrahimaandHenryClay(1828)257AmericanIslamicCongress,“FivePillarsofInterfaithDialogue”(2006)267OnlineAdviceforMuslimParents,bySouhailHasanMulla(2004–06)274“TheTribeofIshmael,”byOscarMcCulloch(1888)284MuslimJazzArtists,byDizzyGillespie(1979)310MemoirsofJob,SonofSolomon(1734)316TheodoreDwight,Jr.,onLamenKebe(1864)323“FatwaagainstTerrorism,”bytheFiqhCouncilofNorthAmerica(2005)343MalcolmXwithMrs.FannieLouHamer(1964)353MatrimonialsfromIslamicHorizons(2007)360FirstMuslimInvocationintheU.S.Senate,byW.D.Mohammed(1992)378JuanitaRichardson-Bey,“DiodeMio”(1929)383“WhattheMuslimsWant”and“WhattheMuslimsBelieve,”byElijahMuhammad(1965)398“HowMessengerMuhammad’sDietaryLawsSavedMyLife,”byAllen3X(1971)423Al-Islam:TheReligionofHumanity,byDaoudAhmedFaisal(1950)435WPAInterviewwithMaryJuma(1939)439PoemsofDanielAbdal-HayyMoore457MuslimsinAmericanPolitics,byZahidBukhari(2000)464“TheInnerQur’an,”byM.R.BawaMuhaiyaddeen(1987)479AutobiographyofNicholasSaid(1873)494“TheLifeofOmaribnSaid,WrittenbyHimself”(1831)497“firstwritingsince,”bySuheirHammad(2001)507Azizahal-HibriontheIslamicLegalRightsofMarriedWomen(2002)516“America,1910–1912,”byInayatKhan(ca.1925)536“AwakeningofIslam,”byDuséMohamedAli(1922)559FirstMuslimInvocationinCongress,bySirajWahhaj(1991)574IslaminAmerica,byAlexanderRussellWebb(1893)576“FeminineParticipationinIslamicAffairs,”byAliyaAl-OgdieHassen(1965)584ListofDocumentsxiiWEEdwardE.CurtisIVisMillenniumChairoftheLiberalArtsandprofessorofreligiousstudiesandAmericanstudiesatIndianaUniversity–PurdueUniversityIndianapolis(IUPUI).HeistheauthororeditorofseveralbooksonMuslim-AmericanandAfrican-Americanhistory,includingTheColumbiaSourcebookofMuslimsintheUnitedStatesandMuslimsinAmerica:ShortHistory,whichwasnamedoneofthebest100booksof2009byPublishersWeekly.Afor-merNEHFellowattheNationalHumanitiesCenter,hehasalsobeenawardedCarnegie,Fulbright,andMellonfellowships.ProfessorCurtisholdsadoctorateinreligiousstudiesfromtheUniversityofSouthAfrica,amaster’sdegreeinhistoryfromWashingtonUniversityinSt.Louis,andabachelor’sdegreeinreligionfromKenyonCollege.AbouttheEditorxiiiWEAllacademicworkisaprocessofcollaboration,butper-hapsnoacademicworkrequiresmorecollaborationthananencyclopedia.Aftertwoyearsofworkingwithmorethan130peopleonthisreference,Iamleftwithaprofoundfeelingofgratitudefortheirhardwork,patience,andpersis-tence.Thesecolleaguesdeservemostofthecreditforcreat-ingaworkofscholarshipthatwillhelptoopenanewareaofstudyinU.S.historyforhighschoolandcollegestudents,thegeneralpublic,andprofessionalscholarsalike.Workingforonlytokenpayandaskedtowritemultipledraftsoftheirentries,thewritersinthisvolumetrulyexemplifythequesttoseekknowledgeforitsownsakeandforthebettermentofhumansocieties.WhenDr.AndrewGyory,executiveeditoratFactsOnFile,Inc.,approachedmewiththeideaofbecominggen-eraleditorofthisencyclopedia,IfirstcontactedProfessorRichardMartin,aseniorscholarinIslamicstudiesandeditorofalargeencyclopedia,foradvice.Richwarnedmeabouttheperilsofencyclopediawriting,but,naively,Ijumpedinanyway.Ittookmeayeartofigureouthowtoruntheprojectefficiently.In2007,Iwrotetoagroupofmypeers,allpublishedexpertsonsomeaspectofMuslim-Americanaffairs,andaskedthemtoadvisemeonthecontentsoftheencyclope-dia.Thesescholars,whobecamemembersoftheBoardofAdvisers,includedsomeofthemostestablishednamesinthefieldandsomerelativelyyoungerscholarswithnewideasandapproaches.Ithencomposedalistofapproximately500possibleencyclopediaentries,andmyadvisers,alongwithAndrewGyory,offeredmecounselonwhattopicsIhadignoredandwhattopicscouldbeexcluded.Later,Idrewupalistof50originaldocumentstobeincludedinthereference,andthisgroupofscholarsonceagainofferedtheiradvice.Whilethesepersonssharenoblameformisjudgmentsonmypart,Iamtrulygratefulfortheirmodelcollegiality.Manyoftheadvisersalsowroteentriesthemselves,sug-gestedotherpossibleauthors,andofferedtheirguidancetofellowcontributors.IamespeciallygratefultoSallyHowell,whobecamemyshaykha,orguru,onallmatterspertain-ingtoDetroit,oneofthemostimportantsitesofMuslim-Americanhistory.Sallyansweredquestionsandsharedoriginalsourcesandphotographsfromherownresearch.Herpioneeringarchivalworkhaslaidamoresolidfounda-tionforfutureresearchontheArab-AmericanandMuslim-Americanpast.BecausemuchofthecurrentresearchonMuslimsintheUnitedStatesfocusesoncontemporaryaffairsratherthanMuslim-Americanhistory,findingauthorsforeachoftheentrieswasnotalwayseasy.Isentouthundredsofinvita-tions—Istoppedcountingatonepoint—tonearlyeveryonewhohadpublishedonsomeaspectofMuslim-Americantop-ics.BoardmembersKambizGhaneaBassiri,RichardBrentTurner,MelaniMcAlister,andMarciaHermansenputmeintouchwithsomeoftheirstudents,asdidJudithWeisenfeld.Onmybehalf,EvaSajooattheInstituteforIsmailiStudiesinLondonrecruitedsometalentedscholarsassociatedwiththeinstitute.ColleagueswhoaremembersoftheHistoryofAmericanReligionandAmericanAcademyofReligion’sStudyofIslamSectionlistservsrespondedgenerouslytomycallforcontributors.BruceBurnside,WilliamBrown,JeffDiamant,andNataliaSlainwrotemorethantheirfairshare,andSonjaSpeardeservesspecialmentionforhercontribu-tionstothereference.ThefirstarticlesbegantoarriveinJanuary2008,andthelastbatcharrivedinMay2009.Typically,theeditorialprocessproceededasfollows:Ireadandeditedeachentry,usuallysendingtheentrybacktotheauthorforrevisionsandqueries.Aftertheauthorhadsubmittedareviseddraft,IeditedthepieceagainandforwardedittoAndrewGyoryforhiscom-ments.Hesuggestedadditionalrevisions,andthentheentryAcknowledgmentswasreturnedtotheauthorforathirddraft.Aftertheauthorwasfinished,IeditedthepieceonceagainandsentitbacktoAndrew.Attimes,theprocesswentonforanotherround,andsometimesmore,untilDr.Gyoryacceptedtheentry.Iamespeciallygratefultotheauthorsfortheirpatienceandresolveinstickingwithmethroughthissometimesfrustrat-ingprocess,whichresultedinaworkthathasbeenasrigor-ouslyreviewedasmostrefereedacademicresearch.IthankAndrewGyoryforconceptualizingtheproject,invitingmetobecomegeneraleditor,andthenofferingmetheassistancethatIneededincompletingit.Hisinfluencecanbeseeninthecontentsofeachentry,andthereferenceisstrongerforthedebatesthatensuedbetweenusoverevery-thingfromwordchoicetoarticlecontent.Andrew’shardworkandsheertalentputhiminaveryeliteclassofeditorsinthepublishingindustry.Unlikesomeofmyotherprojects,thesheersizeandorganizationalchallengesofthisonemeantthatitoccupiedmoreofmypsychicspaceandemotionallifethanIwouldhaveliked.IamespeciallygratefultoReganZwaldforherpatienceandsupport.Shelistenedtome,madevaluablesug-gestions,andgavemestrengthduringthesummerof2008—whenfewentrieshadbeensubmittedandIwasreadytogiveup.Ourjointcommutestoandfromworkbecamecriticalmomentsformetoreflectontheproject.Frombeginningtoend,theIUSchoolofLiberalArtsatIUPUIofferedanextraordinarylevelofinstitutionalsupportandfinancialassistancefortheproject.DebbieDale,admin-istrativesecretaryfortheDepartmentofReligiousStudies,helpedmestayintouchwithcontributors,typeddocuments,kepttrackofwordcounts,madelibrarytrips,andassistedinmanyotherways.TheIUPUIUniversityLibrary’sinter-libraryloanstaffwasasessentialasalways,helpingmetounearthraredocumentsforinclusioninthereference.TheencyclopediaalsobenefitedfromtheeditorialassistanceofLauraJarrettandthephotoeditingofAgaMillhouse.Iwanttothankalloftherightsholdersandauthorswhoallowedtheirtextsandimagestobereprinted,espe-ciallyLeilaAhmed,Ala

老曹收藏-美国穆斯林历史百科.((美)Edward.E.Curtis.Ⅳ).pdf

老曹收藏-美国穆斯林历史百科.((美)Edward.E.Cur…

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366次下载 0人收藏 暂无简介 简介 2012-01-31 举报

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EncyclopediaofMuslim-AmericanHistoryWEEncyclopediaofMuslim-AmericanHistoryEditedbyEdwardE.CurtisIVWEEncyclopEdiaofMusliM-aMEricanHistoryCopyright2010FactsOnFileAllrightsreserved.Nopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystems,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisher.Forinformationcontact:FactsOnFile,Inc.AnimprintofInfobasePublishing132West31stStreetNewYorkNY10001libraryofcongresscataloging-in-publicationdataEncyclopediaofMuslim-Americanhistory/editedbyEdwardE.CurtisIV.p.cm.Includesbibliographicalreferencesandindex.e-ISBN:978-1-4381-3040-8ISBN978-0-8160-7575-1(acid-freepaper)1.Muslims—UnitedStates—History—Encyclopedias.I.Curtis,EdwardE.,1970–E184.M88E8762010973'.088297—dc222009024875FactsOnFilebooksareavailableatspecialdiscountswhenpurchasedinbulkquantitiesforbusinesses,associations,institutions,orsalespromotions.PleasecallourSpecialSalesDepartmentinNewYorkat(212)967-8800or(800)322-8755.YoucanfindFactsOnFileontheWorldWideWebathttp://www.factsonfile.comTextdesignbyErikaK.ArroyoCompositionbyLinaFarinellaCoverprintedbySheridanBooks,AnnArbor,Mich.BookprintedandboundbySheridanBooks,AnnArbor,Mich.Dateprinted:June2010PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica10987654321Thisbookisprintedonacid-freepaper.IslamhasalwaysbeenapartofAmerica’sstory.Thefirstnationtorec-ognizemycountrywasMorocco.InsigningtheTreatyofTripoliin1796,oursecondPresident,JohnAdams,wrote,“TheUnitedStateshasinitselfnocharacterofenmityagainstthelaws,religionortranquilityofMuslims.”Andsinceourfounding,AmericanMuslimshaveenrichedtheUnitedStates.Theyhavefoughtinourwars,theyhaveservedinourgovernment,theyhavestoodforcivilrights,theyhavestartedbusinesses,theyhavetaughtatouruniversities,they’veexcelledinoursportsarenas,they’vewonNobelPrizes,builtourtallestbuilding,andlittheOlympicTorch.AndwhenthefirstMuslimAmericanwasrecentlyelectedtoCon-gress,hetooktheoathtodefendourConstitutionusingthesameHolyKoranthatoneofourFoundingFathers—ThomasJefferson—keptinhispersonallibrary.Moreover,freedominAmericaisindivisiblefromthefreedomtopracticeone’sreligion.Thatiswhythereisamosqueineverystateinourunion,andover1,200mosqueswithinourborders.That’swhytheUnitedStatesgovernmenthasgonetocourttoprotecttherightofwomenandgirlstowearthehijabandtopunishthosewhowoulddenyit.Solettherebenodoubt:IslamisapartofAmerica.AndIbelievethatAmericaholdswithinherthetruththatregardlessofrace,religion,orstationinlife,allofussharecommonaspirations—toliveinpeaceandsecurity;togetaneducationandtoworkwithdignity;toloveourfami-lies,ourcommunities,andourGod.Thesethingsweshare.Thisisthehopeofallhumanity.—PresidentBarackObama,speakinginCairo,Egypt,June4,2009WEWEListofEntries............................viiiListofDocuments.........................xiAbouttheEditor..........................xiiAcknowledgments........................xiiiIntroduction.............................xvNoteonTransliteration..................xviiiBoardofAdvisers.........................xixListofContributors........................xxChronology.............................xxiiEntriesA–Z...............................1Appendix:SpeechbyPresidentBarackObama,Cairo,Egypt,June4,2009...............609Bibliography.............................616ContentsviiiWEAbdel-Rahman,OmarAbdul-Jabbar,KareemAbdul-Malik,AhmedAbdulRauf,FeisalAbdul-Rauf,MahmoudAbdul-Wahad,TariqAbdur-Rahim,ShareefAbdus-Salaam,SheilaablutionAbouElFadl,KhaledAddeynuAllaheUniversalArabicAssociationadhanAfrican-AmericanMuslimsAfrican-AmericanMuslimslavesAfricanMuslimimmigrantsAgaKhanagricultureAhmadiMuslimAmericansAkkad,MoustaphaAkram,WaliAli,DuséMohamedAli,MuhammadAli,NobleDrewAlianzaIslámicaAmer,GhadaAmerican-ArabAnti-DiscriminationCommittee(ADC)AmericanIndianMuslimsAmericanIslamicCollegeAmericanMuslimAllianceAmericanMuslimCouncilAMILAal-Amin,JamilAbdullahArab-AmericanMuslimsArabicAshuraassimilationAssociationofMuslimScientistsandEngineersAssociationofMuslimSocialScientistsofNorthAmericaAssociationofPhysiciansofPakistaniDescentofNorthAmericaAtlanta,GeorgiaATribeCalledQuestautobiographyAzizahBaquaqua,MahommahGardoBaraka,AmiriBawaMuhaiyaddeenFellowshipBektashiSufiOrderBilaliofSapeloIslandBlakey,ArtBosnian-AmericanMuslimsBosnianWarBoston,MassachusettsBoyScoutscalligraphyCarson,AndréD.CedarRapids,IowacemeterieschaplainsChappelle,DaveChicago,Illinoischildren’sliteratureChirri,MohamadJawadChishtiSufiOrderClarence13XClay,a/k/aAliv.UnitedStatesCleveland,OhiocoffeehousesColumbianExpositionof1893contraceptioncookbooksCouncilonAmerican-IslamicRelationsCrane,RobertDicksonDaral-Islamcommunity(NewMexico)datingDaudiBohrasdemographicsDetroit,MichigandhikrdietarylawsdiscriminationdivorcedressDruzecommunityecologyeducationEllison,KeithM.EricB.andRakimErtegun,AhmetEstevanicoethnicityListofEntriesEverlastEzaldeen,MuhammadfamiliesFard,W.D.Farrakhan,Louisal-Faruqi,Isma‘ilfatwaFederationofIslamicAssociationsintheUnitedStatesandCanadafeministsfilmFiqhCouncilofNorthAmericaFivePercentersfoodFruitofIslamFulwoodv.ClemmerfuneralsGeorgiaseacoastGirlScoutsGreatDepressionGuantánamoBayGülenMovementGullahhajjHajjiAliHalveti-JerrahiOrderHammad,SuheirHashmi,ZarinaHassen,AliyaHathout,HassanMuhammadHathout,MaherMuhammadhealthcarehijabhip-hopHIV/AIDSholidaysHope,LynnIbrahima,AbdulRahmanIjaz,MansoorimambargahImmigrationActof1965Indonesian-AmericanMuslimsinterfaithmovementsInternationalInstituteofIslamicThoughtInternetIranian-AmericanMuslimsIraqWarIshmaelitesIslamiccalendarIslamicCenterofWashington,D.C.IslamicCircleofNorthAmericaIslamicfinanceIslamicMedicalAssociationofNorthAmericaIslamicPartyofNorthAmericaIslamicschoolsIslamicSocietyofNorthAmericaIslamicthoughtIsmail,VehbiIsma‘iliMuslimAmericansjamaatkhanaJamal,AhmadjazzJesusJobBenSolomonKabbani,MuhammadHishamKaroub,HussienKasem,CaseyKathwari,FarooqKebe,LamenKhaalis,HamaasAbdulKhan,FazlurRahmanKhan,InayatKhan,VilayatInayatLADO(LatinoAmericanDawahOrganization)Lang,JeffreyLastPoetsLateef,YusufLatina/oMuslimAmericanslawLebanesecivilwarlesbian,gay,bisexual,andtransgenderMuslimsLewis,SamuelLindh,JohnPhilipWalkerLosAngelesMajid,SattiMalcolmXMamout,YarrowmarriageMaryamiyyaSufiOrderMattson,IngridMayfield,BrandonMelungeonsmenMevleviSufiOrderMillionManMarchmissionariesMohammed,W.D.MoorishScienceTempleMoorishScienceTemple,Inc.v.SmithMosDefmosquesandIslamiccentersMountVernonMuhammad,ClaraMuhammad,ElijahMuhammad,ProphetofIslamMuhammadSpeaksmusicMuslimAllianceinNorthAmericaMuslimAmericanSocietyMuslimGirlsTraining—GeneralCivilizationClassMuslimPublicAffairsCouncilMuslimStudentsAssociationMuslimSunriseMuslimWakeUp!NaqshbandiSufiOrderNasNationalBasketballAssociationNationalFootballLeagueNationofIslamNativeDeenNeshat,ShirinNewark,NewJerseyNewYorkCityNimatullahiSufiOrderNoor,QueenNorthDakotaOlajuwon,HakeemO’Lonev.EstateofShabazzPadilla,JoséPhiladelphia,PennsylvaniaphilanthropyPIEDADpoetrypoliticsprayerprisonprogressiveMuslimsQadiri-Rifa‘iSufiOrderQur’anQureshey,SafiradioRahman,FazlurreligiousliferevivalismSaid,NicholasSaid,OmaribnListofEntriesixSalafiMuslimsSaviour’sDaySchuon,FrithjofsemaSeptember11,2001ShadhiliSufiOrderShakir,Zaidshari‘aShi‘aMuslimAmericansSiddiqi,MuzammilH.Sikander,ShahziasocialworkersSomaliMuslimimmigrantsSouthAsian–AmericanMuslimsStaton,DakotastereotypesSufiOrderoftheWestSufiRuhaniatInternationalSufismSunniMuslimAmericansTablighiJama‘attaqwacoreToledo,OhioTurkish-AmericanMuslimsTyner,McCoyUnitedStatesforeignrelationsUnitedStatesmilitaryUSAPATRIOTActVietnamWarWadud,AminaWahhabismWahhaj,SirajWebb,AlexanderRussellwhiteMuslimAmericanswomenWorksProgressAdministrationWorldCommunityofal-IslamintheWestWorldTradeCenterbombingof1993WorldWarIWorldWarIIwrestlersWu-TangClanYee,JamesyouthYusuf,HamzaZakaria,FareedZaytunaInstituteZerhouni,EliasAdamZewail,AhmedHasanxEncyclopediaofMuslim-AmericanHistoryxiWE“LivingFlora—AndDead,”byAhmadDin(1924)18InterviewwithKatieBrownofSapeloIsland(1930s)22WPAInterviewwithMikeAbdallah(1939)29MuhammadSadiq’sMissionaryWork(1921–1923)34HolyKoranoftheMoorishScienceTempleofAmerica,byNobleDrewAli(1927)45InterviewwithKassamRameden,WorldWarIVeteranandFarmer(1939)59MahommahBaquaquaEscapesinNewYork(1854)78AMuslimCongressmanSupportsIsrael(2008)94AChristianMissionaryamongMuslimAmericansinChicago(1920)107“OurProphet,Muhammad,”byImamVehbyIsma‘il(1959)111AMuslimInvocationattheChicagoWorld’sFair(1893)121“TheStatusofMuslimCivilRightsintheUnitedStates,”bytheCouncilonAmerican-IslamicRelations(2005)129“MyExperienceswithPorkProducts,”byAsmaGullHasan(2000)148InterfaithDialogue,byCongressmanKeithM.Ellison(2008)170FBIFileonW.D.Fard(1963)182BlackBooksBulletinInterviewsMinisterAbdulFarrakhan(1978)187FatwaConcerningNobleDrewAli(1931)191MuslimWomen’sStudiesinAmerica,byLeilaAhmed(2000)195“WhatWeTeach”and“SupremeMathematics,”byNationsofGodsonEarth(1992)204InterviewwithBenSullivan,GrandsonofaMuslimSlave(1938)216“HajjinaWheelchair,”byBettyHasanAmin(2001)226BillClintonHostsEidal-FitrattheWhiteHouse(2000)252AbdulRahmanIbrahimaandHenryClay(1828)257AmericanIslamicCongress,“FivePillarsofInterfaithDialogue”(2006)267OnlineAdviceforMuslimParents,bySouhailHasanMulla(2004–06)274“TheTribeofIshmael,”byOscarMcCulloch(1888)284MuslimJazzArtists,byDizzyGillespie(1979)310MemoirsofJob,SonofSolomon(1734)316TheodoreDwight,Jr.,onLamenKebe(1864)323“FatwaagainstTerrorism,”bytheFiqhCouncilofNorthAmerica(2005)343MalcolmXwithMrs.FannieLouHamer(1964)353MatrimonialsfromIslamicHorizons(2007)360FirstMuslimInvocationintheU.S.Senate,byW.D.Mohammed(1992)378JuanitaRichardson-Bey,“DiodeMio”(1929)383“WhattheMuslimsWant”and“WhattheMuslimsBelieve,”byElijahMuhammad(1965)398“HowMessengerMuhammad’sDietaryLawsSavedMyLife,”byAllen3X(1971)423Al-Islam:TheReligionofHumanity,byDaoudAhmedFaisal(1950)435WPAInterviewwithMaryJuma(1939)439PoemsofDanielAbdal-HayyMoore457MuslimsinAmericanPolitics,byZahidBukhari(2000)464“TheInnerQur’an,”byM.R.BawaMuhaiyaddeen(1987)479AutobiographyofNicholasSaid(1873)494“TheLifeofOmaribnSaid,WrittenbyHimself”(1831)497“firstwritingsince,”bySuheirHammad(2001)507Azizahal-HibriontheIslamicLegalRightsofMarriedWomen(2002)516“America,1910–1912,”byInayatKhan(ca.1925)536“AwakeningofIslam,”byDuséMohamedAli(1922)559FirstMuslimInvocationinCongress,bySirajWahhaj(1991)574IslaminAmerica,byAlexanderRussellWebb(1893)576“FeminineParticipationinIslamicAffairs,”byAliyaAl-OgdieHassen(1965)584ListofDocumentsxiiWEEdwardE.CurtisIVisMillenniumChairoftheLiberalArtsandprofessorofreligiousstudiesandAmericanstudiesatIndianaUniversity–PurdueUniversityIndianapolis(IUPUI).HeistheauthororeditorofseveralbooksonMuslim-AmericanandAfrican-Americanhistory,includingTheColumbiaSourcebookofMuslimsintheUnitedStatesandMuslimsinAmerica:ShortHistory,whichwasnamedoneofthebest100booksof2009byPublishersWeekly.Afor-merNEHFellowattheNationalHumanitiesCenter,hehasalsobeenawardedCarnegie,Fulbright,andMellonfellowships.ProfessorCurtisholdsadoctorateinreligiousstudiesfromtheUniversityofSouthAfrica,amaster’sdegreeinhistoryfromWashingtonUniversityinSt.Louis,andabachelor’sdegreeinreligionfromKenyonCollege.AbouttheEditorxiiiWEAllacademicworkisaprocessofcollaboration,butper-hapsnoacademicworkrequiresmorecollaborationthananencyclopedia.Aftertwoyearsofworkingwithmorethan130peopleonthisreference,Iamleftwithaprofoundfeelingofgratitudefortheirhardwork,patience,andpersis-tence.Thesecolleaguesdeservemostofthecreditforcreat-ingaworkofscholarshipthatwillhelptoopenanewareaofstudyinU.S.historyforhighschoolandcollegestudents,thegeneralpublic,andprofessionalscholarsalike.Workingforonlytokenpayandaskedtowritemultipledraftsoftheirentries,thewritersinthisvolumetrulyexemplifythequesttoseekknowledgeforitsownsakeandforthebettermentofhumansocieties.WhenDr.AndrewGyory,executiveeditoratFactsOnFile,Inc.,approachedmewiththeideaofbecominggen-eraleditorofthisencyclopedia,IfirstcontactedProfessorRichardMartin,aseniorscholarinIslamicstudiesandeditorofalargeencyclopedia,foradvice.Richwarnedmeabouttheperilsofencyclopediawriting,but,naively,Ijumpedinanyway.Ittookmeayeartofigureouthowtoruntheprojectefficiently.In2007,Iwrotetoagroupofmypeers,allpublishedexpertsonsomeaspectofMuslim-Americanaffairs,andaskedthemtoadvisemeonthecontentsoftheencyclope-dia.Thesescholars,whobecamemembersoftheBoardofAdvisers,includedsomeofthemostestablishednamesinthefieldandsomerelativelyyoungerscholarswithnewideasandapproaches.Ithencomposedalistofapproximately500possibleencyclopediaentries,andmyadvisers,alongwithAndrewGyory,offeredmecounselonwhattopicsIhadignoredandwhattopicscouldbeexcluded.Later,Idrewupalistof50originaldocumentstobeincludedinthereference,andthisgroupofscholarsonceagainofferedtheiradvice.Whilethesepersonssharenoblameformisjudgmentsonmypart,Iamtrulygratefulfortheirmodelcollegiality.Manyoftheadvisersalsowroteentriesthemselves,sug-gestedotherpossibleauthors,andofferedtheirguidancetofellowcontributors.IamespeciallygratefultoSallyHowell,whobecamemyshaykha,orguru,onallmatterspertain-ingtoDetroit,oneofthemostimportantsitesofMuslim-Americanhistory.Sallyansweredquestionsandsharedoriginalsourcesandphotographsfromherownresearch.Herpioneeringarchivalworkhaslaidamoresolidfounda-tionforfutureresearchontheArab-AmericanandMuslim-Americanpast.BecausemuchofthecurrentresearchonMuslimsintheUnitedStatesfocusesoncontemporaryaffairsratherthanMuslim-Americanhistory,findingauthorsforeachoftheentrieswasnotalwayseasy.Isentouthundredsofinvita-tions—Istoppedcountingatonepoint—tonearlyeveryonewhohadpublishedonsomeaspectofMuslim-Americantop-ics.BoardmembersKambizGhaneaBassiri,RichardBrentTurner,MelaniMcAlister,andMarciaHermansenputmeintouchwithsomeoftheirstudents,asdidJudithWeisenfeld.Onmybehalf,EvaSajooattheInstituteforIsmailiStudiesinLondonrecruitedsometalentedscholarsassociatedwiththeinstitute.ColleagueswhoaremembersoftheHistoryofAmericanReligionandAmericanAcademyofReligion’sStudyofIslamSectionlistservsrespondedgenerouslytomycallforcontributors.BruceBurnside,WilliamBrown,JeffDiamant,andNataliaSlainwrotemorethantheirfairshare,andSonjaSpeardeservesspecialmentionforhercontribu-tionstothereference.ThefirstarticlesbegantoarriveinJanuary2008,andthelastbatcharrivedinMay2009.Typically,theeditorialprocessproceededasfollows:Ireadandeditedeachentry,usuallysendingtheentrybacktotheauthorforrevisionsandqueries.Aftertheauthorhadsubmittedareviseddraft,IeditedthepieceagainandforwardedittoAndrewGyoryforhiscom-ments.Hesuggestedadditionalrevisions,andthentheentryAcknowledgmentswasreturnedtotheauthorforathirddraft.Aftertheauthorwasfinished,IeditedthepieceonceagainandsentitbacktoAndrew.Attimes,theprocesswentonforanotherround,andsometimesmore,untilDr.Gyoryacceptedtheentry.Iamespeciallygratefultotheauthorsfortheirpatienceandresolveinstickingwithmethroughthissometimesfrustrat-ingprocess,whichresultedinaworkthathasbeenasrigor-ouslyreviewedasmostrefereedacademicresearch.IthankAndrewGyoryforconceptualizingtheproject,invitingmetobecomegeneraleditor,andthenofferingmetheassistancethatIneededincompletingit.Hisinfluencecanbeseeninthecontentsofeachentry,andthereferenceisstrongerforthedebatesthatensuedbetweenusoverevery-thingfromwordchoicetoarticlecontent.Andrew’shardworkandsheertalentputhiminaveryeliteclassofeditorsinthepublishingindustry.Unlikesomeofmyotherprojects,thesheersizeandorganizationalchallengesofthisonemeantthatitoccupiedmoreofmypsychicspaceandemotionallifethanIwouldhaveliked.IamespeciallygratefultoReganZwaldforherpatienceandsupport.Shelistenedtome,madevaluablesug-gestions,andgavemestrengthduringthesummerof2008—whenfewentrieshadbeensubmittedandIwasreadytogiveup.Ourjointcommutestoandfromworkbecamecriticalmomentsformetoreflectontheproject.Frombeginningtoend,theIUSchoolofLiberalArtsatIUPUIofferedanextraordinarylevelofinstitutionalsupportandfinancialassistancefortheproject.DebbieDale,admin-istrativesecretaryfortheDepartmentofReligiousStudies,helpedmestayintouchwithcontributors,typeddocuments,kepttrackofwordcounts,madelibrarytrips,andassistedinmanyotherways.TheIUPUIUniversityLibrary’sinter-libraryloanstaffwasasessentialasalways,helpingmetounearthraredocumentsforinclusioninthereference.TheencyclopediaalsobenefitedfromtheeditorialassistanceofLauraJarrettandthephotoeditingofAgaMillhouse.Iwanttothankalloftherightsholdersandauthorswhoallowedtheirtextsandimagestobereprinted,espe-ciallyLeilaAhmed,Ala
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