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首页 Ludwig.Wittgenstein.-.Philosophical.Investigatio…

Ludwig.Wittgenstein.-.Philosophical.Investigations.pdf

Ludwig.Wittgenstein.-.Philosoph…

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2012-01-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Ludwig.Wittgenstein.-.Philosophical.Investigationspdf》,可适用于外语资料领域

PHILOSOPHICALINVESTIGATIONSByLUDWIGWITTGENSTEINTranslatedbyGEMANSCOMBEBASILBLACKWELLCopyright©BasilBlackwellLtdFirstpublishedSecondeditionReprintofEnglishtextaloneThirdeditionofEnglishandGermantextwithindexReprintofEnglishtextwithindex,,,,,,BasilBlackwellLtdCowleyRoad,Oxford,OXJF,UKAllrightsreservedExceptforthequotationofshortpassagesforthepurposesofcriticismandreview,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherExceptintheUnitedStatesofAmerica,thisbookissoldtotheconditionthatitshallnot,bywayoftradeorotherwise,belent,resold,hiredout,orotherwisecirculatedwithoutthepublisher'spriorconsentinanyformofbindingorcoverotherthanthatinwhichitispublishedandwithoutasimilarconditionincludingthisconditionbeingimposedonthesubsequentpurchaserBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataWittgenstein,LudwigPhilosophicalinvestigationsrdedLogicAnalysis(Philosophy)ITitleBWPISBNISBNPbkPrintedinGreatBritainTRANSLATOR'SNOTEMYacknowledgmentsareduetothefollowing,whoeithercheckedthetranslationorallowedmetoconsultthemaboutGermanandAustrianusageorreadthetranslationthroughandhelpedmetoimprovetheEnglish:MrRRhees,ProfessorGHvonWright,MrPGeach,MrGKreisel,MissLLabowsky,MrDPaul,MissIMurdochNOTETOSECONDEDITIONTHEtexthasbeenrevisedfortheneweditionAlargenumberofsmallchangeshavebeenmadeintheEnglishtextThefollowingpassageshavebeensignificantlyaltered:InPartI:§§,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,InPartU:pp,iie,ie,,,ThetextoftheThirdEditionremainsunaltered,butanindexhasbeenaddedEDITORS'NOTEWHATappearsasPartIofthisvolumewascompletebyPartIIwaswrittenbetweenandIfWittgensteinhadpublishedhisworkhimself,hewouldhavesuppressedagooddealofwhatisinthelastthirtypagesorsoofPartIandworkedwhatisinPartII,withfurthermaterial,intoitsplaceWehavehadtodecidebetweenvariantreadingsforwordsandphrasesthroughoutthemanuscriptThechoiceneveraffectedthesenseThepassagesprintedbeneathalineatthefootofsomepagesarewrittenonslipswhichWittgensteinhadcutfromotherwritingsandinsertedatthesepages,withoutanyfurtherindicationofwheretheyweretocomeinWordsstandingbetweendoublebracketsareWittgenstein'sreferencestoremarkseitherinthisworkorinotherwritingsofhiswhichwehopewillappearlaterWeareresponsibleforplacingthefinalfragmentofPartninitspresentpositionGEMANSCOMBERRHEESGHVONWRIGHTPREFACETHEthoughtswhichIpublishinwhatfollowsaretheprecipitateofphilosophicalinvestigationswhichhaveoccupiedmeforthelastsixteenyearsTheyconcernmanysubjects:theconceptsofmeaning,ofunderstanding,ofaproposition,oflogic,thefoundationsofmathematics,statesofconsciousness,andotherthingsIhavewrittendownallthesethoughtsasremarks,shortparagraphs,ofwhichthereissometimesafairlylongchainaboutthesamesubject,whileIsometimesmakeasuddenchange,jumpingfromonetopictoanotherItwasmyintentionatfirsttobringallthistogetherinabookwhoseformIpictureddifferentlyatdifferenttimesButtheessentialthingwasthatthethoughtsshouldproceedfromonesubjecttoanotherinanaturalorderandwithoutbreaksAfterseveralunsuccessfulattemptstoweldmyresultstogetherintosuchawhole,IrealizedthatIshouldneversucceedThebestthatIcouldwritewouldneverbemorethanphilosophicalremarksmythoughtsweresooncrippledifItriedtoforcethemoninanysingledirectionagainsttheirnaturalinclinationAndthiswas,ofcourse,connectedwiththeverynatureoftheinvestigationForthiscompelsustotraveloverawidefieldofthoughtcrisscrossineverydirectionThephilosophicalremarksinthisbookare,asitwere,anumberofsketchesoflandscapeswhichweremadeinthecourseoftheselongandinvolvedjourneyingsThesameoralmostthesamepointswerealwaysbeingapproachedafreshfromdifferentdirections,andnewsketchesmadeVerymanyofthesewerebadlydrawnoruncharacteristic,markedbyallthedefectsofaweakdraughtsmanAndwhentheyvwererejectedanumberoftolerableoneswereleft,whichnowhadtobearrangedandsometimescutdown,sothatifyoulookedatthemyoucouldgetapictureofthelandscapeThusthisbookisreallyonlyanalbumUptoashorttimeagoIhadreallygivenuptheideaofpublishingmyworkinmylifetimeItused,indeed,toberevivedfromtimetotime:mainlybecauseIwasobligedtolearnthatmyresults(whichIhadcommunicatedinlectures,typescriptsanddiscussions),variouslyviiviviiiPREFACEmisunderstood,moreorlessmangledorwatereddown,wereincirculationThisstungmyvanityandIhaddifficultyinquietingitFour*yearsagoIhadoccasiontorereadmyfirstbook(theTractatusLogicoPhilosophicus}andtoexplainitsideastosomeoneItsuddenlyseemedtomethatIshouldpublishthoseoldthoughtsandthenewonestogether:thatthelattercouldbeseenintherightlightonlybycontrastwithandagainstthebackgroundofmyoldwayofthinkingForsincebeginningtooccupymyselfwithphilosophyagain,sixteenyearsago,IhavebeenforcedtorecognizegravemistakesinwhatIwroteinthatfirstbookIwashelpedtorealizethesemistakestoadegreewhichImyselfamhardlyabletoestimatebythecriticismwhichmyideasencounteredfromFrankRamsey,withwhomIdiscussedthemininnumerableconversationsduringthelasttwoyearsofhislifeEvenmorethantothisalwayscertainandforciblecriticismIamindebtedtothatwhichateacherofthisuniversity,MrPSraffa,formanyyearsunceasinglypractisedonmythoughtsIamindebtedtothisstimulusforthemostconsequentialideasofthisbookFormorethanonereasonwhatIpublishherewillhavepointsofcontactwithwhatotherpeoplearewritingtodayIfmyremarksdonotbearastampwhichmarksthemasmine,IdonotwishtolayanyfurtherclaimtothemasmypropertyImakethempublicwithdoubtfulfeelingsItisnotimpossiblethatitshouldfalltothelotofthiswork,initspovertyandinthedarknessofthistime,tobringlightintoonebrainoranotherbut,ofcourse,itisnotlikelyIshouldnotlikemywritingtospareotherpeoplethetroubleofthinkingBut,ifpossible,tostimulatesomeonetothoughtsofhisownIshouldhavelikedtoproduceagoodbookThishasnotcomeabout,butthetimeispastinwhichIcouldimproveitCAMBRIDGE,January*ButcfGHvonWtight,'TheWittgensteinPapers',ThePhilosophicalReview,ItseemsthatWittgensteinshouldhavesaid'twoyeats'ItwashopedtocattyoutthisplaninapurelyGetmaneditionofthepresentworkPARTIi"Cumipsi(majoreshomines)appellabantremaliquam,etcumsecundumearnvocemcorpusadaliquidmovebant,videbam,ettenebamhocabeisvocariremillam,quodsonabant,cumearnvellentostendereHocautemeosveileexmotucorporisaperiebatur:tamquamverbisnaturalibusomniumgentium,quaefiuntvultuetnutuoculorum,ceterorumquemembrorumactu,etsonituvocisindicanteaffectionemanimiinpetendis,habendis,rejiciendis,fugiendisverebusItaverbainvariissententiislocissuisposita,etcrebroaudita,quarumrerumsignaessent,paulatimcolligebam,measquejamvoluntates,edomitoineissignisore,perhaecenuntiabam"(Augustine,Confessions,I)lThesewords,itseemstome,giveusaparticularpictureoftheessenceofhumanlanguageItisthis:theindividualwordsinlanguagenameobjectssentencesarecombinationsofsuchnamesInthispictureoflanguagewefindtherootsofthefollowingidea:EverywordhasameaningThismeaningiscorrelatedwiththewordItistheobjectforwhichthewordstandsAugustinedoesnotspeakoftherebeinganydifferencebetweenkindsofwordIfyoudescribethelearningoflanguageinthiswayyouare,Ibelieve,thinkingprimarilyofnounslike"table","chair","bread",andofpeople'snames,andonlysecondarilyofthenamesofcertainactionsandpropertiesandoftheremainingkindsofwordassomethingthatwilltakecareofitselfNowthinkofthefollowinguseoflanguage:IsendsomeoneshoppingIgivehimaslipmarked"fiveredapples"Hetakestheslipto"Whenthey(myelders)namedsomeobject,andaccordinglymovedtowardssomething,IsawthisandIgraspedthatthethingwascalledbythesoundtheyutteredwhentheymeanttopointitoutTheirintentionwasshewnbytheirbodilymovements,asitwerethenaturallanguageofallpeoples:theexpressionoftheface,theplayoftheeyes,themovementofotherpartsofthebody,andthetoneofvoicewhichexpressesourstateofmindinseeking,having,rejecting,oravoidingsomethingThus,asIheardwordsrepeatedlyusedintheirproperplacesinvarioussentences,IgraduallylearnttounderstandwhatobjectstheysignifiedandafterIhadtrainedmymouthtoformthesesigns,Iusedthemtoexpressmyowndesires"PHILOSOPHICALINVESTIGATIONSI«theshopkeeper,whoopensthedrawermarked"apples"thenhelooksuptheword"red"inatableandfindsacoloursampleoppositeitthenhesaystheseriesofcardinalnumbersIassumethatheknowsthembyheartuptotheword"five"andforeachnumberhetakesanappleofthesamecolourasthesampleoutofthedrawerItisinthisandsimilarwaysthatoneoperateswithwords"Buthowdoesheknowwhereandhowheistolookuptheword'red'andwhatheistodowiththeword'five'"Well,IassumethatheactsasIhavedescribedExplanationscometoanendsomewhereButwhatisthemeaningoftheword"five"Nosuchthingwasinquestionhere,onlyhowtheword"five"isusedThatphilosophicalconceptofmeaninghasitsplaceinaprimitiveideaofthewaylanguagefunctionsButonecanalsosaythatitistheideaofalanguagemoreprimitivethanoursLetusimaginealanguageforwhichthedescriptiongivenbyAugustineisrightThelanguageismeanttoserveforcommunicationbetweenabuilderAandanassistantBAisbuildingwithbuildingstones:thereareblocks,pillars,slabsandbeamsBhastopassthestones,andthatintheorderinwhichAneedsthemForthispurposetheyusealanguageconsistingofthewords"block","pillar","slab","beam"AcallsthemoutBbringsthestonewhichhehaslearnttobringatsuchandsuchacallConceivethisasacompleteprimitivelanguageAugustine,wemightsay,doesdescribeasystemofcommunicationonlynoteverythingthatwecalllanguageisthissystemAndonehastosaythisinmanycaseswherethequestionarises"Isthisanappropriatedescriptionornot"Theansweris:"Yes,itisappropriate,butonlyforthisnarrowlycircumscribedregion,notforthewholeofwhatyouwereclaimingtodescribe"Itisasifsomeoneweretosay:"Agameconsistsinmovingobjectsaboutonasurfaceaccordingtocertainrules"andwereplied:Youseemtobethinkingofboardgames,butthereareothersYoucanmakeyourdefinitioncorrectbyexpresslyrestrictingittothosegamesImagineascriptinwhichtheletterswereusedtostandforsounds,andalsoassignsofemphasisandpunctuation(Ascriptcanbeconceivedasalanguagefordescribingsoundpatterns)Nowimaginesomeoneinterpretingthatscriptasifthereweresimplya««PHILOSOPHICALINVESTIGATIONSIcorrespondenceofletterstosoundsandasifthelettershadnotalsocompletelydifferentfunctionsAugustine'sconceptionoflanguageislikesuchanoversimpleconceptionofthescriptIfwelookattheexamplein§i,wemayperhapsgetaninklinghowmuchthisgeneralnotionofthemeaningofawordsurroundstheworkingoflanguagewithahazewhichmakesclearvisionimpossibleItdispersesthefogtostudythephenomenaoflanguageinprimitivekindsofapplicationinwhichonecancommandaclearviewoftheaimandfunctioningofthewordsAchildusessuchprimitiveformsoflanguagewhenitlearnstotalkHeretheteachingoflanguageisnotexplanation,buttrainingWecouldimaginethatthelanguageof§wasthewholelanguageofAandBeventhewholelanguageofatribeThechildrenarebroughtuptoperformtheseactions,tousethesewordsastheydoso,andtoreactinthiswaytothewordsofothersAnimportantpartofthetrainingwillconsistintheteacher'spointingtotheobjects,directingthechild'sattentiontothem,andatthesametimeutteringawordforinstance,theword"slab"ashepointstothatshape(Idonotwanttocallthis"ostensivedefinition",becausethechildcannotasyetaskwhatthenameisIwillcallit"ostensiveteachingofwords"Isaythatitwillformanimportantpartofthetraining,becauseitissowithhumanbeingsnotbecauseitcouldnotbeimaginedotherwise)ThisostensiveteachingofwordscanbesaidtoestablishanassociationbetweenthewordandthethingButwhatdoesthismeanWell,itmaymeanvariousthingsbutoneverylikelythinksfirstofallthatapictureoftheobjectcomesbeforethechild'smindwhenithearsthewordButnow,ifthisdoeshappenisitthepurposeofthewordYes,itmaybethepurposeIcanimaginesuchauseofwords(ofseriesofsounds)(Utteringawordislikestrikinganoteonthekeyboardoftheimagination)Butinthelanguageof§itisnotthepurposeofthewordstoevokeimages(Itmay,ofcourse,bediscoveredthatthathelpstoattaintheactualpurpose)Butiftheostensiveteachinghasthiseffect,amItosaythatiteffectsanunderstandingofthewordDon'tyouunderstandthecall"Slab!"ifyouactuponitinsuchandsuchawayDoubtlesstheostensiveteachinghelpedtobringthisaboutbutonlytogetherwithaparticularPHILOSOPHICALINVESTIGATIONSI«trainingWithdifferenttrainingthesameostensiveteachingofthesewordswouldhaveeffectedaquitedifferentunderstanding"Isetthebrakeupbyconnectinguprodandlever"Yes,giventhewholeoftherestofthemechanismOnlyinconjunctionwiththatisitabrakelever,andseparatedfromitssupportitisnotevenaleveritmaybeanything,ornothingInthepracticeoftheuseoflanguage()onepartycallsoutthewords,theotheractsonthemIninstructioninthelanguagethefollowingprocesswilloccur:thelearnernamestheobjectsthatis,heuttersthewordwhentheteacherpointstothestoneAndtherewillbethisstillsimplerexercise:thepupilrepeatsthewordsaftertheteacherbothofthesebeingprocessesresemblinglanguageWecanalsothinkofthewholeprocessofusingwordsin()asoneofthosegamesbymeansofwhichchildrenlearntheirnativelanguageIwillcallthesegames"languagegames"andwillsometimesspeakofaprimitivelanguageasalanguagegameAndtheprocessesofnamingthestonesandofrepeatingwordsaftersomeonemightalsobecalledlanguagegamesThinkofmuchoftheuseofwordsingameslikeringaringarosesIshallalsocallthewhole,consistingoflanguageandtheactionsintowhichitiswoven,the"languagegame"Letusnowlookatanexpansionoflanguage()Besidesthefourwords"block","pillar",etc,letitcontainaseriesofwordsusedastheshopkeeperin(i)usedthenumerals(itcanbetheseriesoflettersofthealphabet)further,lettherebetwowords,whichmayaswellbe"there"and"this"(becausethisroughlyindicatestheirpurpose),thatareusedinconnexionwithapointinggestureandfinallyanumberofcoloursamplesAgivesanorderlike:"dslabthere"Atthesametimeheshewstheassistantacoloursample,andwhenhesays"there"hepointstoaplaceonthebuildingsiteFromthestockofslabsBtakesoneforeachletterofthealphabetupto"d",ofthesamecolourasthesample,andbringsthemtotheplaceindicatedbyAOnotheroccasionsAgivestheorder"thisthere"At"this"hepointstoabuildingstoneAndsoonWhenachildlearnsthislanguage,ithastolearntheseries,of'numerals'a,b,c,byheartAndithastolearntheiruseWillthistrainingincludeostensiveteachingofthewordsWell,people«PHILOSOPHICALINVESTIGATIONSIwill,forexample,pointtoslabsandcount:"a,b,cslabs"Somethingmoreliketheostensiveteachingofthewords"block","pillar",etcwouldbetheostensiveteachingofnumeralsthatservenottocountbuttorefertogroupsofobjectsthatcanbetakeninataglanceChildrendolearntheuseofthefirstfiveorsixcardinalnumeralsinthiswayAre"there"and"this"alsotaughtostensivelyImaginehowonemightperhapsteachtheiruseOnewillpointtoplacesandthingsbutinthiscasethepointingoccursintheuseofthewordstooandnotmerelyinlearningtheuseNowwhatdothewordsofthislanguagesignifyWhatissupposedtoshewwhattheysignify,ifnotthekindofusetheyhaveAndwehavealreadydescribedthatSoweareaskingfortheexpression"Thiswordsignifiesthis"tobemadeapartofthedescriptionInotherwordsthedescriptionoughttotaketheform:"Thewordsignifies"Ofcourse,onecanreducethedescriptionoftheuseoftheword"slab"tothestatementthatthiswordsignifiesthisobjectThiswillbedonewhen,forexample,itismerelyamatterofremovingthemistakenideathattheword"slab"referstotheshapeofbuildingstonethatweinfactcalla"block"butthekindof'referringthisis,thatistosaytheuseofthesewordsfortherest,isalreadyknownEquallyonecansaythatthesigns"a","b",etcsignifynumberswhenforexamplethisremovesthemistakenideathat"a","b","c",playthepartactuallyplayedinlanguageby"block","slab","pillar"Andonecanalsosaythat"c"meansthisnumberandnotthatonewhenforexamplethisservestoexplainthatthelettersaretobeusedintheordera,b,c,d,etcandnotintheordera,b,d,cButassimilatingthedescriptionsoftheusesofwordsinthiswaycannotmaketheusesthemselvesanymorelikeoneanotherFor,aswesee,theyareabsolutelyunlikeThinkofthetoolsinatoolbox:thereisahammer,pliers,asaw,ascrewdriver,arule,agluepot,glue,nailsandscrewsThefunctionsofwordsareasdiverseasthefunctionsoftheseobjects(Andinbothcasestherearesimilarities)Ofcourse,whatconfusesusistheuniformappearanceofwordswhenwehearthemspokenormeettheminscriptandprintFortheirapplicationisnotpresentedtoussoclearlyEspeciallywhenwearedoingphilosophyPHILOSOPHICALINVESTIGATIONSeItislikelookingintothecabinofalocomotiveWeseehandlesalllookingmoreorlessalike(Naturally,sincetheyareallsupposedtobehandled)Butoneisthehandleofacrankwhichcanbemovedcontinuously(itregulatestheopeningofavalve)anotheristhehandleofaswitch,w

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Ludwig.Wittgenstein.-.Philosophical.Investigations

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