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首页 模拟集成电路的分析和设计.pdf

模拟集成电路的分析和设计.pdf

模拟集成电路的分析和设计.pdf

上传者: 信控科技 2012-01-12 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《模拟集成电路的分析和设计pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域,主题内容包含wwwplcworldcnANALYSISANDDESIGNOFANALOGINTEGRATEDCIRCUITSFourthEditionPAULR符等。

wwwplcworldcnANALYSISANDDESIGNOFANALOGINTEGRATEDCIRCUITSFourthEditionPAULRGRAYUniversityofCalifornia,BerkeleyPAULJHURSTUniversityofCalifornia,DavisSTEPHENHLEWlSUniversityofCalifornia,DavisROBERTGMEYERUniversityofCalifornia,BerkeleyJOHNWlLEYSONS,INCNewYorkChichesterWeinheimBrisbaneSingaporeTorontowwwplcworldcnACQUISITIONSEDITORWilliarnZobristEDITORIALASSISTANTSusannahBarrSENIORMARKETINGMANAGERKatherineHepburnPRODUCTIONSERVICESMANAGERJeanineFurinoPRODUCTIONEDITORSandraRussellDESIGNDIRECTORMadelynLesurePRODUCTIONMANAGEMENTSERVICESPublicationServices,IncCovercourtesyofDrKennethCDyerandMelgarPhotographyThisbookwassetinTimesRomanbyPublicationServices,IncandprintedandboundbyHamiltonPrintingCompanyThecoverwasprintedbyLehighPress,IncThisbookwasprintedonacidfreepaperCopyrightOJohnWileySons,IncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,scanningorotherwise,exceptaspermittedunderSectionsoroftheUnitedStatesCopyrightAct,withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthePublisher,orauthorizationthroughpaymentoftheappropriatepercopyfeetotheCopyrightClearanceCenter,RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA,(),fax()RequeststothePublisherforpermissionshouldbeaddressedtothePermissionsDepartment,JohnWileySons,Inc,ThirdAvenue,NewYork,NY,(),fax(),Email:PERMREQWILEYCOMToorderbooksorforcustomerservicepleasecallCALLWILEY()LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAnalysisanddesignofanalogintegratedcircuitslPaulRGrayetalthedpcmlncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(cloth:alkpaper)LinearintegratedcircuitsComputeraideddesignMetaloxidesemiconductorsComputeraideddesignBipolartransistorsComputeraideddesignIGray,PaulR,TKA~PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericawwwplcworldcnPrefaceIntheyearssincethepublicationofthefirsteditionofthisbook,thefielddfanalogintegratedcircuitshasdevelopedandmaturedTheinitialgroundworkwaslaidinbipolartechnology,followedbyarapidevolutionofMOSanalogintegratedcircuitsFurthermore,BiCMOStechnology(incorporatingbothbipolarandCMOSdevicesononechip)hasemergedasaseriouscontendertotheoriginaltechnologiesAkeyissueisthatCMOStechnologieshavebecomedominantinbuildingdigitalcircuitsbecauseCMOSdigitalcircuitsaresmalleranddissipatelesspowerthantheirbipolarcounterpartsToreducesystemcostandpowerdissipation,analoganddigitalcircuitsarenowoftenintegratedtogether,providingastrongeconomicincentivetouseCMOScompatibleanalogcircuitsAsaresult,animportantquestioninmanyapplicationsiswhethertousepureCMOSoraBiCMOStechnologyAlthoughsomewhatmoreexpensivetofabricate,BiCMOSallowsthedesignertousebothbipolarandMOSdevicestotheirbestadvantage,andalsoallowsinnovativecombinationsofthecharacteristicsofbothdevicesInaddition,BiCMOScanreducethedesigntimebyallowingdirectuseofmanyexistingcellsinrealizingagivenanalogcircuitfunctionOntheotherhand,themainadvantageofpureCMOSisthatitoffersthelowestoverallcostTwentyyearsago,CMOStechnologieswereonlyfastenoughtosupportapplicationsataudiofrequenciesHowever,thecontinuingreductionoftheminimumfeaturesizeinintegratedcircuit(IC)technologieshasgreatlyincreasedthemaximumoperatingfrequencies,andCMOStechnologieshavebecomefastenoughformanynewapplicationsasaresultForexample,therequiredbandwidthinvideoapplicationsisaboutMHz,requiringbipolartechnologiesasrecentlyasyearsagoNow,however,CMOScaneasilyaccommodatetherequiredbandwidthforvideoandisevenbeingusedforradiofrequencyapplicationsInthisfourthedition,wehavecombinedtheconsiderationofMOSandbipolarcircuitsintoaunifiedtreatmentthatalsoincludesMOSbipolarconnectionsmadepossiblebyBiCMOStechnologyWehavewrittenthiseditionsothatinstructorscaneasilyselecttopicsrelatedtoonlyCMOScircuits,onlybipolarcircuits,oracombinationofbothWebelievethatithasbecomeincreasinglyimportantfortheanalogcircuitdesignertohaveathoroughappreciationofthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenMOSandbipolardevices,andtobeabletodesignwitheitheronewherethisisappropriateSincetheSPICEcomputeranalysisprogramisnowreadilyavailabletovirtuallyallelectricalengineeringstudentsandprofessionals,wehaveincludedextensiveuseof,SPICEinthisedition,particularlyasanintegralpartofmanyproblemsWehaveusedcomputeranalysisasitismostcommonlyemployedintheengineeringdesignprocessbothasamoreaccuratecheckonhandcalculations,andalsoasatooltoexaminecomplexcircuitbehaviorbeyondthescopeofhandanalysisIntheproblemsets,wehavealsoincludedanumberofopenendeddesignproblemstoexposethereadertorealworldsituationswhereawholerangeofcircuitsolutionsmaybefoundtosatisfyagivenperformancespecificationThisbookisintendedtobeusefulbothasatextforstudentsandasareferencebookforpracticingengineersForclassuse,eachchapterincludesmanyworkedproblemstheproblemsetsattheendofeachchapterillustratethepracticalapplicationsofthematerialinthetextAlltheauthorshavehadextensiveindustrialexperienceinICdesignaswellviiwwwplcworldcnviiiPrefaceasintheteachingofcoursesonthissubject,andthisexperienceisreflectedinthechoiceoftextmaterialandintheproblemsetsAlthoughthisbookisconcernedlargelywiththeanalysisanddesignofICs,aconsiderableamountofmaterialisalsoincludedonapplicationsInpractice,thesetwosubjectsarecloselylinked,andaknowledgeofbothisessentialfordesignersandusersofICsThelattercomposethelargergroupbyfar,andwebelievethataworkingknowledgeofICdesignisagreatadvantagetoanICuserThisisparticularlyapparentwhentheusermdstchoosefromamonganumberofcompetingdesignstosatisfyaparticularneedAnunderstandingoftheICstructureisthenusefulinevaluatingtherelativedesirabilityofthedifferentdesignsunderextremesofenvironmentorinthepresenceofvariationsinsupplyvoltageInaddition,theICuserisinamuchbetterpositiontointerpretamanufacturer'sdataifheorshehasaworkingknowledgeoftheinternaloperationoftheintegratedcircuitThecontentsofthisbookstemlargelyfromcoursesonanalogintegratedcircuitsgivenattheUniversityofCaliforniaattheBerkeleyandDaviscampusesThecoursesareundergraduateelectivesandfirstyeargraduatecoursesThebookisstructuredsothatitcanbeusedasthebasictextforasequenceofsuchcoursesThemoreadvancedmaterialisfoundattheendofeachchapterorinanappendixsothatafirstcourseinanalogintegratedcircuitscanomitthismaterialwithoutlossofcontinuityAnoutlineofeachchapterisgivenbelowtogetherwithsuggestionsformaterialtobecoveredinsuchafirstcourseItisassumedthatthecourseconsistsofthreehoursoflectureperweekoveraweeksemesterandthatthestudentshaveaworkingknowledgeofLaplacetransformsandfrequencydomaincircuitanalysisItisalsoassumedthatthestudentshavehadanintroductorycourseinelectronicssothattheyarefamiliarwiththeprinciplesoftransistoroperationandwiththefunctioningofsimpleanalogcircuitsUnlessotherwisestated,eachchapterrequiresthreetofourlecturehourstocoverChaptercontainsasummaryofbipolartransistorandMOStransistordevicephysicsWesuggestspendingoneweekonselectedtopicsfromthischapter,thechoiceoftopicsdependingonthebackgroundofthestudentsThematerialofChaptersandisquiteimportantinICdesignbecausethereissignificantinteractionbetweencircuitanddevicedesign,aswillbeseeninlaterchaptersAthoroughunderstandingoftheinfluenceofdevicefabricationondevicecharacteristicsisessentialChapterisconcernedwiththetechnologyofICfabricationandislargelydescriptiveOnelectureonthismaterialshouldsufficeifthestudentsareassignedtoreadthechapterChapterdealswiththecharacteristicsofelementarytransistorconnectionsThematerialononetransistoramplifiersshouldbeareviewforstudentsattheseniorandgraduatelevelsandcanbeassignedasreadingThesectionontwotransistoramplifierscanbecoveredinaboutthreehours,withgreatestemphasisondifferentialpairsThematerialondevicemismatcheffectsindifferentialamplifierscanbecoveredtotheextentthattimeallowsInChapter,theimportanttopicsofcurrentmirrorsandactiveloadsareconsideredTheseconfigurationsarebasicbuildingblocksinmodernanalogICdesign,andthismaterialshouldbecoveredinfull,withtheexceptionofthematerialonbandgapreferencesandthematerialintheappendicesChapterisconcernedwithoutputstagesandmethodsofdeliveringoutputpowertoaloadIntegratedcircuitrealizationsofClassA,ClassB,andClassABoutputstagesaredescribed,aswellasmethodsofoutputstageprotectionAselectionoftopicsfromthischaptershouldbecoveredChapterdealswiththedesignofoperationalamplifiers(opamps)IllustrativeexamplesofdcandacanalysisinbothMOSandbipolaropampsareperformedindetail,andthelimitationsofthebasicopampsaredescribedThedesignofopampswithimprovedwwwplcworldcnPrefaceixcharacteristicsinbothMOSandbipolartechnologiesisconsideredThiskeychapteronamplifierdesignrequiresatleastsixhoursInChapter,thefrequencyresponseofamplifiersisconsideredThezerovaluetimeconstanttechniqueisintroducedforthecalculationsofthedBfrequencyofcomplexcircuitsThematerialofthischaptershouldbeconsideredinfullChapterdescribestheanalysisoffeedbackcircuitsTwodifferenttypesofanalysisarepresented:twoportandreturnratioanalysesEitherapproachshouldbecoveredinfullwiththesectiononvoltageregulatorsassignedasreadingChapterdealswiththefrequencyresponseandstabilityoffeedbackcircuitsandshouldbecovereduptothesectiononrootlocusTimemaynotpennitadetaileddiscussionofrootlocus,butsomeintroductiontothistopiccanbegivenInaweeksemester,coverageoftheabovematerialleavesabouttwoweeksforChapters,,andAselectionoftopicsfromthesechapterscanbechosenasfollowsChapterdealswithnonlinearanalogcircuits,andportionsofthischapteruptoSectioncouldbecoveredinafirstcourseChapterisacomprehensivetreatmentofnoiseinintegratedcircuits,andmaterialuptoandincludingSectionissuitableChapterdescribesfullydifferentialoperationalamplifiersandcommonmodefeedbackandmaybebestsuitedforasecondcourseWearegratefultothefollowingcolleaguesfortheirsuggestionsforandorevaluationofthisedition:RJacobBaker,BemhardEBoser,APaulBrokaw,JohnNChurchill,DavidWCline,OzanEErdogan,JohnWFattaruso,WeinanGao,EdwinWGreeneich,AlexGrosBalthazard,TiindeGyurics,WardJHelms,TimothyHHu,ShafiqMJamal,JohnPKeane,HaidehKhorramabadi,PakKimLau,ThomasWMatthews,KrishnaswamyNagaraj,KhalilNajafi,BorivojeNikoliC,RobertAPease,LawrenceTPileggi,EdgarShnchezSinencio,BangSupSong,RichardRSpencer,EricJSwanson,AndrewYJSzeto,YannisPTsividis,SrikanthVaidianathan,TRViswanathan,ChomgKuangWang,andDongWangWearealsogratefultoKennethCDyerforallowingustouseonthecoverofthisbookadiephotographofanintegratedcircuithedesignedandtoZoeMarloweforherassistancewithwordprocessingFinally,wewouldliketothankthepeopleatWileyandPublicationServicesfortheireffortsinproducingthisfourtheditionThematerialinthisbookhasbeengreatlyinfluencedbyourassociationwithDonaldPederson,andweacknowledgehiscontributionsBerkeleyandDavis,CA,PaulRGrayPaulJHurstStephenHLewisRobertGMeyerwwwplcworldcnContentsCHAPTERlModelsforIntegratedCircuitActiveDevicesIntroductionDepletionRegionofapnJunctionDepletionRegionCapacitanceJunctionBreakdownLargeSignalBehaviorofBipolarTransistorsLargeSignalModelsintheForwardActiveRegionEffectsofCollectorVoltageonLargeSignalCharacteristicsintheForwardActiveRegionSaturationandInverseActiveRegionsTransistorBreakdownVoltagesDependenceofTransistorCurrentGainPFonOperatingConditionsSmallSignalModelsofBipolarTransistorsTransconductanceBaseChargingCapacitanceInputResistanceOutputResistanceBasicSmallSignalModeloftheBipolarTransistorCollectorBaseResistanceParasiticElementsintheSmallSignalModelASpecificationofTransistorFrequencyResponseLargeSignalBehaviorofMetalOxideSemiconductorFieldEffectTransistorsTransferCharacteristicsofMOSSComparisonofOperatingRegionsofBipolarandMOSTransistorsSDecompositionofGateSourceVoltageThresholdTemperatureDependenceMOSDeviceVoltageLimitationsSmallSignalModelsoftheMOSTransistorsTransconductanceIntrinsicGateSourceandGateDrainCapacitanceInputResistanceOutputResistanceBasicSmallSignalModeloftheMOSTransistorBodyTransconductanceParasiticElementsintheSmallSignalModelMOSTransistorFrequencyResponseShortChannelEffectsinMOSTransistorsVelocitySaturationfromtheHorizontalFieldTransconductanceandTransitionFrequencyMobilityDegradationfromtheVerticalFieldWeakInversioninMOSTransistorsSDrainCurrentinWeakInversionTransconductanceandTransitionFrequencyinWeakInversionSubstrateCurrentFlowinMOSTransistorsASummaryofActiveDeviceDeviceswwwplcworldcnContentsxiCHAPTERBipolar,MOS,andBiCMOSIntegratedCircuitTechnologyIntroductionBasicProcessesinIntegratedCircuitFabricationElectricalResistivityofSiliconSolidstateDiffusionElectricalPropertiesofDiffusedLayersPhotolithographyEpitaxialGrowthIonImplantationLocalOxidationPolysiliconDepositionHighVoltageBipolarIntegratedCircuitFabricationAdvancedBipolarIntegratedCircuitFabricationActiveDevicesinBipolarAnalogIntegratedCircuitsIntegratedCircuitnpnTransistorIntegratedCircuitpnpTransistorsPassiveComponentsinBipolarIntegratedCircuitsDiffusedResistorsEpitaxialandEpitaxialPinchResistorsIntegratedCircuitCapacitorsZenerDiodesJunctionDiodesModificationstotheBasicBipolarProcessMOSDielectricIsolationCompatibleProcessingforHighPerformanceActiveDevicesHighPerformancePassiveComponentsIntegratedCircuitFabricationActiveDevicesinMOSIntegratedCircuitsnChannelTransistorspChannelTransistorsDepletionDevicesBipolarTransistorsPassiveComponentsinMOSTechnologyResistorsCapacitorsinMOSTechnologyLatchupinCMOSTechnologyBiCMOSTechnologyHeterojunctionBipolarTransistorsInterconnectDelayEconomicsofIntegratedCircuitFabricationYieldConsiderationsinIntegratedCircuitFabricationCostConsiderationsinIntegratedCircuitFabricationPackagingConsiderationsforIntegratedCircuitsMaximumPowerDissipationReliabilityConsiderationsinIntegratedCircuitPackagingASPICEModelParameterFilesCHAPTERSingleTransistorandMultipleTransistorAmplifiersDeviceModelSelectionforApproximateAnalysisofAnalogCircuitsTwoPortModelingofAmplifiersBasicSingleTransistorAmplifierStagesCommonEmitterConfigurationCommonSourceConfigurationCommonBaseconfigurationCommonGateConfigurationwwwplcworldcnxiiContentsCommonBaseandCommonGateConfigurationswithFiniter,CommonBaseandCommonGateInputResistanceCommonBaseandCommonGateOutputResistanceCommonCollectorConfiguration(EmitterFollower)CommonDrainConfiguration(SourceFollower)CommonEmitterAmplifierwithEmitterDegenerationCommonSourceAmplifierwithSourceDegenerationMultipleTransistorAmplifierStagesTheCCCE,CCCC,andDarlingtonConfigurationsTheCascodeConfigurationTheBipolarCascodeTheMOSCascodeTheActiveCascodeTheSuperSourceFollowerDifferentialPairsThedcTransferCharacteristicofanEmitterCoupledPairThedcTransferCharacteristicwithEmitterDegenerationThedcTransferCharacteristicofaSourceCoupledPairIntroductiontotheSmallSignalAnalysisofDifferentialAmplifiersSmallSignalCharacteristicsofBalancedDifferentialAmplifiersDeviceMismatchEffectsinDifferentialAmplifiersInputOffsetVoltageandCurrentInputOffsetVoltageoftheEmitterCoupledPairOffsetVoltageoftheEmitterCoupledPair:ApproximateAnalysisOffsetVoltageDriftintheEmitterCoupledPairInputOffsetCurrentoftheEmitterCoupledPairInputOffsetVoltageoftheSourceCoupledPairOffsetVoltageoftheSourceCoupledPair:ApproximateAnalysisOffsetVoltageDriftintheSourceCoupledPairSmallSignalCharacteristicsofUnbalancedDifferentialAmplifiersAElementaryStatisticsandtheGaussianDistributionCHAPTERCurrentMirrors,ActiveLoads,andReferencesIntroductionCurrentMirrorsGeneralPropertiesSimpleCurrentMirrorBipolarMOSSimpleCurrentMirrorwithBetaHelperBipolarMOSSimpleCurrentMirrorwithDegenerationBipolarMOSCascodeCurrentMirrorBipolarMOSWilsonCurrentMirrorBipolar

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