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首页 大学英语四级翻译(刘)

大学英语四级翻译(刘).ppt

大学英语四级翻译(刘)

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2012-01-07 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《大学英语四级翻译(刘)ppt》,可适用于考试题库领域

大学英语四级翻译解题技巧大学英语四级翻译解题技巧刘伯茹一、大学英语四级翻译三大考点:一、大学英语四级翻译三大考点:、固定搭配:名词与动词搭配、形容词与名词搭配、动词与副词的修饰关系、名词与介词搭配、固定词组以及固定表达、核心语法:虚拟语气、倒装结构、从句(主从、宾从、定从、状从、表从)、非谓语动词、比较结构等。、核心动词以及动词短语的考查。二、大学英语四级翻译题型特点和解题关键二、大学英语四级翻译题型特点和解题关键题型特点:半句英语、半句汉语(这就要求翻译出来的英语与已给出的英语在结构和搭配上一定要匹配)。TheconcertusuallytakesplaceatthePeople’sSquare,(观众坐在地上)。(Theaudiencesitontheground(wrong))(正确答案应为withtheaudiencesittingontheground)Ifthiscan’tbesettledreasonably,itmaybenecessaryto(诉诸武力)。(resorttoforce)二、大学英语四级翻译题型特点和解题关键二、大学英语四级翻译题型特点和解题关键解题关键:、分析已给英文的句法结构明确所翻译部分在句中的语法作用以及主要考点词组固定搭配(不定式短语、分词短语、动名词、句子等)、虚拟、倒装、倍数、时态、语态、看括号里的汉语句子以核心谓语动词为切入点找准主谓宾、分清定状补。确定关键词、词组或句型将汉语部分译成英语。、检查所翻译部分与已给英文在结构和搭配上是否匹配。ThesportsmeetoriginallyduetobeheldlastFriday(最终因天气不好而取消了)(wasfinallycalledoffcancelledbecauseofthebadweather)Theroomisinaterriblemess,it(肯定没打扫过)。(can’thavebeencleaned)Contrastmaymakesomethingappear(比单独看的时候更漂亮)(morebeautifulthanitiswhenseenalone)三、四级翻译评分原则及标准三、四级翻译评分原则及标准整体结构和语言均正确得分。结构正确但整体意思不确切、信息不全或用词不当得分。整体意思完全错误即使结构正确也不得分。大小写错误及标点符号忽略不计。虚拟语气的考点可以归纳如下:虚拟语气的考点可以归纳如下:(should)动词原形的情形if或butfor等引导的条件句wish,ifonly,itistime…的用法I(should)动词原形的情形I(should)动词原形的情形.在动词suggest,order,demand,propose,command,request,desire,insist,require,decide,promise,resolve,argue,maintain,determine,recommend,advise,advocate,persuade等表示“命令”、“建议”、“要求”动词后的宾语从句中。Sheinsistedthat座位要预定。(theseats(should)bebookedinadvance)Heproposedthat派人请医生。(thedoctor(should)besentfor)注:如果上述动词作其他意思解释或者说话者认为所讲的事是事实要用陈述语气。Whenaskedwhyhedeclinedourinvitation,hesuggestedthathewasnotongoodtermswiththedirector真题重现Theprofessorrequiredthat(我们交研究报告)。(wehandinourresearchreport(s))I(should)动词原形的情形I(should)动词原形的情形 .在advice,demand,order,necessity,resolution,decision,proposal,requirement,suggestion,idea,recommendation,request,plan等名词后的主语从句或表语从句中上面动词对应的名词Heissuedtheorderthat部队马上撤退。(thetroops(should)withdrawatonce)I(should)动词原形的情形I(should)动词原形的情形.在形容词important,necessary,imperative,natural,urgent,essential,appropriate,desirable,vital,advisable,preferable,incredible,anxious,compulsory,crucial,eager,essential,impossible,improper,obligatory以及短语nowonder,apity等可以构成“Itis形容词(名词)that”句型中。  Itisnecessarythat(立即采取行动。)(someimmediateeffort(should)bemade)真题重现Itisabsolutelyunfairthatthesechildren(被剥夺了受教育的权利)Key:(should)bedeprivedoftherighttoreceiveeducationIIIf引导的虚拟条件句IIIf引导的虚拟条件句IIIf引导的虚拟条件句IIIf引导的虚拟条件句Hewouldn’tfeelsocold(他要是在室内。)(ifhewereindoors)IamsorryIamverybusyjustnowIfIhadtime,(我肯定陪你去看电影了。)(Iwouldcertainlygotothemovieswithyou)Theconference(是不会开得这么成功的)ifwehadn’tmadeadequatepreparations(wouldn’thavebeensosuccessful)(如果明天下雪),Ishould(would)stayathome(Ifitsnowedweretosnowshouldsnowtomorrow)【CET:】Thevictim(本来会有机会活下来)ifhehadbeentakentohospitalintime参考答案:wouldhavesurvived正式文体中有时可把虚拟条件句中的连词if省去而将werehad,should等助动词(不包括行为动词)提到主语前面。例如:WereItomeethimtomorrow(=IfIweretomeethimtomorrow),Ishouldaskhimaboutit要是我明天见到他我就会问他这件事的。HadIhadthemoneylastyear(=IfIhadhadthemoneylastyear),Iwouldhaveboughtthehouse如果我去年有了这笔钱我就买那所房子了。Shouldtherebeanytroublewiththeboiler,theautomaticcontrollingunitwouldcutoffthefueloilsupply假如锅炉出问题的话自控装置会自动切断燃油的供给。butfor=ifitwerenotfor…ifithadnotbeenfor…butfor=ifitwerenotfor…ifithadnotbeenfor…Butforyourhelpthey(他们不会及时完成这项任务)(wouldnothavefulfilledthetaskintime) Butformobilephone,(我们的通讯就不可能如此迅速和方便)。(ourcommunicationwouldnothavebeensoefficientandconvenient)Ifithadnotbeenforyourhelp,(我就会陷入麻烦了)(Iwouldhavebeenintrouble)IusedmycalculatorotherwiseI’dhavetakenmuchlongerWithoutyoutimelyhelp,mydaughterwouldhavedrownedItis(high,about)timethat…句型要求用虚拟语气Itis(high,about)timethat…句型要求用虚拟语气谓语动词用过去式(有时也有should动词原形但should不能省)指现在或将来的情况表示“早该干某事而已经有些晚了”。It’stimethat(采取措施)aboutthetrafficproblemdowntown(somethingwasdonesomemeasuresweretaken)Itistimethat(孩子们该睡觉了)。(thechildrenwenttobed)动词wish后的宾语从句用虚拟语气动词wish后的宾语从句用虚拟语气  Iwish(她在这里就好了)。  Iwish(你明天跟我们一块去。)Iwish(那时她要是听我的话就好了。)(shewerehere)(youwouldgowithustomorrow)(shehadtakenmyadvice)ifonly后用虚拟语气(要是…就太好了)ifonly后用虚拟语气(要是…就太好了)Ifonlyshe(她那时要是知道到哪里去找你就好了)。我要是能讲几种外语就好了! IfonlyIcouldspeakseveralforeignlanguages!(hadknownwheretofindyou)wouldrather,wouldsooner,wouldjustassoon后句子用虚拟语气wouldrather,wouldsooner,wouldjustassoon后句子用虚拟语气通常用一般过去时表示现在或将来的愿望用过去完成时表过去的愿望。表“宁愿”“但愿”如:I’drather(你别这样做。)(youdidn‘tdoit)Iwouldrather(你当时不知道那个坏消息。)(youhadn’tknownthebadnewsthen)I’djustassoon(要是你昨天在这里就好了。)(youhadbeenhereyesterday)  “incase(that),lest(that),forfearthat”可以用来引导虚拟语气,意为“以防以免唯恐”“incase(that),lest(that),forfearthat”可以用来引导虚拟语气,意为“以防以免唯恐”虚拟语气用“should动词原形”构成Hetookhiscoatwithhim(以防下雨。)(incaseitshouldrain)Iwillnotmakeanoise(唯恐打扰你。)(forfearthatIshoulddisturbyou)Caremustbetakeninusingthismethod(以免发生溢流现象。)(lestoverflowshouldoccur)  由asifthough引导的状语从句表虚拟由asifthough引导的状语从句表虚拟从句谓语用动词的过去式(be用were)或had过去分词,如:IrecollectitasifitwereyesterdayShetalkedasifsheknewallaboutourplans)Itisessentialthat(每个人都为紧急情况做好准备))(如果他按照我告诉他的办法订票),wewouldhavehadquiteacomfortablejourney)Iwastohavemadeaspeech(要不是有人把我的话打断了))Itdidn’trainlastnight(要是下了地就会湿的))(如果我一直住在纽约),IwouldknowtheUSwellnow)everyone(should)bepreparedforemergency)IfhehadbookedticketsinthewayItoldhim)ifIhadnotbeeninterrupted)Ifithadrained,thegroundwouldbewet)IfIhadbeenlivinginNewYork)Ifthedoctorhadnotcomeintime,(他现在就不在人间了))Butforhishelp,(我们就不会以这么低的价格租到房子了))Iusedmycalculator(否则我会花更长的时间才能算出这道题))WereIinyourplace,(我会毫不犹豫地抓住机会))Haditnotbeenfortheiropposition,(这项法案早就通过了))Shouldtherebeanotherworldwar,(人类的继续存在就会有危险))Hewalkedlightly(以免惊醒婴儿))hewouldbedeadnow)wecouldnothaverentahouseatsuchalowprice)otherwise,itwouldhavetakenmemoretimetoworkoutthisquestion)Iwouldseizetheopportunitywithouthesitation)thisactwouldhavebeenpassedmuchearlier)thecontinuedexistenceofthehumanracewouldbeinjeopardy)lestheshouldawakenthebaby倒装倒装英语最基本的语序是“主语谓语动词”结构。有时为了强调某一部分而把谓语动词放在主语前面形成倒装。将谓语动词全部移至主语之前的为全部倒装只将助动词或情态动词移至主语之前的为部分倒装。全部倒装()介词短语作地点状语位于句首。例如:AtthebusstationwasateacherandtwoyoungstudentsontheirwaytocollegeOnahillinfrontofthemstoodagreatcastle()一些副词如in,out,here,there,now,then,up,down,away,off等位于句首,后面的动词是be,come,exist,fall,follow,go,lie,remain,seem,stand而主语又是名词时。例如:Thedooropenedand(进来一个穿蓝衬衫的老师)(incameateacherinhisblueshirt)Here(汽车来了)(Herecomesthebus)Thencamethehourwehadbeenlookingforwardto注意:如果主语是人称代词就不用倒装。例如:AwaytheywentHerehecomes部分倒装()一些表示否定意义的副词位于句首时主句的主语和谓语部分倒装。这类副词主要有:atnotime,bynomeans,few,hardly,scarcely,innoway,invain,little,never,not,nolonger,notuntil,nowhere,onnoaccount,rarely,seldom,undernocircumstances等。例如:InnowaydoesthetemperatureequaltheamountofheatNotuntilallthedemandshadbeenturneddowndidtheworkersdecidetogoonstrikeNeverdidhespeakabouthismeritsNotuntilyesterday(小约翰才改变了主意。)(didlittleJohnchangehismind)(直到他完成使命)didherealizethathewasseriouslyill()key:NotuntilhehadaccomplishedhismissionUndernocircumstances(他们放弃学习)。(willtheygiveupstudy)()当句首状语由“only副词”“only介词词组”“only状语从句”构成时句子须倒装。例如:  Onlyyesterday(他才发现他的手表丢了)(didhefindoutthathiswatchwasmissing)  Onlybecausethereweresomecancelledbookings(他最终才搞到一些票)(didhegetsometicketsintheend)Onlyinthisway(这个问题才能得以解决)。(cantheproblembesolved)()notonly置于句首时引起句子倒装当句中使用并列连接词notonly…butalso时如果将notonly置于句首句子要部分倒装。例如:Notonly(他写了歌词),buthealsocomposedthemusic(didhewritethewordstothesong)Notonly(他向我收费过高),buthedidn’tdoagoodrepairjobeither(样卷)(Notonlydidhechargemetoomuch)()在so…that句型中若强调引出的表语或状语经常将其放在句首。例如:Sofatwashethathecouldn’tgetthroughthedoorSo(他说话声音这么大)thatstudentsatthebackheardhimclearly(loudlydidhespeak)()neither,nor位于句首可代表前文所述情况后接代表动词的助动词谓语其他部分承前省略。例如: Jackdidn’tlikethemovie,(我也不喜欢)(neitherdidI)。Ifwedon’traiseourinterestrate,(其他的银行也不)(norwilltheotherbanks)HeenjoysreadingEnglish,(我也是)。(sodoI)()复合句中表示“刚一…就”的结构位于句首如“Hardly…when”,“Scarcely…when”“Nosooner…than”等。这种结构一般前半句用过去完成时后半句用过去时。例如:Hardly(他们刚走进教室)whenthebellrang(hadtheyenteredtheclassroom)ScarcelyhadhearrivedwhenshestartedcomplainingNosooner(我们刚一到达山顶)weallsatdowntorest(hadwereachedthetopofthehillthan)()在as,though引导的让步状语从句中一般将形容词、副词或名词等置于句首。例如:)Smallastheatomis,wecansmashit)Oldasthoughheis,heworkslikeayoungman尽管他很老了但他工作起来却像个年轻人。Hardasthoughhewasworking,hedidn’tpasstheexam虽然他一直在努力学习但他还是没有通过那次考试。()虚拟语气中条件句省略if时需把hadwereshould移至主语之前形成倒装结构。强调强调强调就是为了语义的需要通过提前所要强调的结构或其他语法手段而达到强调的目的。常见的强调结构通常有以下几种。用dodiddoes置于谓语前强调谓语结构。IdolovemycareerasanEnglishteacherSusandidhurthermother’sfeelings用“itiswas所强调部分that(who)句子其他部分”强调谓语之外的任何想强调的句子成分(主语宾语表语状语等)。Heparkedthecarinthegardenyesterday对not…until句型的强调结构是“Itiswasnotuntil时间状语that原句其他部分”。Ididn’tunderstandthetruestateofaffairsuntilIhadreadyourletter变为强调句:ItwasnotuntilIhadreadyourletterthatIunderstoodthetruestateofaffairs)Notuntil句型的两种常考形式Notuntil句型的两种常考形式Thestudentsdidn’tstoptalkinguntiltheteachercamein直到老师进来学生们才停止讲话。Thesportsmeetwillnotbehelduntilnextweek直到下周才开运动会。一、Notuntil放句首用倒装。NotuntiltheteachercameindidthestudentsstoptalkingNotuntilnextweekwillthesportsmeetbeheld二、notuntil的强调结构为:Itiswasnotuntil从句表时间的词that。上面两句改为强调句为:ItwasnotuntiltheteachercameinthatthestudentsstoppedtalkingItisnotuntilnextweekthatthesportsmeetwillbeheld比较结构具体考点比较结构具体考点一:原级比较一般用as…asnotas…asthesame…as特殊结构AistoBwhatasXistoYA倍数或几分之几asadjadvasB这个工作不如你想象的那么难。Theworkisnotasdifficultasyouthink空气与我们的关系就像水和鱼的关系。Airistousaswateristofish这本书的厚度是那本书的两倍。Thisbookistwiceasthickasthatone难点结构:asadjnas分句和asmuchmany名词as分句Idon’twantasexpensiveacarasthis=Idon’twantacarasexpensiveasthisIcan’tdrinkassweetcoffeeasthis=Ican’tdrinkcoffeeassweetasthisShehaswritten(跟她哥哥一样多的文章)。(asmanyessaysasherbrother)比较结构具体考点比较结构具体考点二:比较级常用结构:A比较级+thanB特殊结构:themore…themore(越……越……)moreandmore(越来越)SincemychildhoodIhavefoundthat(没有什么比读书对我更有吸引力)()Key:nothingismoreattractivetomethanreadingnothingappealstomemorethanreadingThemoreyouexplain,(我愈糊涂)()Key:themoreconfusedIam比较结构具体考点比较结构具体考点三:以拉丁文ior结尾的含有比较意义的形容词后接to而不是than这些词是:superior,inferior,senior,junior,prior(在。。。之前),HeisthreeyearsseniortomeThistypeofcomputerissuperiortothattypeThisbrandisinferiorinqualitytothatonePriortohisdeath,somethingstrangehappened四、倍数表达法)Ais倍数asadjadvasB(A…是B的X倍))Ais倍数thesizelengthwidthofB)Ais倍数morethanB(A比B多几倍)比较结构具体考点比较结构具体考点这只钢笔的价格是那只钢笔的倍。Thispenistwiceasexpensiveasthatpen这个盒子比那个盒子重倍。ThisboxisfourtimesasheavyasthatboxThisboxisthreetimesheavierthanthatbox地球是月球大小的倍。Theearthistimesthesizeofthemoon)还可以用by倍数表示增加或减少多少倍 Theproductionofgrainhasbeenincreasedbyfourtimesthisyear 今年粮食产量增加了倍。decreaseby减少了%decreaseto减少到%)还可以用doubletriple等词Theirgrainshavedoubledthisyear他们的粮食今年增加了倍(是…的二倍)。Theirgrainshavetripledthisyear他们的粮食今年增加了倍(是…的三倍)。比较结构具体考点比较结构具体考点Onaverage,itissaid,visitorsspendonly(一半的钱)inadayinLeedsasinLondonKey:halfasmuchmoney五、用prefer表比较:)preferAtoB在本句型中A与B是平行结构可以是名词或动名词。例如:在狗与猫之间我更喜欢狗。Ipreferdogstocats大多数人愿意坐火车而不愿坐汽车。Mostpeopleprefertrainstobuses我宁愿写一篇学期论文也不愿参加考试。Ipreferwritingatermpapertotakinganexamination比较结构具体考点比较结构具体考点)prefertodosthratherthandosth他宁死也不做叛徒。Heprefertodieratherthanbecometraitor我觉得与其去看电影倒不如待在家里。Iprefertostayathomeratherthangotoseeafilm(goingtoseeafilm)ratherthan也可以置于句首:Ratherthanbuyacarofhisownhepreferstorentone六、用表示“与…相比”的短语(与我成长的地方相比),thistownismoreprosperousandexcitingKey:Comparedwith(theplace)whereIwasbroughtup比较结构具体考点比较结构具体考点Yourlossesintradethisyeararenothing(与我的相比)(样卷)Key:comparedwithmineincomparisonwithminenomorethan强调少意为“只有不过仅仅”notmorethan客观叙述意为“不超过”Hehasnomorethanfivedollarsonhim他身上仅有美元。(强调少)Hehasnotmorethanfivedollarsonhim他身上带的钱不超过美元。nomore…than含有消极否定的意思可译为“A与B都不…不…也不”notmore…than含有积极、肯定的意思表示程度上的差异。Heisnomorediligentthanyou他不勤奋你也不勤奋。(两人都不勤奋)Heisnotmorediligentthanyou他没有像你那样勤奋。(两人都勤奋但你更勤奋)nolessthan=asmuchas意为:“竟有…之多多达”强调多notlessthan意为“不少于至少”可观地描述noless…than前后均为肯定含有惊奇的感情色彩。可译为:“是…是正是和…一样,多达应有…之多”HissonhasreadnolessthanEnglishbooks他的儿子竟然读了本英文书。(强调多)HissonhasreadnotlessthanEnglishbooks他的儿子读了不少于本英文书。(不强调多或少)从句从句)时间状语:Somepsychologistsclaimthatpeople(出门在外时可能会感到孤独)()(mayfeellonelywhenthey’reawayfromhome)Theantivirusagentwasnotknown(直到一名医生偶然发现了它)()Key:unitiladoctordiscovereditbychance)让步状语从句Leavingone’sjob,(不管是什么工作),isadifficultchange,evenforthosewholookforwardtoretiring()Key:nomatterwhatjobitiswhateverjobitisIamgoingtopursuethiscourse,(无论我要作出什么样的牺牲)()Key:NomatterwhatsacrificeIwillhavetomakewhateversacrificeIwillmake从句从句)条件状语:Pleasecomehereattentomorrowmorning(如果你方便的话)()(ifit’sconvenientforyouatyourconvenience))定语从句Medicalresearchersarepainfullyawarethattherearemanyproblems(他们至今还没有答案)()Key:thatwhichtheyhavenosolutionstosofarThepreventionandtreatmentofAIDSis(我们可以合作的领域)()Key:thefieldinwhichwecancooperate从句从句)主语从句(很多人所没有意识到的)isthatSimonisaloverofsports,andfootballinparticular()Key:whatmanypeoplehaven’trealized(大多数父母所关心的)isprovidingthebesteducationpossiblefortheirchildrenKey:Whatmostparentsareconcernedabout见题从句从句)表语从句Inmysixties,onechangeInoticeisthat(我比以前更容易累了)Key:Iammoreinclindedliablepronetotirednessthanbefore四级新题型经典翻译练习()四级新题型经典翻译练习()Aman’sworthliesnotsomuchinwhathehas (而在于他是什么人)(不管他喝了多少酒)ithadnonoticeableeffectonhim(和同龄的其他孩子相比),RobertisverytallTheUN (已要求双方遵守)theceasefire(真是不凑巧)theonetimeIwantedtoseeher,shewasn’tin  asinwhatheis  Howevermuchhedrank  Comparedwithotherchildrenofthesameage  hascalledonbothsidestoobserve  Aschancewouldhaveit四级新题型经典翻译练习()四级新题型经典翻译练习() (要不是几次打断)themeetingwouldhavefinishedhalfanhourago ItissimpleThemorepreparationyoudonow,(考试之前你就越不会紧张) Theelevatorsinthisbuilding(总出故障) Thisarticletellsyou(怎样在旅行期间防止生病)(平均来看),mensmokemorecigarettesthanwomen  Butforseveralinterruptions  Thelessnervousyouwillbebeforetheexam  arealwaysbreadingdown  howtoavoidgettingillwhiletraveling  Onaverage四级新题型经典翻译练习()四级新题型经典翻译练习() (想到还得重新考试)depressedhim  Thebookis(我够不着)wouldyoupleasepassittome  Itwasproposedthat (旅行推迟) (说到现代艺术)fewpeopleknowmorethanTomdoes  Studentsdiscussideas,(而不是单纯抄袭课本)  Thethoughtoftakingtheexamagain  beyondoutofabovemyreach  thetripbeputoff  Whenitcomestomodernart  asopposedtojustcopyingfrombooks四级新题型经典翻译练习()四级新题型经典翻译练习()  Theresultofthecompetitionwill(大部分依靠)theopinionsofthejudges  Nowadays,moreandmorepeople(非常重视)economicforecasts  Hebuiltupasuccessfulbusinessbutitwasalldone(以健康为代价)  (手头准备一本英英字典),andwhenyoucannotinterpretawordwithaccuracy,youmayrefertoitanytime  Peoplewholiveintheareas(地震多发区)shouldbuildhousesthatareresistanttogroundmovement  dependlargelyon  attachgreatimportanceto  atthecostexpenseofhealth  keepanEnglishEnglishdictionaryhandy  whereearthquakesareacommonoccurrence四级新题型经典翻译练习()四级新题型经典翻译练习() Notonly(她抱怨食物)shealsorefusedtopayforit Educatorswarnparentsthat (没有好处的)forcingchildrentolearn Thedevelopmentofscientificresearchinourcountry(特点是理论联系实际) Newfactoriesandhydroelectricstationsofsmallandmediumsizes(正在全国各处兴建) Iwasn’tsomuchbotheredbyhisloudplayingofthetrumpet (不如说是对他缺乏音乐才华而烦恼)didshecomplainaboutthefooditisnogoodischaracterizedbythecombinationoftheorywithpractice arebeingbuilteverywhereinthecountryasbyhislackofmusicart四级新题型经典翻译练习()四级新题型经典翻译练习() TheimportanceofEnglishlearning(无论怎么强调也是应该的) NotthatIdon’twanttohelpyou,(而是因为这超过了我的能力所及) Railwayistotransportation(就如血液对于人的身体) Beinggoodfriends,weshouldtelleachother(我们的烦心事)andtrytofindoutsolutions Hecheckedouthiscompositionagainandagain(以确信没有遗漏要点)  cannotbeoverstressed  butthatitisbeyondmypower  whatbloodistoaman’sbody  whatisdisturbingus  tomakesurethatnoimportantpointshadbeenomitted四级新题型经典翻译练习()四级新题型经典翻译练习() Weshouldmakegooduseofourtimeinclassand (集中精力听课) (务必至少留出一小时)adayforsportsItwillmakeyouhealthyandenergetic (据报道)ourindustrialandagriculturalproductionisgoingonincreasing  Onemeaningofpunctualityisthatwemustnot(推迟今天能做的事)tilltomorrow  I (情不自禁想起)hisparentsatthesightofthepicture  concentrateonwhattheteachersays  Be

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