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首页 Chinese Glossary of Election Terms(美国选举词汇英汉对照手册)

Chinese Glossary of Election Terms(美国选举词汇英汉对照手册).pdf

Chinese Glossary of Election Te…

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2012-01-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Chinese Glossary of Election Terms(美国选举词汇英汉对照手册)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

USElEctionASSiStAncEcommiSSion美國協助選舉委員會GlossaryofkeyelectionterminologyChinese選舉關鍵字彙中文USElEctionASSiStAncEcommiSSion美國協助選舉委員會GlossaryofkeyelectionterminologyChinese選舉關鍵字彙中文PublishedUSElectionAssistanceCommissionNewYorkAvenue,NWSuiteWashington,DCBackgroundProcessHowtousethisglossaryPronunciationGuideforKeyTermsCommentsAboutEACEnglishChineseChineseEnglishGlossaryofkeyelectionterminology選舉關鍵字彙Contents背景程序如何使用詞彙意見關於 EAc英文-中文中文-英文目錄In,theFederalElectionCommission(FEC)publishedaseriesofreportsunderTheNationalClearinghouseonElectionAdministration(NCEA)toassistelectionofficialsintheireffortstoprovideelectionservicestogroupsidentifiedbySectionoftheVotingRightsAct(VRA)aslanguageminoritiesThepurposeofthereportswastoprovideguidancetostateandlocalelectionofficialsfor()identifyingtheirlanguageminoritypopulations,()providingbilingualregistrationservices,and()providingbilingualballotingservicesThethreevolumeseriesconsistedof:AHandbookofIdeasforLocalElectionOfficials,AGlossaryofCommonSpanishElectionTerminology,andAStateoftheArtReportTheideasandrecommendationscontainedinthesereportswerenotdesignedaslegalguidelinesforcomplyingwiththeprovisionsoftheVRAnorwereelectionofficialsrequiredtoconsideroradoptthemIn,theHelpAmericaVoteActof(HAVA)establishedtheUSElectionAssistanceCommission(EAC)to“assistintheadministrationofFederalelectionsandtootherwiseprovideassistancewiththeadministrationofcertainFederalelectionlawsandprograms,toestablishminimumelectionadministrationstandardsforStatesandunitsoflocalgovernmentwithresponsibilityfortheadministrationofFederalelections,andforotherpurposes”(PL)SectionofHAVAdirectstheEACtoserveasanationalclearinghouseandresourceforthecompilationofinformationandreviewofprocedureswithrespecttotheadministrationofFederalelectionsbyadoptingvoluntaryvotingsystemsguidelinesprovidingforthetesting,certification,decertification,andrecertificationofvotingsystemhardwareandsoftwareandbyconductingresearchandactivitiesthatpromotetheeffectiveadministrationofelectionsFurthermore,Sections(b)()and()ofHAVAallowtheEACtoconductstudiesandotheractivitiesthataddress:)methodsofensuringtheaccessibilityofvoting,registration,pollingplaces,andvotingtoallvoters,includingindividualswithdisabilities(includingtheblindandvisuallyimpaired),NativeAmericanorAlaskaNativecitizens,andvoterswithlimitedproficiencyintheEnglishlanguage,and)thetechnicalfeasibilityofprovidingvotingmaterialsineightormorelanguagesforvoterswhospeakthoselanguagesandwhohavelimitedEnglishproficiencyHAVAalsotransferredtotheEACallfunctionswhichtheFEC’sOfficeofElectionAdministrationexercisedbeforethedateoftheenactmentHAVA,includingthemaintenanceoftheNationalMailInVoterRegistrationFormToinitiatetheprocessofmeetingtheserequirements,theEACconvenedtwomeetingstoprovideguidancetotheCommissiononresearchtoaddressbarriersfacedbylanguageminoritiestotheelectionprocessThefirstmeetingfocusedonSpanishspeakingvoters(August)andthesecondfocusedonvotersfromtheAsianandPacificIslanderAmericancommunities(April)BothofthesemeetingsincludeddiscussionsonthereadabilityandusabilityoftheNationalMailInVoterRegistrationFormandupdatingtheFEC’sAGlossaryofCommonSpanishElectionTerminologyThemeetingswerecomprisedoflocalelectionofficials,Congressionalstaffmembers,nationaladvocacygroups,andresearchandpublicpolicyorganizationsAsaresultofthesemeetings,theEACestablishedtheLanguageAccessibilityProgram(LAP)toconductresearchandotheractivitiestoassistelectionofficialsinmeetingtheneedsofvoterswithlimitedEnglishproficiencyThefirstactivityofLAPwasthedevelopmentandpublicationoftheGlossaryofKeyElectionTerminologyEnglishSpanishandSpanishEnglishSimilartotheFEC’sglossary,themainpurposeoftheEACglossaryistoassiststateandlocalelectionofficialsinprovidingtranslatedelectionmaterialsthatareculturallyandlinguisticallyappropriateDuetotheneedforasimilarglossaryforeachofthefiveAsianlanguagescoveredbytheVotingRightsActandthelargesuccessoftheSpanishglossary,theEAChasGlossaryofkeyelectionterminologyBackgroundUSElectionAssistanceCommissionTheEACglossaryincludesatotalof,termsandphrasesusedintheadministrationofelectionsintheUnitedStatesTheglossarycontainstheoriginalwordsfromtheFEC’sglossaryInaddition,newwordsandphraseswerecompiledfromareviewoftheinformationalmaterialsmadeavailableoneachstate’selectionwebsiteThisincluded,butwasnotlimitedto:voterguidespamphletsregistrationformsvotingsystemsandtheircomponentsElectionDayformsandmaterialssampleballotsandstatelocalelectionglossariesInaddition,thetermsfoundintheVoluntaryVotingSystemGuidelines’(VVSG)glossarywerealsoincorporated,alongwiththeirdefinitions,astheyappearintheVVSGAstermsandphraseswereconsideredforinclusionintheglossary,theywerereviewedfortheirdegreeofusage,specificitytoelections,andsimilaritytootherphrasesInSeptember,theEACcontractedwithCompassLanguagestoprovideforthetranslationoftheglossaryintothefiveAsianlanguagesToensurethetranslationswereculturallyandlinguisticallyappropriate,termsweretranslatedbyCompass’multidialectteamofprofessionaltranslatorsInaddition,foreachlanguagethedrafttranslationswerereviewedbyagroupofstakeholderswithexpertiseinthetargetlanguageandsubjectmattertoexpertiseinthetargetlanguagesandsubjectmatterThestakeholdergroupsincludedrepresentativesfromtheorganizationsthatparticipatedintheEAC’sAsianlanguagesmeetingAttimes,morethanonetranslationwasconsideredtobeappropriateandwidelyacceptedInsuchcases,allofthepossibletranslationswereincludedintheglossaryandarelefttotheusertodecidewhichtranslationsuitshisorherneedsandtargetpopulationHowever,thetranslationmostcommonlyacceptedandappropriateinthecontextofelectionsislistedfirstStateandlocalelectionofficialsareencouragedtoworkcooperativelywitheachotherandwithmembersofthetargetpopulationtodevelopandreviewtranslatedelectionmaterialsthataresuitablefortheirStateandlocalcommunitiesTheEACwouldliketoacknowledgethefollowingorganizationsfortheirtimeandassistanceinensuringthequalityofthetranslationsprovidedintheEAC’sAsianlanguagesglossaries:AsianPacificAmericanLegalCenterFilipinoAmericanServiceGroup(FASGI)KingCounty,WashingtonKoreanAmericanResourceandCulturalCenterKoreanResourceCenter(LosAngeles)LittleTokyoServiceCenter(LosAngeles)LosAngelesCounty,CaliforniaNationalKoreanAmericanServiceEducationConsortium(NAKASEC)OrganizationofChineseAmericans(OCA)ProcessproceededwithtranslatingtheglossaryintoChinese,Japanese,Korean,Tagalog,andVietnameseTherefore,itiswithgreatpleasurethattheEACpresentsitsGlossaryofKeyElectionTerminologyEnglishChineseandChineseEnglishTheseareneithercompletedefinitionsandtranslationsnorexclusiverulesofusageHowever,theestablishmentofuniformelectionterminologymayprovebeneficialforensuringaccesstotheelectoralsystemregardlessofavoter’scountryoforiginorplaceofresidenceintheUnitedStatesTheEACalsoexpectstousetheseglossariesasthebasisfortranslatingtheNationalMailInVoterRegistrationFormandotherEACmaterialsintothesefiveAsianlanguagesRelationshipsbetweenthetermswereestablishedduringthetranslationprocessandcrossreferenceswereincludedintheglossaryforasubstantialnumberofthetermstoassisttheuserinidentifyingsimilartermsandphrasesFurthermore,therewereglossaryentrieswhichwereidentifiedasrequiringanexampleofthetermorphraseusedincontext,andtheseappearattheendofthetranslationGlossaryofkeyelectionterminologyHowtousethisglossaryPronunciationGuideforKeyTermsENGliSHCHiNESEProNUNCiATioNabsenteeballot缺席選票quexixuanpiaoaccessiblefacility便利設施bianlisheshiaccessiblevotingstation便利投票站bianlitoupiaozhanadvancedballot預先選票xuxianxuanpiaoalternativeballot替代選票tidaixuanpiaoassistancetovote協助投票xiezhoutoupiaoaudioballot有聲選票youshenxuanpiaoballot選票xuanpiaoballotbox票箱piaoxiangballotmeasure公民投票gongmintoupiaocandidate候選人houxuanrencastyourballot投下您的選票touxianindexuanpiaocastyourvote投下您的選票touxianindexuanpiaochallengedballot被質疑選票beizhiyixuanpiaoearlyvoting提早投票tizaotoupiaoelection選舉xuanjuelectionboard選舉委員會xuanjuweiyuanhuiElectionDay選舉日選舉日xuanjuriemergencyballot緊急選票jinjixuanpiaopoliticalparty政黨zhengdangpoliticalpartyaffiliation政黨取向zhengdangquxiangpollbook選民名冊xuanminmingcepollworker選舉工作人員xuanjugongzuorenyuanpollingplace投票地點toupiaodidianprovisionalballot臨時選票linshixuanpiaoregistrationstatus登記狀態dengjizhuangtaivoter選民xuanminvoteridentification選民身分證xuanminshengfenzhengvoterregistrationapplication選民登記申請xuanmindengjishenqingvotingmachine投票機toupiaojiTheEACisanindependent,bipartisanagencycreatedbytheHelpAmericaVoteActof(HAVA)ItwasestablishedtoassistintheadministrationofFederalelectionsandprovideassistancewiththeadministrationofcertainFederalelectionlawsandprogramsTheEACprovidesassistancebydispersing,administering,andauditingFederalfundsforStatestoimplementHAVArequirements,conductingstudiesandotheractivitiestopromotetheeffectiveadministrationofFederalelections,andservingasanationalclearinghouseandresourceofinformationregardingelectionadministrationInaddition,HAVArequirestheEACtoadopttheVoluntaryVotingSystemGuidelinesandtoestablishaprogramforthetesting,certification,decertification,andrecertificationofvotingsystemhardwareandsoftwareAbouttheEACUSElectionAssistanceCommissionTheEACwelcomesandencouragescommentsonthisglossaryanditscontentstheywillgreatlyassistinimprovingtheglossary’squalityandusefulnessRevisionstotermsandtranslationswillbeconductedonanasneededbasisandwillbemadeavailableontheEACwebsiteatwwweacgovFormoreinformationaboutthisprojectortorequestadditionalcopiesofthisoranyotherEACpublication,pleasecontacttheEACtollfreeatorviaemailatHAVAinfoeacgovComments在  年聯邦選舉委員會(fec)通過全國選舉實施情報交換所(nceA)發布一系列報告協助選舉官員盡力提供選舉服務給經投票權利法案(VrA)第  項條文鑑定為少數語言族群的團體。報告的目的係指導各州地方官員如何()鑑定他們的少數語言族群()提供雙語登記服務並()提供雙語投票服務。這三卷系列包含:《地方選舉官員觀念手冊》、  《西班牙裔選舉術語常見詞彙》與《最新水準報告》。這些報告的觀念和建議既非設為符合投票權利法案條款的法律指引選舉官員亦非必要考慮或採納它們。在年年協助美國投票法案  (HAVA)創立協助美國選舉委員會(eAc)以  「協助聯邦選舉管理並在其它方面協助管理實施某些聯邦選舉法案與項目替負責實施聯邦選舉的各州地方政府單位或為其它目的建立管理選舉的最低標準」(Pl)。HAVA  第  項條文指示 eAc 為全國情報交換所與資源藉採用自願投票系統指引提供投票系統硬體與軟體的測試、認證、撤證與再認證執行有效提升選舉實施的研究與行動來檢閱聯邦選舉實施的程序並編輯資訊。另外 HAVA 第 項條文(b)()與()允許 eAc 執行研究與其它行動以解決如下問題: )確認投票、登記、投票站方便性的方法和所有選民投票行為包括殘障人士(包括盲人與視力受損者)、印地安人或阿拉斯加原住民與非英語系國家選民與 )提供八種語言以上的投票資料給這些非英語系國家選民的技術可行性。HAVA 亦將所有 fec 選舉實施辦公室在 HAVA 制定前行使的職權轉讓給 eAc包括全國郵寄選民登記表格的維持。為了啟動符合這些規定的程序eAc 召開兩次會議為 fec 在少數語言族群在選舉過程中面臨的阻礙研究提供指導。首次會議集中在西班牙裔選民( 年  月)而第二次會議則鎖定亞洲裔與太平洋群島美國社區的選民( 年 月)。兩次會議皆包括討論全國郵寄選民登記表格的可讀性與可用性及更新 fec《西班牙裔選舉術語常見詞彙》。會議成員包括地方選舉官員、國會議員、國家提倡團體以及研究暨公共政策組織。根據這兩次會議的結果eAc 設立無障礙語言計畫(lAP)實施研究與其它行動以協助選舉官員符合非英語系國家選民的需求。lAP 的首項行動為發展和發行  年《重要選舉術語詞彙英語西班牙語及西班牙語英語》。類似 fec 在  年發行的術語詞彙eAc 術語詞彙的主要目的係協助各州地方官員在文化上和語言上提供合適的轉譯選舉資料。由於選舉權利法案涵蓋的五種亞洲語言也有類似的術語詞彙需求且因為西班牙語術語詞彙的大規模成功eAc 已著手翻譯中文、日文、韓文、塔加拉族語與越南語的術語詞彙。因此eAc 非常樂於提出它的  年重要選舉術語詞彙英語中文與中文英文。這些既非完整的定義和翻譯也非慣用語排除條款。然而建立一致選舉術語可證明利於確保進入選舉系統不論選民的國籍或在美國的戶籍地。 eAc 亦期待以這些詞彙為基礎翻譯這五種亞洲語言的全國郵寄選民登記表格與其它eAc 資料。選舉關鍵字彙背景翻譯過程中建立了術語的相關性且詞彙含大量術語的交叉參考可協助讀者識別相似的術語及慣用語。甚至當需要術語或慣用語的上下文例句時有相對應的詞彙詞條出現在翻譯末端。如何使用詞彙選舉關鍵字彙eAc詞彙總括美國選舉實施使用的 ,條術語與慣用語。詞彙含有 fec詞彙的原始單詞。另外並利用各州選舉網站的訊息資料回顧編輯新的單詞與慣用語。這包括但不限於:選民指南小冊子、登記表格、投票系統與它的組成要素、選舉日表格與資料、樣本選票與州地方選舉詞彙。此外亦合併 年自願投票系統指南  (VVSg)術語中的詞彙附帶其定義。當考慮將術 語及慣用語納入詞彙時首先檢視它們的使用程度、對選舉的特異性與其它慣用語的相似性。在 年 月eAc與 compasslanguages簽約提供五種亞洲語言的詞彙翻譯。為了確保翻譯合適於文化與語言術語是由 compass多種方言的專業譯者團隊進行翻譯。此外關於每種語言翻譯草稿經由擅長於目標語言的相關人士校閱並由專家鑑定目標語言與主要內容。相關人士團體包括參加 eAc亞洲語言會議的組織代表。時不時地多種術語翻譯被認為是可行的且被廣泛接受。在此種情況下全部可能的翻譯被納入詞彙並讓使用者決定何種翻譯適用他或她的需求與目標族群。然而最常接受且適用選舉背景的翻譯首先被列出。各州地方選舉官員被鼓勵彼此合作並與目標族群成員共同發展審閱適合各州地方社區的轉譯選舉資料。eAc特此感謝下列組織機構百忙中協助確認eAc亞洲語言詞彙的翻譯品質:美籍亞太裔法律中心(AsianPacificAmericanlegalcenter)菲裔美國人服務集團組織(fASgi)華盛頓州景郡韓裔美國人文化資源中心韓裔資源中心(洛杉磯)小東京服務中心(洛杉磯)加州洛杉磯郡全國美籍韓裔服務暨教育協會(nAkASec)美籍華人機構(ocA)程序選舉關鍵字彙eAc是由 年美國投票協助法案(HAVA)創設的兩黨獨立專業行政機構。創設宗旨係協助聯邦選舉的實施並提供協助實施某些聯邦選舉法案。 eAc分配、管理與審計聯邦基金以協助各州實行 HAVA規定、進行研究與其它行動提升聯邦選舉的有效實施並作為關於選舉實施的全國情報交換所與資訊來源。此外HAVA 規定 eAc須採用自願投票系統指南 並建立測試、認證、撤證與再認證投票系統硬體與軟體的計畫。關於 EACeAc歡迎並鼓勵關於詞彙內容的意見這將對改善詞彙品質與使用性有極大幫助。術語及翻譯的修正將會在視需要的基礎上實施且公佈在 eAc網站wwweacgov。關於此計畫的更多信息或請求此刊物或任何其它 eAc刊物的副本請使用免付費電話 或透過電子郵件 HAVAinfoeacgov聯絡 eAc。意見EnglishtoChinese英語中文USelectionASSiStAncecommiSSion美國協助選舉委員會USElectionAssistanceCommissionA•abandonedballot:廢棄選票Definition:BallotthatthevoterdidnotplaceintheballotboxorrecordascastonDREbeforeleavingthepollingplace•absent:缺席的Seealso:absenteevoter•absenteeapplication:缺席申請•absenteeapplicationform:缺席申請表格•absenteeballot:缺席選票Seealso:absenteevoteDefinition:BallotcastbyavoterunabletovoteinpersonathisorherpollingplaceonElectionDay•absenteeballotrequestform:缺席選票請求表格•absenteemailprocess:缺席郵寄過程•absenteeprocedures:缺席程序•absenteevote:缺席投票Seealso:absenteeballot•absenteevoter:缺席選民Seealso:absent•absenteevoterstatus:缺席選民資格•absenteevotingbymail:郵寄式缺席投票•absolutemajority:絕對多數•abstain:棄權•acceptanceofcandidacy:候選資格的承認Seealso:candidateregistration,runningforoffice,candidateExample:CandidatesfiletheiracceptanceofcandidacyattheSecretaryofState'soffice(範例:候選人向州務卿辦公室申報對他們候選資格的承認。)•acceptancetesting:驗收測試Definition:Examinationofavotingsystemanditscomponentsbythepurchasingelectionauthority(usuallyinasimulateduseenvironment)tovalidateperformanceofdeliveredunitsinaccordancewithprocurementrequirements,andtovalidatethatthedeliveredsystemis,infact,thecertifiedsystempurchased•access:方便通行Seealso:accessibility•access(verb):方便通行•AccessBoardaccessboard:方便投選委員會Definition:Independentfederalagencywhoseprimarymissionisaccessibilityforpeoplewithdisabilitiesandaleadingsourceofinformationonaccessibledesign•AccesstoCampaignMaterialsAct:使用競選物品法•accessibility:方便通行性Seealso:accessDefinition:Measurablecharacteristicsthatindicatethedegreetowhichasystemisavailableto,andusableby,individualswithdisabilitiesThemostcommondisabilitiesincludethoseassociatedwithvision,hearingandmobility,aswellascognitivedisabilitiesGLOSSARYOFKEYELECTIONTERMS•EnglishChineseUSElectionAssistanceCommission•accessibilityrequirements:方便通行性規定•accessiblefacility:方便通行設施Seealso:accessiblevotingstation•accessiblevotingstation:方便通行投票站Seealso:accessiblefacilityDefinition:Votingstationequippedforindividualswithdisabilities•accordance:符合Example:Inaccordancewiththelaw(範例:符合法律。)•accreditation:認證Definition:Formalrecognitionthatalaboratoryiscompetenttocarryoutspecifictestsorcalibrations•accreditationbody:認證機構Definition:()Authoritativebodythatperformsaccreditation()Anindependentorganizationresponsibleforasse

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Chinese Glossary of Election Terms(美国选举词汇英汉对照手册)

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