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Language and Culture.pdf

Language and Culture.pdf

上传者: onymous 2011-12-30 评分 5 0 284 39 1290 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Language and Culturepdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含ENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:LANGUAGEANDCULTUREEugeneANidaUn符等。

ENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:LANGUAGEANDCULTUREEugeneANidaUnitedBibleSociety(EEUU)ABSTRACTThisarticlecollectstheplenaryconferencegivenbyEugeneANidaattheVInternationalCongress“Translation,TextandInterferences”onTranslationandCulturalMediation,holdattheUniversityofCordoba(Spain),inwhichtheauthorrecountsthat,alonghiscareerasatranslator,itwasofparamountimportancetoknowthevaluesofthedifferentcultureshevisitedinordertounderstandhowtheseculturescommunicatedmeaningfullywithoneanotherand,consequently,beabletohelptheirtranslatorsintheirworkoftranslatingtheBibleKEYWORDS:EugeneNida,culture,biblicaltranslationRESUMENElpresenteartículorecogelaconferenciaplenariaqueelprofesorEugeneANidapronuncióenelVCongresoInternacional“Traducción,TextoeInterferencias”sobreTraducciónymediacióncultural,celebradoentreelyeldediciembredeenlaUniversidaddeCórdoba,donderelataque,alolargodesutrayectoriacomotraductor,leresultócrucialconocerlosvaloresdelasdistintasculturasquevisitóparapodercomprendercómosecomunicabanentresíy,porende,sercapazdeayudaralostraductoresdeestasculturasensulabordetraduccióndelaBibliaPALABRASCLAVE:EugeneNida,cultura,traducciónbíblicaINTRODUCTIONAftertravellingaroundtheworldseveraltimesinordertohelptranslators,IhavemetupwithanumberofculturesItwascrucialformetoknowthevaluesofthesedifferentpeopleinordertounderstandhowtheycommunicatemeaningfullywithoneanotherNow,IwouldliketosharewithyousomeoftheinsightsIgainedfromlisteningtothemENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:YIPOUNOU(CAMEROUN)InoneofmybooksImentionedhelpingatranslatorimproveatranslationoftheGospelofJohninYipounouIdidnotspeakYipounou,aBantulanguageofWestAfrica,butIdidknowFrenchandIcouldreadilynotehowthetranslationintoYipounouwaspracticallyawordforwordrenderingofapopularFrenchtranslationoftheGospelofJohnIalsoknewsomethingaboutthewayinwhichBantulanguagesorganizewordsintosentencesandsentencesintotexts,soIarrangedtomeetthetranslator,whohadlearnedYipounouasthesonofmissionarieslivinginWestAfricaActuallyhehadbeenaskedtomakethetranslationoftheNewTestamentintoYipounou,buthewastoldtomakehistranslationascloseaspossibletothestandardFrenchtextThiswasatypicalkindofmistake,andtheyoungmanfullyrecognizedtheabsurdityofsuchanapproachtocommunicatingAccordingly,hewasgladtobeabletoredohistranslationandinthiswayproduceatextthatwouldbemoreaccurate,understandable,andacceptable,becausetherevisioncouldbesomuchbetterunderstoodbythelocalpeopleETHIOPIAWereceivedanurgentrequestforavisittoaremoteareainsouthernEthiopiathatcouldbereachedonlybyoverlandtravelbytruckTheBritishmissionarieswereespeciallyanxioustohaveadviceaboutanewlyproposedalphabet,andIwastheonlynearbyetranslationconsultantwhomightbeabletohelpRecentrainshadmadetheroadsalmostimpassable,butassoonastheroadshaddriedout,therewasdangeroffiresofelephantgrass,andthatispreciselywhathappenedThatveryafternoontheroadaheadwasawalloffiresomefortyfeethighWecouldnotgobackbecausethefirewasadvancingfasterthanwecouldretreatSowesimplyhadtodrivethetruckthroughthefireWepreparedaswellaswecouldandchosearelativelylevelstretchofroadTherewewaiteduntilwecoulddashthroughtheblaze,throwdirtonthetruck,andputoutanylurkingembersFinally,wearrivedatthevillageoftheBritishmissionWereceivedahero’swelcomeandgreatlyappreciatedallthepeopledidintryingtomakeourstayashelpfulaspossiblebecauseofthetranslationoftheNewTestamentintooneofthelocallanguagesButIcouldnotunderstandwhyoneofthemissionarieshadasixinchwidepieceofpinkclothsewedtohisshortsinordertocoverhiskneesEventhoughBritishshortsareusuallyENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:longerthaneithertheFrenchortheBelgian,butatleastforonepoorman,hiswifefoundenoughpinkclothto“sanctify”herhusband'skneesZAMBUANGO,PHILIPPINESInZambuango,Philippines,IwasaskedtomakeatriptosomeoftheislandsthatlinkthePhilippinestoSabah,butIhadnoideathatsuchapartoftheworldwassoopentoanyonehavingthemoneytobuythemostmodemfleetofsmallfastboatsTheboatleavingZambuangoforSabahcontainedanumberofpeoplearmedwithsubmachineguns,andmyhostarrangedformetobemetbyguardswithhighpoweredriflesTheamountofillegalimportsbetweenthePhilippinesandSabahwasenormous,andIfranklycannotthinkofapartoftheworldthatseemslessopentothePrinceofPeacethanthescoresoftinyislandswherefastshipsmocktheinternationalharboursandthesmugglers’hideouts,buttherearesomeexceptionalpeoplewhoneverthelesstrytomaketheGospelarealityinaplacemorelikehellthanheaven,andeventotranslateitintotheindigenouslanguagesforlocalpeopletounderstandBAFFINLANDWhenIreceivedaninvitationtoparticipateinatwoweekconferenceforEasternEskimo,Iwasalsotoldtobepreparedfortodegreesbelowzeroforoutsidetemperatures,becausethatispreciselythekindofweatherneededfortravelintheArcticIthoughttheareawouldincludeplentyofigloosanddogsleds,butthetownhadasupermarket,manyfinefiveroomhouses,allwithfreezingstoragespace,andspecialplacesforpoweredsledsTheJuniorCollegewasasfineasanysuchschoolinCanada,andchurchattendancewasmorethanpercentThelevelofeducationofthewesternarcticpopulationisexceptionallyhigh,infact,significantlyabovethelevelofgeneraleducationinCanada,althoughEskimoswhowantspecialtraininginthesciencesgotouniversitiesinCanada,Europe,ortheUnitedStatesForarevisedtextofEasternEskimotheteammembersallhadadvancedtraininginbiblicallanguagesandtheologyIhadnevermetwithsuchwelltrainedparticipantsinaconferenceforestablishingprinciplesandproceduresforanewtranslationENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:PONAPE,CENTRALPACIFICForseveralweeksaconferenceonBibletranslationandrevisionwasheldontheislandofPonape,intheCentralPacific,withProtestantandRomanCatholictranslatorsThiswasaninterestingexperienceforme,andIwassoappreciatedbythelocalpeoplethattheycelebratedtheirnewlyfoundsenseofonenessbyinsistingonaseriesofbanquetstoproclaimtheir“newoneness”Accordingly,towardtheendoftheconferenceourhostsinsistedonshowingtheirsenseofonenessbyhavingaseriesofbanquetsinwhicheachoftheparticipantsreceivedasmuchastenpoundsoffood,forexample,steamingshellfish,roastedsquid,juicysteaksoffish,deliciousportionsofroastedsweetpotatoes,pineapples,breadfruit,bananas,coconuts,andendlessdrinksofcoconutjuiceontablesfloodedwithtropicalflowersButnothingwaswastedbecausepeoplewhopreparedandservedthebanquets,arrangedtotakehomewiththemanythingthathadnotbeenconsumedBURUNDI,EASTAFRICAFivemissionsinEastAfricajoinedforaonedayconsultationtosettleproblemsoftranslationthathadbeenundertakencooperativelybyfivedifferentmissionsinBurundiYearafteryearrepresentativesofthefiveleadingchurchesmet,andfinallytheycametogetherforameeting,inwhichtheyhopedtoresolvesomeofthedifficultissuesoftheologyandlanguageIwasgivenveryshortnoticeofthemeeting,butIdideverythingpossibletobepresentintimeforsomeofthecriticalissuesWhenIarrivedtheeveningbeforethejointandfinalmeeting,IwasamazedatthelistofitemsontheagendaInfact,IwassoimpressedbythenumberandseriousnessoftheagendathatIstayedupbeyondmidnightstudyingtheissuesRepresentativesofthefivemissionsmetthenextmorningatamTherepresentativeofthePentecostalChurchesdeclaredthatheandotherpeopleofhischurchbelievedthetranslatorsandrevisershaddoneafinepieceofworkintheirfinalreviewAlthoughheandhiscolleaguesdidnotagreewitheverythingsuggested,heurgedthegrouptoconsidercarefullysomeoftheespeciallydelicateissues,forthiswasnotthetimetodelaycrucialdecisionsthatneededtoberesolvedinordertohelppeopleunderstandandappreciatewhathadbeendoneOtherrepresentativesadoptedthesameattitude,andthemeetingbegan,buttheseintroductorywordschangedradicallytheunderlyingtensionsthathadcrippleddecisionmakinginthepastOthermembersontherevisionENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:committeebegantovoicesimilarconcerns,andIwasamazedbythewayinwhichrepresentativesofthemissionswereapparentlychangingtheirearlierjudgmentsByfouro’clockdecisionsontheagendawerecompleted,andlikeasurprise,earliercontentionsrapidlydisappeared,andwithinafewweeksarevisedtextwassubmittedtotheBibleSocietiesforpublicationButtherewasalsoatragedyinwhattookplaceThedecisionswereallmadebythemissionariesandnotincooperationwiththelocalBantuChristianleadersThiswasreallytheirlanguage,theirrevision,andtheirsymboloffaithFortunately,theAfricanleaderswereabletoriseabovetheevidentsuperioritycomplexofthemissionaries,whodidnotfullyappreciatethefactthatthelocallanguagebelongedtothelocalpeopleCHIHUAHUA,MEXICOIbeganmyworkasaspecialistintranslatingbyfirstlearningthelocalIndianlanguage,butIhadrealdifficultiesingettingbread,meatandfruitinthelocalplace,twodayshorsebackfromChihuahuaInfact,Isoonbecameweakfromlackofnutritiousfood,andtherewassimplynoplacethatIcouldbuyfoodwithouttravellingbyhorsebackforaday,andeventhenIwasnotsurethatIcouldhireahorseTheplacewasespeciallydifficultbecauseitsnowedalmosteverynightandgotincreasinglycolderdaybydayMygoodIndianfriend,Ricardo,cametomeandsaid,“Ifyoudon’tgetmoreandbetterfoodyouaresoongoingtodieWhydon’tyouhireawomantofindfoodforyou,cookit,andmakeyourcabinintoahomeratherthantryingtoliveinarefrigerator”Ricardowasrightaboutmydifficultiesinhavinglivingfacilities,butiftheMexicanDepartmentofEducationwouldnotsendhardwaretothecarpentertheyhadhiredtomaketheschoolhabitable,theycertainlywouldnotsendhelptome,whenItriedtoexistinwhatwasmoreofaiceboxthanacabinAccordingly,Ricardoasked,“Whydon’tyougobacktotheendoftherailroad,whichisonlytwoday’shorsebackridingThereyouwillfindstoreswhereyoucanbuywhatyouneed,andmaybeyoucanarrangegoodfacilitiesinanearbyschool,butyouwillfreezetodeathifyoucontinuewhereyouare”Itookhisadviceandreturnedtotheendoftherailroad,andbegantolookforaplacetostay,butIcouldn'tfindanyAccordingly,threeweekslater,IboardedthetrainwithmywrinkledclothesandmyscribblednotesonthelinguisticstructuresofthelocalIndianlanguages,andIwasonmywayhomeinGardenGrove,CaliforniaENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:Iunderwentonetestafteranother,andIcouldonlybereassuredthatwiththepropermedicine,foodandrest,IwouldbewellenoughtostartmystudiesinlinguisticsattheUniversityofMichiganTETELCINGO,MEXICOIwasgatheringdataformyresearchinlinguisticsandhadwithmesomefineyoungmenfromdifferenttribesIwasespeciallyinterestedinproblemsrelatingtoexpressionsaboutsicknessanddeath,butsuddenlyweheardpeoplescreamingfromneartheirrigationtankApparentlysomeonewasintrouble,soIandmyhelpersranasfastaswecouldtoseewhathadhappenedinthehugetankEvidentlysomeonewasinserioustrouble,andsoweimmediatelyjumpedintothewater,whichwasaboutthreemetersdeep,butmostofthepeoplethathadgatheredontheedgeofthetankrefusedtogetintothewaterbecausetheywereafraidthatevilspiritswouldthendrownthemWefinallyhadtoremoveallthewaterfromthetankinordertofindthevictim’sbodydeepinthemudButpeopleinthevillageweresofrightenedaboutthespiritofthemanthattheydidn'twanttobeevennearthetankWehadtokeepinmindthebeliefsofthesepeopleinordertohelpthemtotranslateintotheirlocallanguagesInMexico,ImetanumberofremarkablepersonswithunusuallinguisticskillsForexample,therewasacompletelydeafwomanwhohaddevelopedawrittenformofherownlanguageandtaughtittoallthewomenofhertown(howIwishedIcouldhavestudiedhersystemofsymbolsandreasoning!)InMexico,IalsohadtheopportunityofmeetingabrilliantIndianinterpreterwhoonatleastoneoccasiontranslatedfrommemoryafortyfiveminutespeechdeliveredthepreviousdayCENTRALAMERICAWhenastrategicleaderofagroupof“outlaws”inGuatemalapassedaway,heleftwordthatoneofhisfollowersshouldcontactnearbymissionarieswhocouldprayforhissoulTheoutlawhadgreatrespectforthehonestyandintegrityofthemissionaries,andbecauseofthemissionaries’honestlives,hewascertainthatGodwouldblesstheoutlaw’ssoulonitswaytoparadiseFigurativelanguageisoneofthemosteffectivewaysoftalkingaboutmentalandemotionalstatesForexample,inMiskito(Honduras)peaceis“havingonlyoneheart”,butindecisionmaybeexpressedas“therearebutterfliesinmyheart”,whileinTarahumara(Mexico)beingconcernedisENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:expressedas“histhinkingshuthismouth”AndinChontal(Mexico)uncertaintybecomes“Whoknowswheremyheartwentto”NORTHERNECUADORMissionaryfriendswhomIhadbeenhelpingtosolvesomeoftheorthographicproblemsintheraredialect,inwhichtheyhadbeenworking,letmeoffataregularstopsothatIcouldcatchabustothecapitalofEcuadorButIwasshockedtoseealmostahundredlocalIndiansdeaddrunkIhadheardaboutsuchcelebrationsinhonourofalocalsaintbutthiswasoverwhelmingIcouldnotbelievethatpeoplewouldsellthemselvestosuchsenselessnessTheonlypersonwhowassanewastheownerofthestorespecializinginvariousalcoholicdrinksandsoIintroducedmyselfandaskedhimifIcouldaskhimsomequestionsHewasapparentlyhappytohavesomeonetotalkto,andhekindlytriedtosuggestthepossiblereasonsforsuchbehaviour:povertyandlackofeducationInfact,hesaidthatthepeopledidnotreallyknowtheirownhistoryAccordingtotradition,earlierresidentsintheareahadworshippedthefivemountainpeaksontheeasternhorizon,andhenamedthemformeandtriedtoexplainthewaytheyhadbenefitedthepeople,butonlyatthepriceofhonestinterpersonalrelationsTHAILANDAmissioninThailandstronglyurgedmetoacceptaninvitationtovisitanareawheretherewasconsiderabletensionovertheissueofspeakinginTongues,aformofspeechconsistingoflongsequencesofconsonantsandvowelsthatparallelthepatternsofspeechinactuallanguages,butwhichlacklinguisticstructurestypicalofmeaningfullyrelatedwords,phrases,andclausesIwasprobablyfoolishtoacceptsuchaninvitation,butIwantedtobehelpfultothosewhowantedtoknowmoreaboutwhatsomepeoplecalled“Tongues”or“thelanguageofheaven”TheplacewhereIwasinvitedtospeakwaslargelycontrolledbyastrongmindedwomanwhodidnotwantanydiscussionofTonguesandwhowaspreparingwithoutanytechnicalassistanceaneworthographyforthelocallanguageInfact,withoutanyprofessionaltraininginlinguistics,shehadworkedoutanewsetofsymbolsforoneofthelocallanguages,whichshealoneclaimedtospeak“correctly”Infact,shetriedtoemploythesameorthographyforbothTonguesand“normallanguage”,andshehaddesignatedENTRECULTURASNúmeroISSN:Fechadepublicación:aparticularmidweekmeetinginwhichshewascertainthatGodwouldrevealbyamtherightmannertowritebothformsoflanguageIwaspersonallyveryinterestedinstudyingthephenomenon,andIfounditverysimilartothepracticeofTonguesinvariouspartsoffundamentalistandfringegroupsThestagingoftherevealedorthographywasquitefascinatingbecausetheleaderofthemissionseemedtoinstinctivelyknowhowtomanipulatetheaudience,especiallyatthepreordainedtimeofamThistimeforpresumedsupernaturalrevelationsinvolvedamasterfuluseoftiminginparadingevilspiritsaroundadarkenedroomThediversityoflanguagesandculturesmakestranslationintolocallanguagesaverydifficulttask,buttranslatorsneedtounderstandthatbehindthewordstherearepowerfulculturesthatmustnotbeignored

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