下载

1下载券

加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 乔姆斯基语言观

乔姆斯基语言观.doc

乔姆斯基语言观

cindy
2011-12-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《乔姆斯基语言观doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

OnChomsky’sViewofLanguageAbstract:AsapioneerlinguistNoamChomskyenjoysapositionwithinlinguisticsprobablyunprecedentedinthewholehistoryofthesubjectFromhisfirstbookSyntacticStructures,publishedin,hehasbeenengagedinthelinguisticstudyandbroughtmanyinnovativeideastolinguistics,especiallyintheaspectsofgrammaticaltheoryHistheoryofgrammarisundoubtedlythemostdynamicandinfluentialThisthesisreviewsthedevelopmentofChomsky’slinguistictheoriesanditsphilosophicalfoundationforlinguistics,includinghismajorcontributions,likethetheoryoftransformationalgenerativegrammarthatrevolutionalizedthescientificstudyoflanguageThissystematicandhistoricaloverviewofhislinguisticstudieswillsurelyhelptogetadeeperunderstandingofChomsky’sacademiccontributionsandgiveamathematicallyprecisedescriptionofsomeofthemoststrikingfeaturesoflanguageKeywords:viewoflanguagephilosophicalfoundationforlinguisticsIntroductionNoamChomskyisoneofthemostinfluentialthinkersofmoderntimesThemostcitedwriterinthehumanities,hisworkhasrevolutionizedthefieldoflinguistics,andhasdominatedmanyotherdisciplinesincludingpoliticsandthephilosophyofmindandhumannatureHehasalsocontributedsignificantlytoourunderstandingoftheabuseofpower,andofthecontrollingeffectsofthemassmediaSincetheverydayonwhichChomsky’stheorieswereestablished,therehavebeenmanyargumentsTherearemanyfaithfulfollowers,whilesomepeopleareradicalobjectorsManyresearcheshavebeenmadeonhislinguisticideasandtherehavebeenquiteafewbreakthroughsHowever,mostofthestudyislimitedtoacertaindevelopmentalperiodofhistheories,oranintroductionofacertaintheoreticalworkThisthesisaimstomakeanexplorationofChomsky’slinguisticideas,whichmakesupforthelimitationofpreviousresearchesThisisnotonlyanexplorationofagreatlinguist’stheory,butalsoanexplorationofthelinguisticdevelopmentsinceBydoingthisresearch,wecanabsorbsomeconduciveexperienceandstudymethodsInthefollowingchapter,IwillmakeacomprehensivestudyofChomsky’slinguisticrevolution,namelythetransformationalgrammarInChapterThree,wecanseethemajordevelopmentalphasesofChomsky’slinguisticideas,fromthetransformationalgrammar,toStandardTheory,ExtendedStandardTheory,REST,GBtoMinimalistProgramChapterFourfocusesonthephilosophicalfoundationofhislinguisticconcept,whichconstitutesthebedrockonwhichtherestisbuiltInthelastchapter,Iwillsummarizethecreativefindingsandthesignificanceofthem,includingthegreatimpactonthepastandpresentlinguisticstudyandtheoutlookoffuturedevelopmentChomskyandHisLinguisticIdeasBiographyNoamChomskywasbornonDecember,inPhiladelphia,PennsylvaniaHisundergraduateandgraduateyearswerespentattheUniversityofPennsylvaniawherehereceivedhisPhDinlinguisticsinDuringtheyearsto,ChomskywasaJuniorFellowoftheHarvardUniversitySocietyofFellowsWhileaJuniorFellowhecompletedhisdoctoraldissertationentitled,"TransformationalAnalysis"ThemajortheoreticalviewpointsofthedissertationappearedinthemonographSyntacticStructure,whichwaspublishedinThisformedpartofamoreextensivework,TheLogicalStructureofLinguisticTheory,circulatedinmimeographinandpublishedinChomskyreceivedafacultypositionattheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyinandinwasappointedfullprofessorintheDepartmentofModernLanguagesandLinguistics(nowtheDepartmentofLinguisticsandPhilosophy)FromtoheheldtheFerrariPWardProfessorshipofModernLanguagesandLinguisticsInhewasappointedInstituteProfessorChomskyhasreceivedhonorarydegreesfromUniversityofLondon,UniversityofChicago,LoyolaUniversityofChicago,SwarthmoreCollege,DelhiUniversity,BardCollege,UniversityofMassachusetts,UniversityofPennsylvania,GeorgetownUniversity,AmherstCollege,CambridgeUniversity,UniversityofBuenosAires,McGillUniversity,UniversitatRoviraIVirgili,Tarragona,ColumbiaUniversity,UniversityofConnecticut,ScuolaNormaleSuperiore,Pisa,UniversityofWesternOntario,UniversityofToronto,HarvardUniversity,UniversityofCalcutta,andUniversidadNacionalDeColombiaHeisaFellowoftheAmericanAcademyofArtsandSciencesandtheNationalAcademyofScienceInaddition,heisamemberofotherprofessionalandlearnedsocietiesintheUnitedStatesandabroad,andisarecipientoftheDistinguishedScientificContributionAwardoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,theKyotoPrizeinBasicSciences,theHelmholtzMedal,theDorothyEldridgePeacemakerAward,theBenFranklinMedalinComputerandCognitiveScience,andothersAlongsidehiscareerasalinguist,ChomskyhasbeenactiveinleftwingpoliticsInheorganizedacitizen'scommitteetopublicizetaxrefusalinprotesttothewarinVietnamfouryearslaterhepublishedhisfirstbookonpoliticsAmericanPowerandtheNewMandarinsBythe'shehadbecomeboththemostdistinguishedfigureofAmericanlinguisticsandoneofthemostinfluentialleftwingcriticsofAmericanforeignpolicyHehasbeenextremelyprolificasawriter:hiswebsiteinlistedbookpublicationsinlinguistics(broadlyconstrued),andalthoughtheindividuationofhispoliticalbooksiscomplicated,theirnumberdefinitelyexceedsAccordingtoatabulationofsourcesfromthepreviousyearsintheArtsandHumanitiesCitationIndex,Chomskywasthemostfrequentlycitedpersonalive,andoneoftheeightmostfrequentlycitedauthorsofalltimeLinguisticRevolutionFiniteStateGrammarsTheaimofthelinguistictheorybyChomskyinSyntacticStructures()wasessentiallytodescribesyntax,tospecifythegrammaticalrulesunderlyingtheconstructionofsentencesInSyntacticStructure,Chomskydiscussed“threemodelsforthedescriptionoflanguage”Beforegoingtodealwiththesethreemodels,wehavetomakeclearaboutsomeassumptionsThefirstisthelanguagethatisdescribedbyaparticulargrammarasthesetofallthesentencesitgeneratesInprinciple,thesetofsentencesmaybefiniteorinfiniteinnumberHowever,Englishcomprisesaninfinitenumberofsentences,becausetherearesentencesandphrasesinthelanguagethatcanbeextendedindefinitelyandwillyetbeacceptedasperfectlynormalbynativespeakersThepointisthatnodefinitelimitcanbesettothelengthofEnglishsentencesTherefore,intheory,thenumberofgrammaticalsentencesinthelanguageisinfinitewhilethenumberofwordsinthevocabularyofEnglishisfiniteThereisalsoassumptionthatthedistinctoperationsthatareinvolvedinthegenerationofEnglishsentencesarefiniteinnumberIfthegrammaristoconsistofafinitesetofrulesoperatinguponafinitevocabularyandistobecapableofgeneratinganinfinitesetofsentences,itfollowsthatatleastsomeoftherulesmustbeapplicablemorethanonceinthegenerationofthesamesentencesTheserulesandthestructuresthattheygeneratearerecursiveinnatureThesimplestgrammarsthatChomskydiscussesarecapableofgeneratinganinfinitesetofsentencesbymeansofafinitenumberofrecursiverulesoperatinguponafinitevocabularyThesearewhathecallsfinitestategrammarsChomskygraduallyfoundouttheinadequacyoffinitegrammarsbecausetherearecertainregularprocessesofsentenceformationinEnglishthatcannotbeaccountedforwithintheframeworkoffinitestategrammarChomskygraduallyfoundouttheinadequacyoffinitegrammarsbecausetherearecertainregularprocessesofsentenceformationinEnglishthatcannotbeaccountedforwithintheframeworkoffinitestategrammarPhraseStructureGrammarInordertomakeupforthedeficiencyoffinitestategrammars,Chomskymadethesecondofhis“threemodelsforthedescriptionoflanguage”,phrasestructuregrammarTherearesetsofsentencesthatcanbegeneratedbyaphrasestructuregrammarbutnotbyafinitestategrammarAsweallknow,thefirsttaskofChomsky'ssyntaxistoaccountforthespeaker'sunderstandingoftheinternalstructureofsentencesIntheviewofChomsky,sentencesarenotunorderedstringsofwords,ratherthewordsandmorphemesaregroupedintofunctionalconstituentssuchasthesubjectofthesentence,thepredicate,thedirectobject,andsoonTwostringsofelementsmayhavethesamelinearstructurebutdifferwithrespecttotheirphrasestructure,andthedifferenceintheirphrasestructuremaybesemanticallyrelevantThisphenomenonis“constructionalhomonymity”inSyntacticStructuresorstructuralambiguityWiththismodeofsyntacticstructure,ChomskyisthefirsttoshowhowitcouldbeformalizedbymeansofasystemofgenerativerulesandtoChomskyclaimsthatthephrasestructurerulesconstructedbythegrammarian"represent"thespeaker’scompetenceThoughphrasestructurewerealreadyimplicit,suchruleswerenotadequatetoaccountforallthesyntacticalfactsofnaturallanguagesPhrasestructurerulesalonecouldnotaccountforthevarioussortsofcasessuchas"Ilikehercooking"and"Johniseagertoplease"JohnRSearlemadesomeanalysesinChomsky’sRevolutioninLinguisticsFirst,withinsuchagrammarthereisnonaturalwaytodescribetheambiguitiesinasentencesuchas"Ilikehercooking"Phrasestructurerulesalonewouldprovideonlyonederivationforthissentencebutasthesentenceissyntacticallyambiguous,thegrammarshouldreflectthatfactbyprovidingseveraldifferentsyntacticalderivationsandhenceseveraldifferentsyntacticaldescriptionsSecondly,phrasestructuregrammarshavenowaytopicturethedifferencesbetween"Johniseasytoplease"and"Johniseagertoplease"Thoughthesentencesaresyntacticallydifferent,phrasestructurerulesalonewouldgivethemsimilarphrasemarkersThirdly,justasintheaboveexamplessurfacesimilaritiesconcealunderlyingdifferencesthatcannotberevealedbyphrasestructuregrammar,sosurfacedifferencesalsoconcealunderlyingsimilaritiesForexample,inspiteofthedifferentwordorderandtheadditionofcertainelements,thesentence"Thebookwillbereadbytheboy"andthesentence"Theboywillreadthebook"havemuchincommon:theybothmeanthesamethingtheonlydifferenceisthatoneisinthepassivemoodandtheotherintheactivemoodPhrasestructuregrammarsalonegiveusnowaytopicturethissimilarityTheywouldgiveustwounrelateddescriptionsofthesetwosentencesChomskyhasnotbeenabletoprovethepossibilitythattherearesentencesthatcannotbegeneratedbyphrasestructureButinSyntacticStructures,heclaimstherearesentencesthatcanonlybedescribed“clumsily”withintheframeworkofphrasestructuregrammar,inanunrevealingoradhocwayTransformationalGrammarAsthelastoneof“threemodelsforthedescriptionoflanguage”,transformationalgrammar,whichisfarmorecomplexthanphrasestructuregrammar,yieldsa“simpler”descriptionofcertainsentencesAtransformationalgrammardoesn’tconsistonlyoftransformationalrules,butasetofphrasestructurerulesaswellDifferentphrasemarkersproducedbythephrasestructurerulesaretransformedintothesamephrasemarkerbytheapplicationofthetransformationalrulesOneoftheadvantagestheearlierversionoftransformationalgrammarpresentedinSyntacticStructureswasthatitcouldaccountmoresatisfactorilythanphrasestructuregrammarforcertaintypeofstructuralambiguityForexample,“Flyingplanescanbedangerous”isambiguous(ToflyplanescanbedangerousandPlanesthatareflyingcanbedangerous)ThestructurallyambiguoussentencescanbeaccountedforrathernicelyintermsoftransformationalgrammarInsteadofgeneratingtwounrelatedphrasemarkersbyphrasestructurerules,wecanconstructasimplergrammarbyshowinghowboththeactiveandthepassivecanbederivedfromthesameunderlyingphrasemarkerInsteadofrewritingoneelementasastringofelements,atransformationalrulemapsonephrasemarkerintoanotherTransformationalrulesthereforeapplyafterthephrasestructureruleshavebeenappliedtheyoperateontheoutputofthephrasestructurerulesofthegrammarOneoftheadvantagestheearlierversionoftransformationalgrammarpresentedinSyntacticStructureswasthatitcouldaccountmoresatisfactorilythanphrasestructuregrammarforcertaintypeofstructuralambiguityForexample,“Flyingplanescanbedangerous”isambiguous(ToflyplanescanbedangerousandPlanesthatareflyingcanbedangerous)ThestructurallyambiguoussentencescanbeaccountedforrathernicelyintermsoftransformationalgrammarWiththeintroductionoftransformationalrules,Chomsky'sgrammarsareoftencalled“transformationalgrammars”MajorDevelopmentalPhasesofChomsky'sLinguisticTheorySincetheturningoutofhisfirstbookSyntacticStructureinwhichheformulatedhistransformationalgrammar,ChomskyhasupdatedhisextensivelyappliedlinguisticnotionswithmorelecturesgivenandbooksissuedItiscommonlyrecognizedtobefivephasesPhaseOne:TransformationalGrammarItisimpossibletounderstandChomsky’slinguisticnotionswithoutunderstandinghistransformationalgrammarwhichisundoubtedlyamilestoneinthehistoryofmodernlinguisticsPriortothepublicationofSyntacticStructurein,thelinguisticstudywasmainlyconcernedwithstructuralismStructurallinguistics,withitsinsistenceonobjectivemethodsofverificationandpreciselyspecifiedtechniquesofdiscovery,derivesfromthe"behavioralsciences"approachtothestudyofman,andisalsolargelyaconsequenceofthephilosophicalassumptionsoflogicalpositivismDuringthatperiod,mostAmericanlinguists,accordingtoChomskydefinedthetaskoflinguisticsas“collectinglanguageelementsandclassifyingthem”(Chomsky:)TheapproachwasthemechanicproceduretofindthelanguagetruthanddisciplineLinguisticswasakindofverbalbotanyLinguistsatthattimewerejustgivingadescriptionofalanguagebycolletingdata,colletingalargenumberofutterancesoflanguageTheseutteranceswerealwaysrecordedonataperecorderorinaphoneticscriptThesecondstepwastoclassifytheseelementsoflanguageatdifferentlinguisticlevels,fromtheunitsofsounds,thephonemes,tothemorphemes,thentothesequencesofwordclassesThestudytargetwastherichlanguageelementsandstructuralismwasinductivewithawordgrammarHowever,withthelanguageabilityasthestudytarget,TGaimstoestablishsometheories,bymeansofwhichwecanmakesurewhichrulesformthebasisoflanguagestructureTheaimoflinguistictheorywastoprovidethelinguistwithasetofrigorousmethods,asetofdiscoveryprocedureswhichhewouldusetoextractfromthe"corpus"thephonemes,themorphemes,andsoonItsapproachisputtingforwardhypothesiswhichistobetestedbynativelanguagespeakersTherefore,TGisadeductivelanguagecategorygrammarwhichcanexplaininfinitesentenceswithlimitedanalysesJohnRSearleconcludesthat:Chomskyarguedthatsinceanylanguagecontainsaninfinitenumberofsentences,any"corpus,"evenifitcontainedasmanysentencesasthereareinallthebooksoftheLibraryofCongress,wouldstillbetriviallysmallInsteadoftheappropriatesubjectmatteroflinguisticsbeingarandomlyorarbitrarilyselectedsetofsentences,theproperobjectofstudywasthespeaker'sunderlyingknowledgeofthelanguage,his"linguisticcompetence"thatenableshimtoproduceandunderstandsentenceshehasneverheardbefore(Searle:)Oncetheconceptionofthe"corpus"asthesubjectmatterisrejected,thenthenotionofmechanicalproceduresfordiscoveringlinguistictruthsgoesaswellChomskyarguesthatnosciencehasamechanicalprocedurefordiscoveringthetruthanywayRather,whathappensisthatthescientistformulateshypothesesandteststhemagainstevidenceLinguisticsisnodifferent:thelinguistmakesconjecturesaboutlinguisticfactsandteststhemagainsttheevidenceprovidedbynativespeakersofthelanguageHehasinshortaprocedureforevaluatingrivalhypotheses,butnoprocedurefordiscoveringtruetheoriesbymechanicallyprocessingevidenceTheTransformationalGrammarcanbeexpressedinthefollowingway:aTwolevelsofrepresentationofthestructureofsentences:anunderlying,moreabstractform,termed'deepstructure',andtheactualformofthesentenceproduced,called'surfacestructure'Deepstructureisrepresentedintheformofahierarchicaltreediagram,or"phrasestructuretree,"depictingtheabstractgrammaticalrelationshipsbetweenthewordsandphraseswithinasentencebAsystemofformalrulesspecifyinghowdeepstructuresaretobetransformedintosurfacestructuresLikearevolution,thetransformationalgrammarestablishedthebasisforothersubsequenttheoriesofhumangrammaticalknowledgeSinceChomsky'soriginalpresentation,manydifferenttheorieshaveemergedWiththenotionofatransformationremainingacentralelementinmostmodels,conceptslikedeepstructureandsurfacestructure,phrasestructuretree,phrasestructurerules,verbphrase,nounphrase,creativityproductivitybecamethegrammaticalelementsinlanguagestudyPhaseTwo:LanguageCompetenceandPerformanceStandardTheoryInAspectsoftheTheoryofSyntaxin,Chomskyputforwardtwosetsofconcepts,whicharenowwidelyknownOneiscompetenceandperformanceandtheotherdeepstructureandsurfacestructureChomskydefinescompetenceastheidealuser'sknowledgeoftherulesofhisorherlanguage,andperformancetheactualrealizationofthisknowledgeinlinguisticcommunicationAccordingtoChomskyspeakershaveinternalizedasetofrulesabouttheirlanguageThisrulesystemenablesthemtoproduceandunderstandaninfinitelylargenumberofsentencesandrecognizesentencesthatareungrammaticalandambiguousChomskyholdsthatlinguistsshouldstudytheidealspeaker'scompetence,becausethespeaker'sperformanceistoohaphazardtobestudiedThus,thetaskofthelinguistsistodiscoverthespeaker'sinternalizedrulesCompetenceisindependentfromperformanceThedifferencebetweenthemislikethatbetweenknowledgeoflanguageanduseofthatlanguageAlthoughtheinvestigationofcompetenceischallengingbecauseofthecomplexityofourknowledgeoflanguage,performanceisobservableFromthispoint,ChomskybegantolookatlanguagefromapsychologicalpointofviewandconsiderlinguisticcompetenceasapropertyofthemindofaspeakerInordertoexplainthedifferencebetween"performance"(allsentencesthatanindividualwilleveruse)and"competence"(allsentencesthatanindividualcanutter,butwillnotnecessarilyutter),ChomskyemphasizestheexistenceofsomeinnateknowledgeChomskyprovesthatthegrammarofanaturallanguagecannotbereducedtoafinitestateautomatonHethenarguesfortheexistenceoftwolevelsoflanguage:anunderlyingdeepstructure,whichaccountsforthefundamentalsyntacticrelationshipsamonglanguagecompone

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/23

乔姆斯基语言观

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利