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首页 [自然杂志].Nature.-.June.23.2011.pdf

[自然杂志].Nature.-.June.23.2011.pdf

[自然杂志].Nature.-.June.23.2011.pdf

上传者: zchgoood 2011-12-28 评分 5 0 209 28 950 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《[自然杂志].Nature.-.June.23.2011pdf》,可适用于幼儿教育领域,主题内容包含ORIGINSPerplexingpikaparentingpuzzlesolvedbyparasitepTHISWEEKDEADPOETSDigi符等。

ORIGINSPerplexingpikaparentingpuzzlesolvedbyparasitepTHISWEEKDEADPOETSDigitizationiscomingtohumanitiesresearch,likeitornotpWORLDVIEWUSSupremeCourtoutcomeisgoodandbadforclimatepMismeasureformismeasureAcritiqueoftheworkofStephenJayGouldshouldserveasencouragementtoscrutinizethecelebratedwhiletheyarestillaliveItisimpossibletolibelthedead,butequallyimpossibleforthemtodefendthemselvesThataloneisreasonforcautionwhenitcomestoquestioningtheworkofscientistswhoarenolongerwithusSuchquestionshavegrownintoafascinatingcottageindustry,withreportsandpaperstakingissuewithhistoricalresearch,sometimescenturiesafterthefactNotableexamplesincludethecritiquebyGeraldHolton,aphysicistandhistorianatHarvardUniversityinCambridge,Massachusetts,ofdataselectioninthereportingoftheelectricchargeonoildropletsbyNobelprizewinningphysicistRobertMillikaninandhistorianRichardWestfall’sexposureofmathematicalfudgingbyIsaacNewtonintheseventeenthcenturySometimes,suchcritiquesarethemselvesquestioned,suchasin,whenHarvardbiologistDanielHartlandDanielFairbanks,abiologistatUtahValleyUniversityinOrem,cametothedefenceofAustrianmonkGregorMendel,whowascriticizedbyBritishstatisticianRonaldFisherinoverdatathatdemonstratedgeneticinheritancepatternsinpeaplantsjustalittletooneatlyThismonthseesthelatestepisode:anassaultontheworkofUSevolutionarybiologistandcelebratedauthorStephenJayGould,whodiedinAlthoughthecritiqueleavesthemajorityofGould’sworkunscathed,itcarriesaspecialstingbecauseitdeconstructsaposthumousattackthatGouldlaunchedonnineteenthcenturyphysicianSamuelMortonInapaper(SJGouldScience,–)andinhisbookTheMismeasureofMan,GouldarguedthatMorton’smeasurementsofthecranialcapacityofhundredsofskullsfromworldwidepopulations,reportedinworkspublishedbetweenand,wereunconsciouslybiased,bywhatheclaimedwasthephysician’sprejudicethatcaucasiansweremoreintelligent,andthereforewouldhavelargerskullsAsGouldwascannyenoughtorealize,achargeofunconsciousbiassticksfasterinsciencethanoneoffraudBLINDMEASUREMENTNow,inapaperpublishedon June,JasonLewis,ananthropologistatStanfordUniversityinCalifornia,andhiscolleaguestestGould’sassertionsindetail(JLewisetalPLoSBioldoi:journalpbio)TheyremeasuredthevolumeofsomeskullsinMorton’scollection,whichsurvivesattheUniversityofPennsylvania’sMuseumofArchaeologyandAnthropologyinPhiladelphia,whiletakingcaretoblindthemselvestoknowledgeofthepopulationthateachskullcamefromComparingtheirmeasurementstoMorton’s,theyfindnoevidencethathisweredistortedbybiasStill,becausetheycouldn’tmeasurealltheskulls,theydonotknowwhethertheaveragecranialcapacitiesthatMortonreportedrepresenthissampleaccurately(Cranialcapacityvariesmostlyasafunctionofoverallbodysizeandstature,whichisrelatedtoclimateandnutrition,andthereisnoclearevidenceofalinkbetweencranialcapacityandintelligence)LewisandhiscolleaguesalsoclaimtofinderrorsinGould’sstatementsaboutMorton’sdataForexample,GouldclaimedthatMortonmanipulatedhisgroupingofsamplestogivetheresultshewanted,arbitrarilyamalgamatingNativeAmericanpopulations,whilebreakingdownthoseofpeopleofEuropeanoriginintosubgroupsYet,LewisandhiscolleaguessaythatMortonreportedaveragecranialcapacitiesforsubgroupsofbothpopulations,sometimesonthesamepageoronpagesneartofiguresthatGouldquotesandthereforemusthaveseenFurthermore,theysaythatGouldmisdefinedtheNativeAmericansamples,falselyinflatingtheaveragehecalculatedforthatpopulation,whichGouldhadusedtoshowthatMorton’saveragewaserroneouslylowAlthoughthenewpaperdoesnotaccuseGouldofintentionallymisrepresentingMorton,someofitsauthorshaveraisedthispossibilityininterviews,notingthatGould’soversightswouldbelesstroublingwereheknowntobealessmeticulousscholarAtaminimum,Gould’sstaunchoppositiontoracism,anddesiretomakeanexampleofMorton,mayhavebiasedhisinterpretationofMorton’sdata,openingGouldtochargesofhypocrisyOfcourse,LewisandhiscolleagueshavetheirownmotivationsSeveralinthegrouphaveanassociationwiththeUniversityofPennsylvania,andhaveaninterestinseeingthevaluablebutunderstudiedskullcollectionfreedfromthestigmaofbias(although,asformanynineteenthcenturymuseumcollections,itsethicallydubiousassemblywillremainanissue)Second,theirpapermakesclearthattheyopposetheview,espousedbyGouldandtrumpetedbysomesocialscientists,thatthescientificmethodisinevitablytaintedbybiasThird,incontrasttootherswhomayhavetakenGould’spoliticallycorrectmessageatfacevalue,atleasttwoauthorshaveexpressedtheviewthatscientistsmustbefreetoestablishthescientificfactsevenwhenthemessagemaybemisinterpretedbythosewithrepugnantsocialgoalsButthesemotivationsarenotareasontodiscountthegroup’scritiqueBydocumentingtheirmethodsanddata,astheyargueMortondid,thepaper’sauthorshavemadeitpossibleforotherstoscrutinizetheirclaimsTransparentdocumentationshouldallowscienceasawholetobeobjective,evenifindividualauthorsarenotJustasimportantisthereadinessofthescientificcommunitytoundertakesuchstudies,andtoseethemthroughthesometimesdifficultpublicationprocessThecriticismofGouldwasrejectedbythejournalCurrentAnthropology,andspenteightmonthsinthereviewprocessatPLoSBiologyAndalthoughanundergraduatedidpublishamoremodeststudyscrutinizingGouldin,itisremarkablethatithastakenmorethanyearsforaresearchgrouptocheckGould’sclaimsthoroughlyDidGould’scompellingwritingandadmirableantiracistmotivationshelptodelayscrutinyofhisfactsQuitepossibly,andthisisregrettableAlthoughfuturehistorianswillbehappytoscrutinizeourmostpersuasiveandcelebratedluminaries,today’sscientistsshouldnotleavethejobtothem“Gould’sstaunchoppositiontoracismmayhavebiasedhisinterpretationofMorton’sdata”JUNE|VOL|NATURE|EDITORIALSMacmillanPublishersLimitedAllrightsreservedNATURECOMTocommentonline,clickonEditorialsat:gonaturecomxhunqvPoetryinmotionAquantitativeapproachtothehumanitiesenrichesresearchTheOscarwinningfilmDeadPoetsSocietyisanunabashedlyexuberantstorythatappealstotheLordByronineachofusRobinWilliamsplaysacharismaticEnglishteacherataconservativeUSprepschoolinthesand,inonescene,getshisimpressionablestudentstoreadalessonfromapoetrytextbookaloudTheworthofapoem,theyread,shouldbemeasuredontwoaxes:itsartisticperfectionanditsimportanceAstheschoolboysstarttomapoutgraphsintheirnotebooks,Williamscutsthemoff“Excrement,”heannouncesthat’swhathethinksofthemathematicalapproachApoemmustbefelt,notfiguredHeorderstheboystotearthepageoutofthetextbook“We’renotlayingpipe,”hesays“We’retalkingaboutpoetry”ItishardtodisagreewiththespiritofthatmomentWeshouldallbepassionateaboutouracademicinterests,anddaringenoughtoripuphideboundrulesthatgovernthemButthescene’sexplicitdisdainforquantitativeanalysisoftextisasoutofdateasitiswrongThesedays,itisthehumanitiesscholarswhoequipthemselveswithquantitativeskillswhoaremostabletosoundtheir‘barbaricyawps’overtheroofsoftheworld,asWilliamsurgedhisstudentstodoAstheNewsFeatureonpageshows,thefieldofdigitalhumanitiesisflourishing,ledbyscientistssuchasthosebehindtheinnovativeGooglengramsviewer,whichcanbeusedtotrackthefrequenciesofwordsandphrasesastheyappearinofthebookseverpublishedWhethermappingthetransmissionofVoltaire’slettersacrossEurope,findingstructuralpatternsinmusicacrossculturesortrackingtheevolutionofirregularverbsthroughtime,thesedigitalhumanistshaveplentytosayAndtheyhavethedatatobackitupThatisnottosaythattraditionalapproachesinthehumanitieswillbedisappearinganytimesoon,orthatcareful,interpretivereadingsbyexperiencedscholarsareasarbitraryasthelearningbyfeelingespousedbyDeadPoetsSocietyButdigitizationismarchingon,andinallsubjects,researcherswhohavetheirearstotheground,ratherthantheirheadsinthesand,canheartheapproachingdrumsEveryday,moreandmoreofthemediathatmakeupbothhistoricalandcontemporaryculturearebeingconvertedtoelectronicaItseemsjustamatteroftimebeforethehumanities,likethesocialsciencesbeforethem,wholeheartedlyembracescientificmethodologyAndthatshouldbereasontorejoice,notremonstrateAsWilliamsimploredhisyoungcharges:carpediemSeizethedayDamnediftheydoAnindustryapproachtogreenerhydropowerisfarfromperfect,butitdoesofferawayforwardsThemightyIguaçuFallsinBrazilareanexcellentillustrationofthepowerofwater,sowhatbetterplaceforthehydropowerindustrytopromotewhatitsaysisafreshapproachtoitssustainabilityThereisampleroomforscepticismabouttheeffortknownastheHydropowerSustainabilityAssessmentProtocol(seepage)ItisanindustryledendeavourthatrequiresnexttonothingfromtheindustryItgradeshydropowerprojects,butmakesnojudgementonwhatshouldhappentoprojectsthatrankpoorlyAnditisgearedtowardsassessmentofindividualdams,independentofbroaderquestionsaboutenergyresourcedevelopmentSofar,sobadYet,ifdeployedproperly,itcouldalsobeaninvaluabletooltoinjectmuchneededscienceandreasonintoaplanningprocessthathasoperatedwithlittleofeitherformuchtoolongDevelopersandgovernmentshavehistoricallyassesseddamprojectsmainlyonthebasisofcostandpowerEngineerssimplysurveythelandscapetoidentifytheeasiestplacestoblockchannels,setupturbinesandrunpowerlinesSediments,endemicspeciesandtheconsequencesofseveringcommunicationbetweenheadwatersandestuariesareverymuchsecondaryissuesEvenpeoplegetshortshrift,leadingindigenousgroupstomountthekindofintenseproteststhatlastweeksawthePeruviangovernmentshelveplansforamassivedamintheAmazonThisstandardapproachhascausednumerousenvironmentalproblemssuchassiltationandblockagestomigratingfishinindustrializedcountries,whichexploitedtheirbesthydropowerresourceslongagoandarenowtryingtorepairthedamageInsomecases,thecostsofimprovementoutweighthebenefits,andolddamsarebeingdecommissionedBut,inthedevelopingworld,hydropowerprojectscontinuetostackupCountriesinSoutheastAsiaandLatinAmerica,inparticular,arepursinghydropowerwithgusto,hopingtoalleviateenergypovertyandfeedburgeoningeconomiesByoneoptimisticindustryestimate,cumulativehydropowercapacitycouldnearlydoublebyWithoutamorecoordinatedapproach,thesecountriesaredoomedtomakethesamemistakesThenewhydropowerprotocolcomescourtesyoftheInternationalHydropowerAssociation,whichconsultedwithenvironmentalandhumanrightsgroups,aswellasrepresentativesfromfinanceandgovernment,inanefforttosetoutsomebasicprinciplesofsustainablehydropowerAfterthreeyearsofwork,theresultisawaytoassessdamprojectsonarangeofcriteriafromplanning,governanceandpublicengagementtoecologyandhydrologyItisvoluntary,however,andtherearenominimumstandardsTheprotocolasksalltherightquestionsbutfailstoprovideanyanswersThishasdrivenawedgeintothecommunityofenvironmentalandsocialactiviststhatworkinthisarenaCriticsarguethattheprotocolrepresentslittlemorethanapublicrelationsexercisethatwillallowbaddeveloperstoappeargreenwhilepursuingbusinessasnormaloftenonprojectsthatpredatecurrentenvironmentalthinkingThismaybetrue,but,unfortunately,inthepoliticalandcorporateworldsuch‘greenwash’iscommonTheneweffortwouldatleastcreateacommonlanguagewithwhichtoraiseconcerns,evaluatethebestavailablescienceandnegotiateimprovementsThebiggestshortcomingliesintheassessmentofindividualdamsthathavealreadybeenproposedforspecificlocationsMuchbetterwouldbeanapproachtoanalyseentireriverbasinsinanefforttoidentifythemostsuitablelocations,aswellasareaswherespecialprecautionsshouldbetakenIndeed,itmightwellbethatsomeriversshouldbelefttoflowfreelytopreserveecologicalintegrityTheprotocoldoestouchontheseissues,raisingquestionsaboutadam’sroleinthebroaderenergymixandaboutwiderimpactsfromhydroelectricdevelopmentAnditcouldyetofferafoundationtosetminimumstandardsintheseandotherareas,sothatcompanieswouldneedtobuildandoperatebetterdams,aswellasintegratethemintoamorecomprehensiveenergystrategyForallofitsfaults,theprotocolopensanotherbridgetoabetterfutureNowit’suptogovernments,banksandcompaniestomakethejourneyacross“Thehydropowerassessmentprotocolasksalltherightquestionsbutfailstoprovideanyanswers”|NATURE|VOL|JUNEEDITORIALSTHISWEEKMacmillanPublishersLimitedAllrightsreservedNATURECOMTocommentonline,clickonEditorialsat:gonaturecomxhunqvPoetryinmotionAquantitativeapproachtothehumanitiesenrichesresearchTheOscarwinningfilmDeadPoetsSocietyisanunabashedlyexuberantstorythatappealstotheLordByronineachofusRobinWilliamsplaysacharismaticEnglishteacherataconservativeUSprepschoolinthesand,inonescene,getshisimpressionablestudentstoreadalessonfromapoetrytextbookaloudTheworthofapoem,theyread,shouldbemeasuredontwoaxes:itsartisticperfectionanditsimportanceAstheschoolboysstarttomapoutgraphsintheirnotebooks,Williamscutsthemoff“Excrement,”heannouncesthat’swhathethinksofthemathematicalapproachApoemmustbefelt,notfiguredHeorderstheboystotearthepageoutofthetextbook“We’renotlayingpipe,”hesays“We’retalkingaboutpoetry”ItishardtodisagreewiththespiritofthatmomentWeshouldallbepassionateaboutouracademicinterests,anddaringenoughtoripuphideboundrulesthatgovernthemButthescene’sexplicitdisdainforquantitativeanalysisoftextisasoutofdateasitiswrongThesedays,itisthehumanitiesscholarswhoequipthemselveswithquantitativeskillswhoaremostabletosoundtheir‘barbaricyawps’overtheroofsoftheworld,asWilliamsurgedhisstudentstodoAstheNewsFeatureonpageshows,thefieldofdigitalhumanitiesisflourishing,ledbyscientistssuchasthosebehindtheinnovativeGooglengramsviewer,whichcanbeusedtotrackthefrequenciesofwordsandphrasesastheyappearinofthebookseverpublishedWhethermappingthetransmissionofVoltaire’slettersacrossEurope,findingstructuralpatternsinmusicacrossculturesortrackingtheevolutionofirregularverbsthroughtime,thesedigitalhumanistshaveplentytosayAndtheyhavethedatatobackitupThatisnottosaythattraditionalapproachesinthehumanitieswillbedisappearinganytimesoon,orthatcareful,interpretivereadingsbyexperiencedscholarsareasarbitraryasthelearningbyfeelingespousedbyDeadPoetsSocietyButdigitizationismarchingon,andinallsubjects,researcherswhohavetheirearstotheground,ratherthantheirheadsinthesand,canheartheapproachingdrumsEveryday,moreandmoreofthemediathatmakeupbothhistoricalandcontemporaryculturearebeingconvertedtoelectronicaItseemsjustamatteroftimebeforethehumanities,likethesocialsciencesbeforethem,wholeheartedlyembracescientificmethodologyAndthatshouldbereasontorejoice,notremonstrateAsWilliamsimploredhisyoungcharges:carpediemSeizethedayDamnediftheydoAnindustryapproachtogreenerhydropowerisfarfromperfect,butitdoesofferawayforwardsThemightyIguaçuFallsinBrazilareanexcellentillustrationofthepowerofwater,sowhatbetterplaceforthehydropowerindustrytopromotewhatitsaysisafreshapproachtoitssustainabilityThereisampleroomforscepticismabouttheeffortknownastheHydropowerSustainabilityAssessmentProtocol(seepage)ItisanindustryledendeavourthatrequiresnexttonothingfromtheindustryItgradeshydropowerprojects,butmakesnojudgementonwhatshouldhappentoprojectsthatrankpoorlyAnditisgearedtowardsassessmentofindividualdams,independentofbroaderquestionsaboutenergyresourcedevelopmentSofar,sobadYet,ifdeployedproperly,itcouldalsobeaninvaluabletooltoinjectmuchneededscienceandreasonintoaplanningprocessthathasoperatedwithlittleofeitherformuchtoolongDevelopersandgovernmentshavehistoricallyassesseddamprojectsmainlyonthebasisofcostandpowerEngineerssimplysurveythelandscapetoidentifytheeasiestplacestoblockchannels,setupturbinesandrunpowerlinesSediments,endemicspeciesandtheconsequencesofseveringcommunicationbetweenheadwatersandestuariesareverymuchsecondaryissuesEvenpeoplegetshortshrift,leadingindigenousgroupstomountthekindofintenseproteststhatlastweeksawthePeruviangovernmentshelveplansforamassivedamintheAmazonThisstandardapproachhascausednumerousenvironmentalproblemssuchassiltationandblockagestomigratingfishinindustrializedcountries,whichexploitedtheirbesthydropowerresourceslongagoandarenowtryingtorepairthedamageInsomecases,thecostsofimprovementoutweighthebenefits,andolddamsarebeingdecommissionedBut,inthedevelopingworld,hydropowerprojectscontinuetostackupCountriesinSoutheastAsiaandLatinAmerica,inparticular,arepursinghydropowerwithgusto,hopingtoalleviateenergypovertyandfeedburgeoningeconomiesByoneoptimisticindustryestimate,cumulativehydropowercapacitycouldnearlydoublebyWithoutamorecoordinatedapproach,thesecountriesaredoomedtomakethesamemistakesThenewhydropowerprotocolcomescourtesyoftheInternationalHydropowerAssociation,whichconsultedwithenvironmentalandhumanrightsgroups,aswellasrepresentativesfromfinanceandgovernment,inanefforttosetoutsomebasicprinciplesofsustainablehydropowerAfterthreeyearsofwork,theresultisawaytoassessdamprojectsonarangeofcriteriafromplanning,governanceandpublicengagementtoecologyandhydrologyItisvolunt

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