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首页 [自然杂志].Nature.-.June.9.2011.pdf

[自然杂志].Nature.-.June.9.2011.pdf

[自然杂志].Nature.-.June.9.2011.pdf

上传者: zchgoood 2011-12-28 评分 5 0 149 20 677 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《[自然杂志].Nature.-.June.9.2011pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含THISWEEKEVOLUTIONHowskunksgivefairwarningpWORLDVIEWGiftsthatcomewithideolo符等。

THISWEEKEVOLUTIONHowskunksgivefairwarningpWORLDVIEWGiftsthatcomewithideologicalstringspNUCLEARPOWERIt’stimeforresearchintoalternativespCyberwarfarechallengeNationalcybersecurityplansshouldgobeyondthecoldwarmentalityofanarmsraceandfocusmoreonlinkingtraditionalcomputersecuritywithprotectionsforindustrialcontrolsystemsscientificpursuitandgovernmentsupportExpertspointtotheneedtogobeyondthecurrentgenerationofsignaturebasedantivirussoftwareAndscientistsbemoanthelackofaccesstogooddatainthiscasevirusesthatareneededtohelpthemconductresearchThenthere’stheneedtobridgethegapbetweentraditionalcomputersecurityandresearchintoindustrialcontrolsystemsecurityDespitethosechallenges,theUSgovernmenthasnoclearresearchagenda,orevenresearchcommunity,thatfocusesoncybersecurityThisproblemcouldbetackledinmanyways,butthefirststepmightbetocreateanationalresearchplanforcybersecurity,appointingaleadagencythatwouldcoordinateresearch,andperhapsevenfundingcentresofexcellenceatvariousuniversitiestoencourageinterdisciplinaryresearchStuxnetisproofthatgovernmentscanwhentheysochoosebringtogetherdifferentbranchesofresearchandbridgethegapbetweencomputersecurityresearchersandtheindustrialcontrolsystemsecuritycommunityIfgovernmentscandothistocreatecyberweapons,theyshouldbeequallycapableofdrivingresearchintocyberdefenceIfanyoneneedsproofthatacyberarmsraceisinthemaking,theyneedlooknofurtherthanlastweek’snewsheadlinesIntheUnitedStates,thePentagonisexpectedsoontoreleaseareportoratleastanunclassifiedversionofareportdescribinghowtheUSgovernmentmightrespondtoacyberattackthatcausesphysicaldamageOneoption,accordingtoareportinTheWallStreetJournal,mightbetoforgothesubtletyofacyberresponse,anddropbombsonasuspectedattackerSimilarly,inaneditorialinTheGuardianlastweek,UKdefenceministerNickHarveyrevealedthecreationofacyberoperationsgroupthatwouldplacecyberwarfareonafootingsimilartoconventionalmilitaryoperations“Cyberwillbepartofacontinuumoftoolswithwhichtoachievemilitaryeffect,bothdefensiveandotherwise,andwillbeanintegralpartofourarmoury,”HarveywroteItisnownearlyayearsincethealertwasfirstraisedaboutStuxnet,themalicioussoftware,ormalware,thattargetedIran’snuclearprogrammeItishardlysurprising,therefore,thatgovernmentsarenowcomingforwardwithplansforcyberwarYettheintensivepushforcyberweaponsonlyhighlightsaglaringgapinopenlyfundedresearchforcyberdefenceIndeed,Stuxnet,possiblythefirsttrulygovernmentbackedcyberweapon,waseventuallydefusednotbymilitarycyberwarriors,butbyprivateresearchers(seepage)Stuxnetisclearlyagamechanger,demonstratinganabilitytotargetacyberattackonagrandscaleThesubsequentcallforthedevelopmentofcyberweaponssoundsverymuchlikethecoldwarpushtobuildeverlargernucleararsenalsandnodoubtclaimsofcyberweaponrygapswillariseIntheUnitedStates,theDepartmentofHomelandSecurityiswagingacampaigntoengageanybodyworkingwithacomputerGovernments,itisclear,willhaveresponsibilitiestoprotectinfrastructureandinstallations,butprivatecompaniesandindividualswillbeexpectedtotakeincreasingresponsibilityfortheirownandthereforeeverybodyelse’sprotectionThereisarealandprofoundpublicvulnerabilitythatshouldmotivatecountriestoinvestincybersecurityresearch:theantiquatedstateofsecurityforindustrialcontrolsystems,whichmakeseventhemostdevelopedcountriesasvulnerableasIrantoaStuxnetlikeattackItisnotjustthepowerplantsortheelectricitygridthatareatriskIntheUnitedStates,forexample,thewaterindustryisparticularlyvulnerable,accordingtoexpertsRunbysmallorganizations,highlyfragmentedandwithfewresourcestoinvestinsecurity,thenation’swatersupplyisaninvitingtargetforattackThefoodindustry,nottraditionallythefocusofpublicconcernsaboutcybersecurity,isanothersoftspotMostpeopledon’trealizethatprogrammablelogiccontrollers,thedevicestargetedbyStuxnet,areusedtoruntheheavilyautomatedfoodpackagingindustryAndtheStuxnethistoryshowsthathoweverisolatedincyberspacethetargetis,thereisstillamajorthreatofaspreadtoanysystemcontrolledbysoftwareOntheresearchside,Stuxnethighlightsseveralchallengesworthyof“Stuxnetisproofthatgovernmentscanbringtogetherdifferentbranchesofresearch”SecondchancesLeadersmustendarunofunmetpledgeswhentheymeettodiscusssustainabledevelopmentNextJune,worldleaderswillgatherinRiodeJaneiro,Brazil,forEarthSummit,todiscuss(again)howtosteertheplanettowardsamoresustainablefutureThegatheringmarksthethanniversaryoftheRioEarthSummit,atwhichheadsofstateagreedonasetofprinciplesintendedtoguidesustainableglobaleconomicgrowthincludingthepreceptthatenvironmentalprotectionshouldbecentraltodevelopmentLittleprogresshasbeenmadeonthisinthetwodecadessincethesummitRather,countrieshavecontinuedtopursuerelativelyunrestrictedeconomicdevelopment,withlimitedattemptstominimizeenvironmentalimpactsSo,willnextyear’ssummitdoanybetterThosewhoattendwillbeforcedtoconfrontastringoffailurestomeetinternationalgreengoals,includingapledgetostemthelossofbiodiversitybyasagreedundertheConventiononBiologicalDiversityandtosetnewbindingtargetstoreducegreenhousegasJUNE|VOL|NATURE|EDITORIALSMacmillanPublishersLimitedAllrightsreservedNATURECOMTocommentonline,clickonEditorialsat:gonaturecomxhunqvMisspentenergyThecrisisatFukushimaDaiichishouldsparkarethinkofnuclearresearchprogrammesThreemonthsafteratriplemeltdownattheFukushimaDaiichinuclearpowerstationinJapan,theworldistakingahardlookatnuclearpowerLastweek,GermanysaidthatitwouldcloseallofitsnuclearplantsSwitzerlandhasalsoannounceditswithdrawalfromthenucleararenaOthernationsremaincommittedfornowbut,intheWest,hopesforanuclearrenaissanceseemmoribundNevertheless,globalenergyneedscontinuetoriseBy,theworld’selectricitydemandwillhaveincreasedby–,accordingtotheInternationalEnergyAgency(IEA)inParisWithoutnuclearpower,manynationswillstruggletomeetthatdemand,especiallyiftheycutbackonfossilfuelstoreducetheeffectsofclimatechangeGermanyhopestomakeupitsshortfallthroughanincreaseinrenewableenergysourcesandareductioninenergyconsumptionNewtechnologiescouldhelptomeetthesetargetsYetin,thelatestdateforwhichIEAfiguresareavailable,GermanyspentUS$milliononnuclearresearchroughlywhatitdidonresearchintorenewablesandenergyefficiencycombinedInJapan,whichcontinuestobeplaguedbyenergyshortagesfromFukushima’sshutdown,theUS$billionnuclearresearchbudgetwassixtimestheenergyefficiencybudgetManyoftheseresearchprogrammesbeganinthesands,whenfissionreactorsseemedtobethefirststepontheroadtoanuclearfutureTechnicalchallenges,theenormousexpenseoffissionpowerandtherisksassociatedwithmeltdownshavemadethatroadseemmuchlongertodaythanitdidyearsagoSomenuclearinvestmentsseemmorequestionablefollowingtheFukushimacrisisandpotentialgapsinenergyprovisionShouldJapanspendhundredsofmillionsofdollarsonadvancedbreederreactorswhenitsplansforconventionalonesareonholdShouldGermanycontinueitssizeablenationalprogrammeinnuclearfusion,adistantanddifficulttechnology,whenitsfissionreactorsarebeingshutdownMeanwhile,thethreatfromclimatechangegrowseverlarger,andthereisapressingneedforresearchtohelpreduceitMoreefficientbuildingdesigncoulddrasticallyreduceenergyconsumption,andmaterialsresearchisneededtodrivedownthecostofsolarpanelsNewtechnologiesmustbedevelopedandintegratedintoamorerobustelectricitygridifrenewablepoweristobeefficientlydistributedHowever,inmanynations,theresearchisundersupportedAIEAanalysisfoundshortfallsinallenergyresearchexceptfissionEvenasmallshiftfromnucleartootherareascouldmakeabigdifferenceNoneofthismeansthatnationsshouldabandonfissionExistingnuclearplantscontinuetoprovidecheap,carbonfreeenergy,andsomenations,notablyChina,havedecidedthat,despitesafetyconcerns,nuclearfissioniskeytoexpandingtheireconomieswhilereducingcarbonemissionsNordoesitmeanthatallnuclearresearchshouldbeabandonedIndeed,someofitseemsprescient,giventherecentdisaster:researchintonuclearwastedisposalwillundoubtedlyinformtheongoingcleanupatFukushima(seepage)AndresearchintoconventionallightwaterreactorscouldleadtosafetyimprovementsOtherendeavours,suchasreactorsthatcanproducemedicalisotopes,standontheirownmeritsButconventionalfissionisamaturetechnologyToday’sreactordesignsaresaferandmoreefficientthanthosefromtheFukushimaDaiichieraTheyaretheonesthatcountrieswillbuildMoreadvancedreactordesignsmaybenecessaryoneday,butfornowtheyseemaveryexpensivedreamCheaperareasofresearchcouldhaveabiggerimpactintheshorttermInaworldwithfiniteresources,andseriousenergyandenvironmentalcrisesontheway,itistimetorethinkresearchprioritiesemissionsundertheUnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChangeThechancesofmeetingtheUN’sMillenniumDevelopmentGoalstohalvepovertybylookequallyunpromisingItdoesnothelpthattheUNhasbeenlacklustreinitspreparationsfortheRiosummitApanelofseniorpoliticiansandbusinessheadshasbeenputtoworktodrawupaplan(again)forglobalsustainablegrowththatwillsettheagendaformuchofthediscussionButthepanelwasannouncedonlylastAugust,anditisnotclearthatsuchanimportanttaskcanbecompletedinsolittletimeStill,manyscientistsandenvironmentaleconomistsremainhopefulLastmonth,NaturejoinedagroupofNobellaureatesinStockholmastheydrewuptheirownvisionofthekeychallengestosustainabledevelopmentGiventhesizeofthetask,themoodwassurprisinglyupbeatCentraltotheproposalsthatthegroupcameupwithwastheneed(again)tochangethemindsetofworldleadersRatherthankeepingtothetraditionalviewthateconomicdevelopmentandenvironmentalconservationsitinopposition,thelaureatesstressedthatcontinueddamagetofactorssuchasbiodiversity,soilqualityandindigenouspeople’slandrightswillincreasinglyaffecteconomicgrowthThereareencouragingsignsthat,insomeplaces,thenecessarychangeinattitudesisunderwayForexample,latelastmonthattheGlobalEnergyPartnershipinRome,governmentsagreedonholisticindicatorstoassessthesustainableproductionanduseofbioenergyTheseincludethepriceandsupplyoffoodandthenetcreationofjobs,aswellaswaterqualityandgreenhousegasemissionsThecurrentbiofuelfiasco,inwhichpoliciesontheuseofsuchfuelshavebeenintroducedaheadoftheproperchecksandbalances,couldhavebeenavoidedhadthesewiderfactorsbeengivenproperconsiderationSimilarly,theOrganisationforEconomicCooperationandDevelopmentinParishaslaunchedtheYourBetterLifeIndex,atooltoevaluatelivelihoodsusingindicatorsthatgobeyondgrossdomesticproductTheyincludehousing,environment,safetyandwork–lifebalanceAstheNobellaureatesnoted,suchwelfareindicatorsareneededtoaccountproperlyfornaturalcapitalandthesocialaspectsofprogressineconomicdecisionsGovernanceremainsamajorissuewiththeimplementationofenvironmentalgoalsPartofthereasonthattheEarthSummitfailedtohavethehopedforimpactwasthatnointernationalbodywasgivenresponsibilitytomonitorandenforceitsdecisionsThisremainsthecase,butsuggestionsonhowtochangethesituationarematuringBriceLalonde,coordinatoroftheRiosummit,toldameetinginBrusselsonMaythathewantstoseetheWorldTradeOrganization’senvironmentalremitstrengthened,sothatitcanpoliceanynewglobalagreementOtherswouldprefertoseeabeefedupUNEnvironmentProgrammecollaboratemorewithotherrelevantUNandinternationalbodiesTherecouldevenbearolefortheUNSecurityCouncilPoliticalrealities,orwhatarestillviewedaspoliticalrealities,remainahugeobstacletosustainabledevelopmentButforthosewillingtolisten,theglobalcommunitynowhasatleastawiderandmorethoroughunderstandingofthescaleoftheenvironmentalproblemsitfacesThismayyetspurpoliticalwilltoensurethattheRiosummit,andwiderdiscussiononthevitaldecisionsthatitrepresents,arenotawasteoftime(again)“Continueddamagetofactorssuchasbiodiversitywillincreasinglyaffecteconomicgrowth”|NATURE|VOL|JUNEEDITORIALSTHISWEEKMacmillanPublishersLimitedAllrightsreservedcarol高亮carol高亮carol高亮carol高亮carol高亮carol高亮carol高亮carol高亮carol高亮NATURECOMDiscussthisarticleonlineat:gonaturecomkjafoBewareofgiftsthatcomeattoogreatacostDangerlurksforstateuniversitieswhenphilanthropyencroachesonacademicindependence,warnsSheldonKrimskyAmerica’spublicuniversitiesriskcompromisingtheirautonomyandbetterjudgementwhen,facedwithmajorbudgetdeficitsfromdecliningtaxpayerrevenue,theygraspatopportunitiestolandexternalfundingfromprivatedonorsThefinanciallandscapemakesinstitutionsvulnerabletoideologicalpredatorswho,underthecloakofphilanthropy,wishtotakecontrolofwhatistaughtandbywhomTheissuehasbeenhighlightedbytherecentcontroversyoverthedecisionbyFloridaStateUniversity(FSU)inTallahasseetoacceptUS$ millionfromtheCharlesGKochCharitableFoundationinArlington,VirginiaLikemanypublicuniversities,FSUhasfoundithardertoattracthighlevelfacultymembersinafinanciallandscapedominatedbystatebudgetcuts,aneconomicdownturnthathashitendowments,andlimitsplacedontuitionfeesTheKochfoundationisanexampleofprivatephilanthropywithanideologyItsbillionairefounder,CharlesKoch,isanadvocateofminimalistgovernment(avestigeofanineteenthcenturystylefreemarketeconomicsystem),personalresponsibilityinlieuofsocialsafetynets,privatelyfinancededucation,andanendtothegovernmentrunsocialsecuritysystemKochandhisbrotherDavidhavebeenamongtheleadingfundersofthelibertarianTeaPartyandsupportitsorganizationsandpoliticalcandidatesLet’sbeclearItisnotunusualforprivatedonorstosupportuniversityfacultypositionsincertainfieldsButtheFSUcaseisremarkableforthestringsthatcameattachedtothemoneyIhaveexaminedmanysuchagreements,buttheonethatFSUsignedwiththeKochfoundationbreakstroublingnewgroundFirst,andmostpubliclydiscussed,theuniversityagreedtogivethefoundationtheauthoritytodecidetheselectioncriteriausedtofilltheeconomicsfacultypositionsthatitpaidfor,andtherighttovetocandidatesofwhomitdidnotapproveThisagreementisamarkeddeparturefromthewellestablishedseparationbetweenprivateacademicphilanthropyandfacultyhiringdecisionsTheuniversityinsiststhatitwasawareofthethreattoitsindependence,andwaspreparedtopulloutoftheagreementifitfeltthatitsintegritywasbeingunderminedbyoutsideinfluenceItsaysthatthetwoacademicssubsequentlyappointedandfundedundertheagreementwereitschoicesYetitacceptsthatthecontractpresentstheappearanceofoutsideinfluence,andsaysitisnowreviewingitsdecisiontosignitInmyview,theuniversitywasattheveryleastnaive,andatmostitturnedablindeyetoacompromisingagreementFSUshouldtearthedealupandhandbackthecashThisisnoidleacademicexercise,andtherearemoreproblemswiththedealthanwhogetstodecidewhoishiredThestatedobjectiveoftheFSU–Kochagreement,ofwhichIhaveacopy,is“toadvancetheunderstandingandpracticeofthosefreevoluntaryprocessesandprinciplesthatpromotesocialprogress,humanwellbeing,individualfreedom,opportunityandprosperitybasedontheruleoflaw,constitutionalgovernment,privateproperty,andthelaws,regulations,organizations,institutionsandsocialnormsuponwhichtheyrely”Thephraseofmostconcernisthe“practiceofthosefreevoluntaryprocessesandprinciples”StudentsofpoliticaleconomicswillrecognizesimilarphrasinginthenineteenthcenturyanarchistwritingsofPeterKropotkinandPierreJosephProudhonNeitherclassicalanarchistsnorradicallibertarianshaveanyuseforstrongcentralauthoritiesthatoverseesocialwelfareprogrammesIseenoproblemwithfundingprofessorshipsinthestudyofclassicalanarchismortwentyfirstcenturylibertarianism,anymorethanIwouldwithfundingaMarxistscholarButtheautonomyoftheuniversityistransgressedwhenthecriteriaforfundingseektoadvancethepracticeofapoliticalideologyAccordingtotheagreement,performanceobjectivesfortheprogrammewillbereviewedbyathreememberadvisoryboard,chosenbytheKochfoundation,whichwillmonitortheperformanceoffacultymembersandcheckwhethertheyremaintruetotheprogramme’smissionTheagreementalsostatesthat“IndividualsholdingthesponsoredprofessorshippositionswillbetreatedsimilarlytoallotherFSUfacultyofsimilarrank”ReallyItisinconceivablethatthefacultyhandbookofFSUoranyotherstateuniversityuses“advancementofthepractice”ofapoliticalideologytomeasureacademicsuccessTheagreementalsostipulatesthatan“UndergraduatePoliticalEconomyCommittee”shouldbesetupintheFSUeconomicsdepartment,withoneoutsidememberchosenbythefoundationThepurposeofthiscommitteeistoshapetheundergraduatecurriculumtoensurethatitmeetsthegoalsoftheagreementTheseconditionsareunacceptableatanyrespectableuniversityLettherebenomistake:thecontroversyovertheFSU–KochagreementisnotaboutthediversityofviewsoneconomicsatAmerica’suniversitiesItisnoteven,astheuniversitylikestoportray,aboutwhetherithiredthestaffitwantedtoItisaboutthewiderthreattotheindependenceandautonomyofacademicappointments,andtheproperboundariesbetweenphilanthropyandauniversity’schoicesaboutfacultyandcurriculumCompromisingthesevalues,evenunderconditionsoffinancialexigency,willturnauniversityagainstitselfandcorruptitsintegralvalueto

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