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首页 16-心理障碍

16-心理障碍.pdf

16-心理障碍

苏小窒
2011-12-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《16-心理障碍pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

Myers’PSYCHOLOGYChapterPsychologicalDisordersPsychologicalDisordersPsychologicalDisordera“harmfuldysfunction”inwhichbehaviorisjudgedtobe:atypicalnotenoughinitselfdisturbingvarieswithtimeandculturemaladaptiveharmfulunjustifiablesometimesthere’sagoodreasonHistoricalPerspectivePerceivedCausesmovementsofsunormoonlunacyfullmoonevilspiritsAncientTreatmentsexorcism,cagedlikeanimals,beaten,burned,castrated,mutilated,bloodreplacedwithanimal’sbloodPsychologicalDisordersMedicalModelconceptthatdiseaseshavephysicalcausescanbediagnosed,treated,andinmostcases,curedassumesthatthese“mental”illnessescanbediagnosedonthebasisoftheirsymptomsandcuredthroughtherapy,whichmayincludetreatmentinapsychiatrichospitalPsychologicalDisordersBioPsychoSocialPerspectiveassumesthatbiological,sociocultural,andpsychologicalfactorscombineandinteracttoproducepsychologicaldisordersPsychologicalDisordersPsychologicalDisordersEtiologyDSMIVAmericanPsychiatricAssociation’sDiagnosticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders(FourthEdition)awidelyusedsystemforclassifyingpsychologicaldisorderspresentlydistributedasDSMIVTR(textrevision)PsychologicalDisordersEtiologyNeuroticDisorder(termseldomusednow)usuallydistressingbutthatallowsonetothinkrationallyandfunctionsociallyPsychoticDisorderpersonlosescontactwithrealityexperiencesirrationalideasanddistortedperceptionsAnxietyDisordersAnxietyDisordersdistressing,persistentanxietyormaladaptivebehaviorsthatreduceanxietyGeneralizedAnxietyDisorderpersonistense,apprehensive,andinastateofautonomicnervoussystemarousalAnxietyDisordersPanicDisordermarkedbyaminuteslongepisodeofintensedreadinwhichapersonexperiencesterrorandaccompanyingchestpain,choking,orotherfrighteningsensationAnxietyDisordersPhobiapersistent,irrationalfearofaspecificobjectorsituationObsessiveCompulsiveDisorderunwantedrepetitivethoughts(obsessions)andoractions(compulsions)AnxietyDisordersCommonanduncommonfearsAnxietyDisordersAnxietyDisordersPETScanofbrainofpersonwithObsessiveCompulsivedisorderHighmetabolicactivity(red)infrontallobeareasinvolvedwithdirectingattentionMoodDisordersMoodDisorderscharacterizedbyemotionalextremesMajorDepressiveDisorderamooddisorderinwhichaperson,fornoapparentreason,experiencestwoormoreweeksofdepressedmoods,feelingsofworthlessness,anddiminishedinterestorpleasureinmostactivitiesMoodDisordersManicEpisodeamooddisordermarkedbyahyperactive,wildlyoptimisticstateBipolarDisorderamooddisorderinwhichthepersonalternatesbetweenthehopelessnessandlethargyofdepressionandtheoverexcitedstateofmaniaformerlycalledmanicdepressivedisorderMoodDisordersDepressionMoodDisordersDepressionCanadiandepressionratesMoodDisordersSuicideMoodDisordersBipolarPETscansshowthatbrainenergyconsumptionrisesandfallswithemotionalswitchesDepressedstateManicstateDepressedstateMoodDisordersDepressionAlteringanyonecomponentofthechemistrycognitionmoodcircuitcanaltertheothersMoodDisordersDepressionTheviciouscycleofdepressioncanbebrokenatanypointDissociativeDisordersDissociativeDisordersconsciousawarenessbecomesseparated(dissociated)frompreviousmemories,thoughts,andfeelingsDissociativeIdentityDisorderraredissociativedisorderinwhichapersonexhibitstwoormoredistinctandalternatingpersonalitiesformerlycalledmultiplepersonalitydisorderSchizophreniaSchizophrenialiteraltranslation“splitmind”agroupofseveredisorderscharacterizedby:disorganizedanddelusionalthinkingdisturbedperceptionsinappropriateemotionsandactionsSchizophreniaDelusionsfalsebeliefs,oftenofpersecutionorgrandeur,thatmayaccompanypsychoticdisordersHallucinationssensoryexperienceswithoutsensorystimulationSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaPersonalityDisordersPersonalityDisordersdisorderscharacterizedbyinflexibleandenduringbehaviorpatternsthatimpairsocialfunctioningusuallywithoutanxiety,depression,ordelusionsPersonalityDisordersAntisocialPersonalityDisorderdisorderinwhichtheperson(usuallyman)exhibitsalackofconscienceforwrongdoing,eventowardfriendsandfamilymembersmaybeaggressiveandruthlessoracleverconartistMoodDisordersDepressionBoyswhowerelaterconvictedofacrimeshowedrelativelylowarousalPersonalityDisordersPETscansillustratereducedactivationinamurderer’sfrontalcortexNormalMurdererPersonalityDisordersRatesofPsychologicalDisordersMyers’PSYCHOLOGY�PsychologicalDisordersHistoricalPerspectivePsychologicalDisordersPsychologicalDisordersPsychologicalDisordersPsychologicalDisordersEtiologyPsychologicalDisordersEtiologyAnxietyDisordersAnxietyDisordersAnxietyDisordersAnxietyDisordersAnxietyDisordersAnxietyDisordersMoodDisordersMoodDisordersMoodDisordersDepressionMoodDisordersDepressionMoodDisordersSuicideMoodDisordersBipolarMoodDisordersDepressionMoodDisordersDepressionDissociativeDisordersSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaSchizophreniaPersonalityDisordersPersonalityDisordersMoodDisordersDepressionPersonalityDisordersPersonalityDisordersRatesofPsychologicalDisorders

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