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首页 Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_4

Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_4.pdf

Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessor…

竹影溪语
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简介:本文档为《Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_4pdf》,可适用于体育/运动领域

withtheparticipationofDmitryPlisetskyEVERYMANCHESSGloucesterPublisherspicwwweverymanchesscomFirstpublishedinbyGloucesterPublishersplc(formerlyEverymanPublishersplc),NorthburghHouse,NorthburghStreet,LondonECVOATCopyright©GarryKasparovEnglishtranslation©KenNeatFirstpublishedbyGloucesterPublishersplcTherightofGarryKasparovtobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeCopyrights,DesignsandPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrostatic,magnetictape,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorpermissionofthepublisherBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNDistributedinNorthAmericabyTheGlobePequotPress,POBox,GooseLane,Guilford,CTAllothersalesenquiriesshouldbedirectedtoEverymanChess,NorthburghHouse,NorthburghStreet,LondonECVOATtel:fax:email:infoeverymanchesscomwebsite:wwweverymanchesscomEverymanistheregisteredtrademarkofRandomHouseIncandisusedinthisworkunderlicensefromRandomHouseIncEVERYMANCHESSSERIES(formerlyCadoganChess)Chiefadvisor:GarryKasparovCommissioningeditor:ByronJacobsTranslationbyKenNeatTypesettingandeditingbyFirstRankPublishing,BrightonCoverdesignbyHoratioMonteverdeProductionbyNavigatorGuidesPrintedandboundintheUnitedStatesbySheridanBooksIncCONTENTSIIntroduction:StarsoftheWestSammy,MiguelandBentReshevskyOlympianLongLiverSecondComingAbitterPillTheFineEnigmaTheloneWarriorChampionof'theRestoftheWorld'ThelastChanceSevenTimesChampionFinale'Iwanttoplayandplay'NajdorfDonJfiguelEchoofGroningenThelastoftheMohicansKing'sIndianRevelationsHardHittingVeteran'ChessisaJfirroroftheSoul'LarsenTheDanishPrinceJoiningtheEliteAtthePeakofhisCareerLessonsinthe'Meran'Againstthetwo'K'sRoberttheEleventhTheloneGenius'HelearnedfromGodhimself!'EuropeanDebutAdultGamesDueloftheProdigiesHatTrickinBled'TheRussianPact'HelloAmerica!EnduranceTestHaraKiriHecame,hesaw,heconquered!AverticalAscentThefrrstVictimBattleinDenverThelfiraclescontinueBattleoftheGodsAbdicationThegreatRecluseBibliographyIndexofPlayersIndexofOpeningsINTRODUCTIONIStarsoftheWestThelivesandgamesoftenchesskingsofthepast,fromSteinitztoSpassky,havealreadybeendescribed,andnowitisthetumoftheelevenththephenomenalFischer,whointheearlyssucceededonhisowninsmashingtheSovietchessmachineBeforehim,unsuccessfulattemptshadbeenmadetodothisbyotherbrightstarsfromtheWestReshevsky,Najdorf,LarsenNarrativelogicorperhapsCaissaherselfsuggestedthesolutionofdevotinganindi­vidualvolumetoalltheseoutstandingplayersItstandstoreasonthatFischerdidnotemergeoutofnothingNotwithoutreasonwashecalledthebestpupiloftheSovietChessSchool,theflourishingofwhichledtotherapiddevel­opmentofthegameinthemidthcentury,butwithevenmorefoundationhecanberegardedasthesuccessortothegreattraditionsofAmericanchess,stemmingfromthelegendaryMor­phyOvertheperiodofmorethanahundredyearsseparatingtheirworldtriumphs,analmostcontinuousriseinthepopularityofchessinAmericahasbeenobservedItwasherethatSteinitzaccomplishedhisunparalleledfeats,playingfivematchesfortheworldchampionshipbetweenand,andmoreimportantexpoundinginhisInterna­tionalChessMagaifne()andhisfundamentalworkModernChessInstmctor()theteach­ingsofthenew,positionalschoolAttheendofthethcenturythiswavesweptPillsburyto­wardsthetop,followedintheearlythcenturybyMarshallAmericabecameaseriouschesscentreanditwasnoaccidentthatLaskerlivedhereforseveralyears,publishinghisfamousLasker'sChessMagaifne(),justasitwasnoaccidentthatthegeniusCapablancaappearedandgrewuphere,settlingforalongtimeinNewYorkWhiletheFirstWorldWarwasraginginEurope,inAmericatournamentlifecontinued,andimperceptibly,littlebylittle,thefoundationforanewbreakthroughwaslaidInthesthisprocesswasacceleratedbythesensationalexhibitionsofthechildprodigySammyReshevsky,atourbyAlekhine,thechallengertothechessthrone,andespeciallythegrandioseNewYorktournaments(and)And,asaresult,intheearlysthereappearedawholegroupofstrongmastersKashdan,Horowitz,Steiner,Dake,Denkerandothers,tosaynothingofthestarsofworldmagnitudeReshevskyandFine(towhomoneofthesectionsinthisbookisalsodevoted)TogetherwiththeveteranMarshall,theAmericanswonfoursuccessiveOlympiadsatthattimeGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsMeanwhile,behindthe'ironcurtain'intheUSSR,wherechessenjoyedstateandpoliticalsupport,thechessmachinethataftertheSecondWorldWarwasforalongtimetoconquerthewholeworldwasrapidlygatheringspeedThefirstdirectconfrontation,theUSSRUSAradiomatchontenboards()endedinacrushingdefeatfortheOlympiadchampions'WhathashappenedtoAmericanchess'wroteArnoldDenkeratthattime'IsitpossiblethatthecountrywhichproducedthebrilliantMarshall,theresourcefulReshevskyandtheencyclo­paedicFinehasgonebackasmuchastheRussiantrouncingwouldindicateAboutthiscountryhadfifteenortwentyverytalentedyoungmastersWhathashappenedtoallthesebud­dingstarsIsitpossiblethatsomuchtalentcanhavedwindledawaydisappointinglyinafewyearsTheanswertothesecondquestionisaclearandunequivocal''Yes!"WhyBecausepro­fessionalchessrequiresaplayer'sfulltime,andyetitdoesnotassurehimanywherenearanade­quateincomeChessisafulltimejob,andwemusttreatitassuchifwearetoholdoutowninworldcompetitionThesoonertheAmericanchesspublicrealizesthis,thesoonerwewillregainourprestigeastheleadingnationintheworldofchess'Alas,theAmericanchesspublicwasinnohurrytounderstandthisjudgingatleastbythefactthatFinewasforcedtowithdrawfromtheworldchampionshipmatchtournament()AfterthisReshevskyremainedpracticallyaloneagainsttheSovietcohort(subsequentlyhisex­periencecameinveryusefultoFischer)UntiltheendoftheshewastheundisputedNointheWest,althoughintheUSAanewgroupoftalentedplayershadgrownup:Evans,theByrnebrothers,Bisguier,LombardyTheonlyplayerwhocouldcontestReshevsky'sleadershipwastheArgentinegrandmasterMiguelNajdorfThepointisthatinthepostwareraanothersuperpowerwascreatedonthechessmapArgentina,wheremanymastersstayedonandsettledaftertheOlympiadinBuenosAires()ThestrongestofthemwasNajdorf,whowasthesameageasReshevskyandwasalsoborninPoland,butleftityearslaterThesetwothemodest,religiousReshevsky,andthecheerful,sociableNajdorfintroducedwesterncolourintotoprankingchess,whichwasdominatedbyrepresentativesoftheUSSRandtheEasternBloccountriesStrictlyspeaking,bothofthemwereamateurs,sincetheyearnedalivingnotfromchess(itseemstomethattheReshevskyFischermatchdeservestobecalled'thelastamateuragainstthefirstprofessional')Butthestrengthandnaturaltalentofbothweresogreat,thatevenwhentheywerenearlyyearsoldtheywereamongthetenbestgrandmastersselectedfortheRestoftheWorldteaminthe'MatchoftheCentury'()WorthysuccessorstothemightyveteransoftheWestappearedonlyinthelatestoearlysThefirsttoannouncehimselfwastheyoungBobbyFischer,andthencametheDaneBentLarsenLarsen'stournamentsuccessesandhisfresh,inventiveplayfromtoen­abledhimeventotakefromFischerhis'lawful'firstboardintheaforementioned'MatchoftheCentury'AtthattimeonlythesetwoposedathreattotheSoviethegemonyHowever,soonFischerbrilliantlyshowedthatitwashewhowasdestinedtobecomethenewworldchampionHisrevolutionarybreakthroughandtragicdeparturefromchessarethemaintopicofthisbookGarryKasparov,NovemberIshouldliketoexpress"!YthankstochesscollectorHanonRussel�journalistsSergryVoronkovandMichaelGreengard,grandmasterVladimirBelovandinternationalmasterMaximNotkin,andhonouredUSSRtrain­ersAlexanderNikitinandMarkDvorets�fortheirhelpinpreparingthemanuscriptforpublicationCHAPTERONEISammy,MiguelandBentOlympianLongLiverThelegendaryAmericangrandmasterSamuelReshevsky(NovemberApril)wasthemostfamouschessprodigyaf­terCapablancaButitissomethingelsethatisfarmoreimportant:hebecameoneofthefewlinksbetweenthetwochesseras,separatedbytheSecondWorldWarReshevskywasoneofthestrongestplayersintheworldbothduringthelivesofLasker,AlekhineandCapablanca,andduringthequartercenturyfromBotvinniktoFischerHeistheonlyplayerinhistorytohaveplayedalmostahundredtournamentgameswithelevenworldchampions!ReshevskywasborninthePolishvillageofOzorkov,notfarfromLodz,intoanortho­doxJewishfamilyHewastheyoungestofsixchildrenandattheageoftwohewasalreadydisplayingextraordinaryabilityWhenSammywasfiveyearsold,helearnedtherulesofchesslikeCapablancaandKeres,simplybywatchingmembersofhisfamilyplayingSoonthechildaskedhisfathertoallowhimtoplayoninapositioninwhichthelatterhadadmit­teddefeat,andhewonthegame'tothegreatastonishmentofmyfatherandhisopponent'Thisstoryissotypicalofthestartofachildprodigy'scareer,thatIinvoluntarilyrecallanamusingjokebySiegbertTarrasch,whoinMonteCarlowasonceanalysinganadjournedpositioninthepresenceofawomanwithababeinarms:'FormorethananhourIlookedintensivelyattheboardIndespair,Iwasabouttoputthepiecesaway,whensuddenlythebaby,whichwasdisplayingsignsofdis­comfort,extendeditslittlehandinthedirec­tionofWhite'squeenside,lookedatmewithintelligenteyesandcriedinademandingvoice:"Aaaa!"Theconcernedmotherpickedupthebabyandcarriedhimawaysheobvi­ouslydidnotunderstandhimButIguessedwhatthechildwantedtosaytomeItwasasthoughthescaleshadfallenfrommyeyes:yes,Ihadtoplaymyrooktotheaftle!Trium­phant,Irushedintothetournamenthall'Sammywasabletosaynotonly'A',butalso'B':inashorttimehehadbeatenallthechessplayersinOzorkovandhewastakenbyhisfathertoLodzawellknownchesscentreatthestartofthethcenturyHereheplayedseveralexhibitiongamesanddelightedthevenerablemaestroGeorgSalweAndnotonlyhim:thesightofasixyearoldtotgivingasimultaneousdisplayagainstadultsonGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsboardsprovokedagreathullabalooAndwhentheprodigyappearedintheWarsawChessClubtowardstheendof,thegreatAkibaRubinsteinexpressedhisdesiretoplayhim!Understandably,Sammyhadlittlechance,althoughthefamousgrandmasterplayedBlackandblindfoldFortunately,thescoreofthisonlymeetingbetweenReshevskyandRubinsteinhasbeenpreserved:eetiJftiJcLcLctiJftiJcdhhdgtiJdgtiJgtiJxdexdhxgdxcbxchxgd"ii'e"ii'fLb"ii'h"ii'xeLe'iixh'iixhLxg'iti>dcl:igLeLxgidLhgl:ixgfxgLxel:if'ii'gLg'ii'xgBynormalstandardsaweakgame,ofcourse,butoneofexceptionalhistoricinter­estDespitehiseasywin,Rubinsteinpraisedhisyoungopponentafterthegame:'Onedayyouwillbecomeworldchampion'HethenshowedhimhisclassicgamewithLasker(Volume,GameNo)andSammysuppos­edlyobservedthattheresultingrookendgamecouldhavebeenwontwomovesquickerReshevsky'smotherandfatherwereveryproudoftheirson'ssuccessesandtookhimroundthewholeofPolandgivingpublicexhi­bitionsThentheydecidedtoshowSammy'stalentstoothercountriesinEurope'In,whenIwaseightyearsold,mycareerasa"chessprodigy''beganinearnest,'Reshevskyrecalled'Accompaniedbymyparents,ItouredthecapitalsofEurope,givingexhibi­tionsatBerlin,Vienna,Paris,Londonandothercities'AndalsoinAmsterdam,whereonFeb­ruaryanotherhistoricmeetingtookplaceAmongtheeightyearoldSammy'stwentyopponentsinasimultaneousdisplaywasafutureworldchampiontheyear­oldMaxEuwe,whohadalreadyfinishedsec­ondintheDutchChampionshipatthattimeManyyearslaterhewasabletoremembertheopeningmovesofthatgame(EuwehadBlack):eetiJftiJcibaLatiJftiJxedbibddxeLecLel:ieLcLgLxedxe"ii'xdl:iaxdl:txel:tdl:teLxfandBlackwonapieceSlightlylaterEuwepolitelyofferedadraw,buttheboy,obstinatelygrittinghisteeth,re­pliedinGerman:'Ichwillsiegen'('Iwanttowin')Buthelost,ofcourse,andthiswasSammy'sonlydefeatinthedisplay,whichendedwithascoreof=inhisfavourThenexttimethatheandEuwemetattheboardwasnotuntilatthesuper­tournamentinNottinghamTherewerealsoopponentsofaquitediffer­entsort:agamewiththeGermangovernorofWarsawwasrememberedforalongtimebythewonderchildGenerallyspeaking,interestinReshevskywasnotconfinedtothechesspublicABerlinpsychologistFranziskaBaumgartenconductedaseriesoftestsonhim,theresultsofwhichwereextremelyinterestingSammy,whohadnevergonetoschoolorseenanybookswithillustrations,hadpracticallynoimpressionofarithmeticandcouldnotrecog­nisepicturesofanimalsOntheotherhand,whenhetookspatialvisualisationtests,Sammysolvedproblemsthatweredifficultevenforchildrentwicehisageandactuallymanagedtosolveonewhichbeforethathadbeentoohardforanychild!Memorytestsalsogaveanalto­getherstaggeringpictureSammywasgivenfourminutestostudyfigures,eachonaseparatecardThenthecardsweretakenawayTheboyrecalledallthepictureswithoutasin­glemistake,andinthecorrectorderEvenadultshadnotproducedsuchresults!ThepsychologistcommentedspecificallyonReshevsky's,sinceherefusedanyhelpdur­ingthetestingprocessWhenSammywasaskedwhathewoulddoifawindowblindshouldsuddenlycatchfire,hesaid:'Iwilltakeabucketofwaterandpouritontheblind'Andtothequestion,wouldn'titbebettertocallthefireservice,hereplied:'Icancopewithitmyself'AquarterofacenturylaterReshevskyhadthefollowingtosayaboutthisperiodofhislife:'Forfouryears,IwasonpublicviewPeo­plestaredatme,triedtohugme,askedmequestionsProfessorsmeasuredmycraniumandpsychoanalyzedmeReportersinter­viewedmeandwrotefancifulstoriesaboutmyfuturePhotographerswereforeveraimingtheircamerasatme'Itwas,ofcourse,anunnaturallifeforachild,butithaditscompensationsandIcan­nottruthfullysaythatIdidnotenjoyitTherewasthethrilloftravellingfromcitytocitywithmyfamily,theexcitementofplayinghundredsofgamesofchessandwinningmostSammy,MiguelandBentofthem,theknowledgethattherewassome­thing"special"aboutthewayIplayedchess,althoughIdidn'tknowwhy'IwasconstantlybeingaskedhowIwasabletoplaysuchstrongchessasachild,butofcourseIdidnotknowtheanswerIcouldnotanswertheirquestionsthen,notcanIdosonowChesswas,forme,anaturalfunction,likebreathingItrequirednoconsciouseffortThecorrectmovesinagameoccurredtomeasspontaneouslyasIdrewbreathIfyoucon­siderthedifficultyyoumighthaveinaccount­ingforthateverydayaction,youwillhaveaninklingofmydilemmaintryingtoexplainmychessability'TheReshevskyfamily'stravelsthentookthemtoAmericaOntheveryfirsteveningafterhisarrivalinNewYork,November,SammyvisitedtheMarshallClub,wherehewaspresentedtothemanytimesUSAChampionFrankMarshallandtheveteranofAmericanchessAlbertHodges,andthenstaggeredthehabituesbyinstantlysolvingsomeproblemshewasofferedOverthecourseofseveralweekstheprodigymadesometriumphalappearances,fullyjustifyingtheexpectationsofthelocalpublic,andthenhebegananalmosttwoyeartourofUSAcit­iestotheWesternseaboardandbackRe­shevskyrecallsthathegavesimultaneousdis­playsinchessclubs,publichalls,theatresandevendepartmentstoresAtaPhiladelphiade­partmentstoremorethanthreethousandpeoplewatchedhisexhibitionForsomerea­sonthejournalistswereespeciallyimpressedbyadisplaybySammyintheWestPointMili­taryAcademy,wherehewongamesoutofwithonedrawIthasbecomecommonplacetotalkaboutthefloodofinterestinchessintheUSAthatwascausedbyFischer'svictoriesinthesandsButitshouldnotbeforgottenthatinthefirsthalfofthecenturyReshevskypos­siblydidjustasmuchtopopulariseourgameintheNewWorldAccordingtohiscontem­poraries,manychessclubswereopenedandGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsthosethatweredraggingoutapitifulexistenceacquirednewlifethankstopublicinterestintheuniqueabilityofthetenyearoldSanunyOnhisreturntoNewYorkinOctoberReshevskyfacedaserioustestthefirstmastertournamentinhislife!Andalthoughhisresultwasrathermodest(EdLaskeroutofJaffeBernstein,Bigelow,JanowskiandReshevsky),hisgamewithDavidJanowskisignifiedanewstageinhiscareerThefamousFrancoRussianmaestro,whohadplayedtwomatcheswithLaskerandhadwinsovertheworldchampionsfromSteinitztoAlekhinetohiscredit,wasthenyearsoldHischiefsuccesseswereinthepast,butinindividualgameshecouldstillplayataveryhighlevel:twoyearslater,alsoinNewYork,JanowskiwonaclassicgameagainstBogoljubow,andinSemmering()heforcedthecapitulationofRubinsteinAveryinterestingobservationwasmadebythetournamentwinnerEdwardLasker:'Itwasreallyashametopermitaboyoftenyearstoplayinsuchac

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