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首页 Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_3

Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_3.pdf

Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessor…

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简介:本文档为《Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_3pdf》,可适用于体育/运动领域

amodemhistoryofthemidthcenturydevelopmentofchesswiththeparticipationofDmitryPlisetskyGloucesterPublisherspicwwweverymanchesscomPetrossianSpasskyEVERYMANCHESSFirstpublishedinbyGloucesterPublishersplc(formerlyEverymanPublishersplc),NorthburghHouse,NorthburghStreet,LondonECVOATCopyright©GarryKasparovEnglishtranslation©KenNeatFirstpublishedbyGloucesterPublishersplcTherightofGarryKasparovtobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeCopyrights,DesignsandPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrostatic,magnetictape,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorpermissionofthepublisherBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishlibraryISBNDistributedinNorthAmericabyTheGlobePequotPress,POBox,GooseLane,Guilford,CTAllothersalesenquiriesshouldbedirectedtoEverymanChess,NorthburghHouse,NorthburghStreet,LondonECVOATtel:fax:email:infoeverymanchesscomwebsite:wwweverymanchesscomEverymanistheregisteredtrademarkofRandomHouseIncandisusedinthisworkunderlicensefromRandomHouseIncEVERYMANCHESSSERIES(formerlyCadoganChess)Chiefadvisor:GarryKasparovCommissioningeditor:ByronJacobsTranslationbyKenNeatTypesettingandeditingbyFirstRankPublishing,BrightonCoverdesignbyHoratioMonteverdeProductionbyNavigatorGuidesPrintedandboundinFinlandbyWSBookwellCONTENTSIIntroductionTigrantheNinthNotjustaDefenderFavouriteSacrificeMiraclesofProphylaxisTheSagaofSvetozarAmodestlittlePawnMoveHowtoovercomeBotvinnikTheChallenger'sMistakeTheLionshowsitsClawsTheTigerwakesupThe'HungarianBotvinnik'Petrosian'sLessonsFinaleBoristheTenthRigaCatastropheInhisElementAburntoutStarTheHandofBondarevskyTheStormingofOlympusThefirst'Oscar'Winner'Forward,Kazimirych!'Spassky'sLessonsIndexofPlayersIndexofOpeningsINTRODUCTIONIAttheJunctionoftheErasThisvolumeisdevotedtothelivesandgamesoftwochesskingsfromthesixtiesandseventiesofthelastcenturyPetrosianandSpassky,aswellastheiroutstandingopponentsGligoric,Polugayevsky,PortischandSteinIntheintroductiontothesecondvolumeIwrotethatagenuinerevolutioninchesswasac­complishedbyeveryfifthworldchampion:Steinitz(st)Botvinnik(th)Fischer(th)Steinitzcreatedaschoolofpositionalplay,andBotvinnikasystemofpreparingforcompeti­tionsandsharpopeningsetups,wherebyBlack,ignoringclassicalrules,immediatelydisturbsthepositionalequilibriumandstrivestoseizetheinitiativeWiththenextfourchampionsSmys­lov,Tal,PetrosianandSpasskythetheoryofthegamedevelopedalongthelinesoftheBot­vinnikera,whichtherebycontinuedtothelatesIntheearlysthenextrevolutionaryspurtwasmadebyFischer,essentiallylayingthefoundationofpresentdayprofessionalchessNominallytheBotvinnikeraendedin,whenthechampionofmanyyearslosthismatchtoPetrosianandoptedoutofanyfurthercontestsforthechesscrownSoonafterthisBotvinnikwroteinChessWorld(No):'ItseemstomethatinchessthetimeofgeniuseshaspassedIntheirtimeMorphy,Steinitz,Lasker,CapablancaandAlekhineweredefinitelysuperiortotheircontemporaries,andinpar­ticularbytalentNowadayswithtalentaloneyoucannotexist:alsorequiredarehealth,astrong­willedcompetitivecharacterand,finally,specialpreparationAfewdecadesagothenaturalselec­tionofthestrongestplayersoccurredamongacomparativelynarrowcircleofpeople,andtherewerenotmanysuchplayerstheirnamesareknowntoeveryoneButnowthemassbaseofchessissogreat,thattherearemanyverystrongplayersatpresentitiscrowdedonthechessOlympusAgooddozengrandmastersaredistinguishedbystrikingtalent,andenviablehealth,andfightingcharacter,anddeepspecialpreparationTheimportanceofspecialpreparationshouldespeciallybementioned:sometimesitisintuitive,atothertimesitconsistsinreducingtotheminimumtheinfluenceoftheopponent'spreparationaqualitywhichisevidentlytypicalofthenewworldchampionItcanbeassertedthat,intheformingofthemodemstrongplayer,talentisnolongerthedecisivefactor'OnesensesthatBotvinnik'swoundshadnotyethealedafterhisheavydefeatInfact,ofcourse,herealisedthathehadlosttoagreatplayerThreeyearslaterheaskedSpassky,whohadGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsjustlostamatchtoPetrosian:'Wereyouabletoguesshismoves,BorisVasilievich''No,notalways,'Spasskyreplied'Itoowasunabletoguessthem,'BotvinnikadmittedInhiswayofspeakingthiswasthehighestpraiseforhisopponent!SubsequentlyhealsogavebothSpasskyandFischertheirdueAlsodebatableishisthesisaboutitbeing'crowdedonthechessOlympus'Nowthemassbaseofchessisevengreaterthanfortyyearsago,andthereareevenmoretopclassgrandmas­ters,buttheproportionsbetweenthestrongandverystronghavenotchangedandthenumberofrealcontendersfortheworldchampionshipisstillextremdyrestrictedHowever,inBotvinnik'sevaluationthereisanhistorictruth:thenamesofthepastchampionswerealwaysshroudedinaromantichaloofgrandeurHowever,theAVROtournament,whereCapablanca,AlekhineandEuwemadewayfortheyoung,signifiedtheendingofthehe­roiceraofthechesstitansEvenso,thankstohislegendaryvictoriesinthes,BotvinniksucceededinprolongingthiseranotwithoutreasonwashecalledthePatriarchoftheSovietChessSchoolSmyslovwasrightlyregardedashisgreatopponent,andTalasavividstar,ame­teor,'thesecondMorphy'AndsuddenlyatthesummitthereappearedPetrosianandSpasskyseeminglyordinary,non­heroicchampionsButadetailedstudyoftheirgamesdemonstratestheenormousscaleofthetalentofthesechesskings,andthetimewhentheywereonthethronewasanimportantstageintheaccumulationofknowledgesomethingofaconsolidatingperiod,whenthebasisofmod­emchesswaslaidIntheseyearsChessInformatorappeared,newopeningschemesarose,thecon­ceptsofmanymiddlegamepositionsweredeepened,customarydogmaswerereviewed(forex­ample,theapproachtopositionswithanisolatedpawnchanged)andsoonThesecondPetrosianSpasskymatch()alreadyheraldedtheapproachingchangeoferas,whichbeganwiththearrivalofFischerButthatisatopicofthenextvolumeIshouldliketoexpressmythankstograndmasterVladimirBdovandtoHonouredUSSRTrainersAlexanderNikitinandMarkDvoretskyfortheirhdpinpreparingthisvolumeforpub­licationGarryKasparovAugustCHAPTERONEITigrantheNinthInhisbestyearsTigranVartanovichPetrosian(JuneAugust)usedtolosesorarely,thateachdefeatofhisbecameasen­sationForthistrulylegendaryimpregnabilityhewasnicknamed'ironTigran',althoughonaccountofhisverydistinctive'passive'styleitwashardtoassociatehisnamewiththeproudconquerorsofthechessthroneMeanwhile,Petrosianhadacompletemas­teryoftheartofcreatingharmoniousposi­tions,fulloflife,wherebehindtheapparentabsenceofdynamicswasconcealedacolossalinternalenergy(theslightestchangesbeingimmediatelytakenintoaccountinthegeneralstrategy,whichwasnotalwaysunderstandabletotheopponent)Asyethisgameshavenotbeenstudiedasthoroughlyandascompre­hensivelyasonewouldlikeHepresentedtothechessworldwhatseemtobecommontruths,butitistheythatessentiallycomprisethebasisofchesscreativityThedepthofTi­granVartanovich'sstyleisaconsequenceoftheclarityofhisthinkingandhisuncommongraspnotonlyofglobalchessproblems,butalsoallthesubdetiesoftacticsandstrategy'Yes,perhapsIlikedefendingmorethanat­tacking,butwhohasdemonstratedthatde­fenceisalessriskyanddangerousoccupationthanattackAndaretheresofewgamesthathavefoundtheirwayintothetreasuryofchessthankstovirtuosodefence'saidPetro­sian'WhatIvaluemorethananythinginchessislogicIamfirmlyconvincedthatinchessthereisnothingaccidentalThisismycredoIbelieveonlyinlogical,"correct"play'HeascendedtothethroneintheyearIwasborn,The'Botvinnikera',whichhadlastedthroughagenerationofSovietplayersandtomanyseemedendless,wasconcludingBotvinnik'sabsolutesuperiorityhadevapo­ratedbackintheearlys,buthehadre­tainedtheworldchampion'scrown,safelypreservednotonlybyhisenormousmatchexperienceandabilitytoprepareeffectivelyforanyspecificopponent,butalsobytherightofthereturnmatchadiabolicaltestforanewking,whichbecameanexcessivepsy­chologicalburdenforbothSmyslovandTalAndyettheiraccessiontothethronewasimaginedbymanytobeaquitenaturalcon­tinuationofchesshistory:thecrystalclarityofSmyslov'splayandtheincomparablemagicofTal'scombinationsseemedworthylandmarksinthenewchessworldButPetrosian!NotjustaDefenderPetrosianwasbornandgrewupinThilisi,wherehelearnedtherudimentsofchessfromGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsthesubdepositionalmasterArlichEbralidze,agreatadmirerofCapablancaandNimzowitschTigran'sprogresswasasmeas­uredandunhurriedashisstyleInchampionofGeorgia,inUSSRjuniorchampion(outof!)andin,attheveryfirstattemptthemastertideModest,asthoughlimberingupperformances,intwoUSSRChampionships(and),andawininthechampionshipofhissecond'litdemotherland'MoscowFinally,hisfirstmajorsuccessintheZonal,thUSSRChampion­ship():aftertwoinitialdefeatstheyoungmastergainedeightwinswithsevendrawsandqualifiedfortheInterzonaltournament!Thescaleofthistriumphcanbeassessedonlybylookingattheleadingplaces:KeresoutofGellerandPetrosianVSmyslovBotvinnikAverbakh,BronsteinandTaimanovVetcItbecameclearthatsomenewstarshadap­pearedonthechesshorizonPetrosianwasawardedaspecialprizeforthebestresultagainstthegrandmastersThisstrongdefenderwithgoodendgametech­nique,asthepresscommented,'manoeuvredexcellendy,basinghisstrategicideasondeepandaccuratecalculation,andtirelesslystrovefortheinitiative'And,justimagine,heem­ployedriskyopenings,boldlysacrificingmate­rial!AclassicexampleishisduelwithVasilySmyslov:evenagainstoneofthestrongestplayersintheworld,PetrosianwasnotafraidtoplaythesharpTolushGellergambitmorelikelytoberememberedareAlekhine,TalandSpassky(who,incidentally,insteadofedevised'ifc!),andofthepresentdayfightersShirovBut,asweshallseemanytimes,Petrosianalsodidnotavoidasharpfight(especiallyifitwasimposedonhim),buthealwaysproceededfromthedemandsofthepositionandifthepositiondemandedsacri­fices,hewaspreparedtomakethemtbdaeIfie!therewouldprobablyhavefol­lowednotaxbSlDxcbxccxbSlDgSidSefxe'ifghS!'iff'ifd!'if£�dwithadvantagetoBlack(folush­Smyslov,thUSSRChampionship,Lenin­grad),butlDg!lDxcbxcidSe!fxeif(faimanov)withadangerousinitiativeaxbIntheopinionofthetheoreticians,aftertheunhurriedieib,whichwastriedintwoGellerSmyslovgames(thUSSRChampiGameonship,Moscow,andBudapest)TPetrosianVSmyslovWhite'sinitiativeriskscomingtoastandstillthUSSRChampionship,MoscowAmoremodemplanislDgSh(otherSlavDefenceDrepliesarealsopossible)lDgeblDb""""'ia'ifg!(thesourcegame:SpasskyddcdxclDflDftbcce!beGenerallyspeaking,'Petrosian'and'sacri­fice'arenotwordsthatchessplayerstendtoassociatetogetherWhenitisaquestionofcombinationsandsacrifices,thosewhoareMnatsakanian,Moscow)orlDbdlDf!(chasalsobeenplayed)'ifglDdixdcxdtDd!Oatertheyswitchedto)ixd'ifxgi£!(insteadof:£exdlDdlD£!SosonkoFlear,WijkaanZee)'ifxhxdlbdlLI£'ii'g!ixh'ii'hig'ii'xhixhihandBlackhasanexcellentendgame(FioritoSmyslov,BuenosAires)lbxcbxccxblbgib'irhgAfter'ii'd,'amovemoreinthespiritofSteinitzandLasker,'(Crouch)WhitewouldprobablyhaverepliednotlL!xh!lL!clbx£(KasparovKupreichik,thUSSRChampionship,Minsk)onaccountof'ii'xd!,butsimplyie!,asinthegameFurmanIilienthal(Baku)LaterIalsoplayedthissuccessfullyagainstPetursson(MaltaOlympiad)i'gtete(h!PetrosianIgna­tiev,Moscow)lbd(id!)h!Butherethisinclusionisdubious,althoughweshouldnotfindfaultwiththeinitialmovesinagameplayedhalfacenturyago,atthedawnofmodemopeningtheoryMoreprob­lemsareposedbyi£(GellerUnzicker,StockholmInterzonal),whenthebestis'ii'c!(SzaboPetrosian,Budapest)h!glbb(id!)(i£!withtheideaoflL!e)a!SmyslovapparentlyconsideredhispositiontobeverycomfortableandhewasnotafraidofthebreakthroughinthecentreOtherwisehewouldhavepreferredid,whenWhitecouldhaverepliedia,exchangingTigrantheNinththeimportantbishopthedefenderofthedarksquaresNowiaisbadonaccountofb,whenitisunclearwhatcompensationWhitehasforthesacrificedpawnItiscuriousthatthispositionwasalsoreachedinthegameGellerFlohr,playedinthesameround,inwhichWhitefailedtofindagoodplanandafterl:btbf'ii'dlabhegraduallylost:theoutcomewasdecidedbyBlack'spassedpawnsonthequeensideandhiscontrolofdGellerwasalwaysregardedasasharperplayerandonewho,farmoreoftenthanPet­rosian,resortedtotacticstofurtherhisaimsHowever,itwasPetrosian,andnotGeller,whomadethefollowingincrediblemove!d!!ThebestwayofcomplicatingtheplayasmuchaspossibleandofmaintainingWhite'sfadinginitiativeThislookslikeablunder,butinfactitradicallychangesthesituation:Whitegetsridofhis'unnecessary'pawnond,whichwasallowingtheopponenttokeepthepositionclosedButnowitisopened,andsinceBlackcannotcastlekingside(onaccountofixh),hehastoeitherleavehiskingate,orcastlequeensideandineithercasetheopeningofthedfileistoWhite'sadvantagelbxd'Anunexpectederror,'wrotePetrosiansoonafterthegame'Blackshouldhaveplayedixd,preventingthewhiteknightGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsfromoccupyingthepostate'However,inmyviewafterixdl:d'ilcie!(i£ix£'ifx£isinferior)Whitehasstrongpressure:Blackfacesthesameproblemwhattodowithhiskingl:rdfico!be!'!ixhisbadPerhapst>£wouldhavebeenbetter,aimingforrJg'(Suetin)'Queensidecastlingentailsconsider­abledangers,butitisalreadyhardtosuggestafullysatisfactorydefenceforBlack'(Petto­sian)Evenso,weshalltry!ig!(achievingthedesiredexchangeofbishops)ixgfixgTheculminationofthebattle,overlookedbytheanalystsrighttotheveryendofthethcenturyWhiteappearstohavesucceededwithatleastonething:ensuringtheinvasionofhisknightatdSuchaknightcannotbetoleratedforlong,andarookwillhavetobegivenupforit,butthiswillopenadditionalopportuni­tiesforanattackAllthisistrue,butaThesuddenchangeinthecharacteroftheplayhadclearlyunsettledSmyslovHemakesa'solid',passivemoveandmissesanoppor­tunity,exploitinghismaterialadvantage,tochangethesituationinhisfavour:)bcxbaxbliJd!'itbltJxb(ltJxcltJc:Xd'ilxd!)t>xbi£'ilc!,orl:d!(Crouch)f!(notltJcltJd!)exf(liJxfltJc)ltJb!withasharp,roughlyequalgame)f!!Thisfantasticresource,whichIdiscoveredinthelates,disruptsWhite'sentireplan:afterexfltJfl:xdl:xdi£id!heisdeprivedofhismaintrumptheknightatdThepositionisverysharp,buttheunpleasantthreatofbbmeansthatitcanbeevaluatedinBlack'sfavourfigf(afterthisBlackhastosacrificetheexchangeinlessfavourablecircumstances)o!bdl:rxdexdfThedecisiveerror'Bettersavingchanceswereofferedby'ilg!i£,andnownotltJxcd!,butl:d'(Petro­sian)Althoughevenhereafterixd!ixd(exd'ileQl:abBlackisinseriousdifficultiesButforsomereasonnoonehasnoticedthat'tid!ixdSixdSl:ldb�cismoretenacious,andthatS'ii'f!ixdSexdSwiththeideaofl:ldanddd!isaltogetheruncleari'xgi'xdtficl:e:teaDuringthelasttenorsomovesthepicturehaschangedsharplySmyslov,famousforhisabilitytomanoeuvre,andtodefend,andtotakeaccountoftheslightestnuancesintheposition,provedunreadyforsuchasharpchangeintheeventsandendedupinaverydifficultpositionPetrosianconvincinglycon­vertshisadvantageixd!Thisexchangecreatesaverystrongimpres­sionl:ad!isalsopossible,butPetrosianisaimingfortheendgamei'xdl:ad!i'f(forced)i'xfexfl:xetxef!TigrantheNinthRestrictingtheopponent'scounterplayDe­spitethenominallyfavourablematerialbal­ance(bishopandtwopawnsforarookusu­allythisismorethanenough),Black'sdown­falliscausedbythewhiteking'smarchtothequeenside,afterwhichtherookisactivatedandBlack'shopelesslyweakenedkingsidepawnsarelost�c'iti�b'iie'iiaSmyslovhaschosentheonlysensibleplanhehassenthiskingtothesupportofhisa­andbpawnsA

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