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首页 Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_2

Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_2.pdf

Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessor…

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简介:本文档为《Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_2pdf》,可适用于体育/运动领域

amodemhistoryofthemidthcenturydevelopmentofchesswiththeparticipationofDmitryPlisetskyGloucesterPublisherspicwwweverymanchesscomEuweBotvinnikSmyslovTalEVERYMANCHESSPublishedbyGloucesterPublishersplc,formerlyEverymanPublisherspic,GloucesterMansions,aShaftesburyAvenue,LondonWCHHDCopyright©GarryKasparovEnglishtranslation©KenNeatTherightofGarryKasparovtobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeCopyrights,DesignsandPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrostatic,magnetictape,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorpermissionofthepublisherBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBNXDistributedinNorthAmericabyTheGlobePequotPress,POBox,GooseLane,Guilford,CTAllothersalesenquiriesshouldbedirectedtoEverymanChess,GloucesterMansions,AShaftesburyAvenue,LondonWCHHDtel:fax:email:infoeverymanchesscomwebsite:wwweverymanchesscomEverymanistheregisteredtrademarkofRandomHouseIncandisusedinthisworkunderlicensefromRandomHouseIncReprintedEVERYMANCHESSSERIES(formerlyCadoganChess)Chiefadvisor:GarryKasparovCommissioningeditor:ByronJacobsTranslationbyKenNeatTypesettingandeditingbyFirstRankPublishing,BrightonCoverdesignbyHoratioMonteverdeProductionbyNavigatorGuidesPrintedintheUnitedStatesbySheridanBooksCONTENTSIIntroductionMaxtheFifthMikhailMoiseevichtheSixthVasilytheSeventhMikhailNekhemevichtheEighthIndexofPlayersIndexofOpeningsINTRODUCTIONIDramasoftheChessKingsInVolumeofMyGreatPredecessorsItalkedaboutthechesskingsofthedistantpast,abouttheftrstfourofftcialworldchampionsSteinitz,Lasker,CapablancaandAlekhineandtheiroutstandingopponentsThesecondvolumethatyounowhavebeforeyouisdevotedtothelivesandgamesofthenextfourchampionsEuwe,Botvinnik,SmyslovandTal,andalsoKeres,BronsteinandGellerIshouldremindyouthatcompiledinthisbookarenotonlythebestgamesoftheformerstars,analysedanewwiththehelpofacomputer,butalsothe'sorepoints'ofchesshistorythecritical,turningpointsofmatchesfortheworldchampionshipInchessthechampionschangedforvariousreasons,buttheprimaryonewasusuallyhistoric:thecontinuousandrapiddevelopmentofthegameitselfAsmysecondYuriDokhoianwittilyexpressedit,withtheyearseachworldchampionbe­ginsto'calcify'inotherwords,tobecomeinflexibleandbetransformedintoalivingmonumentThatis,hegraduallyceasestoaddsomethingnewtochessandtograspthedomi­natingtendencyofitsdevelopmentAndsoonerorlatertheinevitableretributionsetsin,sincetheyoungchallenger,onthecontrary,usuallymakesastepforwardThispatterncanbetracedinmanymatchesfortheworldchampionship,beginningevenwiththeunofficialMorphyAnderssenmatch(),inwhichtheAmericangeniusundoubt­edlyplayedthechessofthefutureLaterSteinitzaccomplishedagenuinerevolution,creatingatheoryofpositionalplayandputtingopeningplayontomoreorlessserious,scientificlinesHowever,inhismatcheswithChigorinhe'calcified',notbecauseofhisadvancedage,butonaccountofhisterribleobstinacy,ashetriedtoupholdhisprinciplesinextremelydubiouspo­sitionsHisadherencetodogmascosthimmanylostpoints,andheremainedonthethroneonlythankstohisenormouspracticalstrengthhadSteinitzplayedinamoreflexiblemanner,hissuperiorityoverhiscontemporarieswouldhavebeenundisputedButthenahighlytal­entedpupilappearedtheultraflexibleandultraresourcefulLasker,andthenowthoroughlyinflexibleSteinitzwasunabletocopewithhimLaskerreignedforsolong,forthereasonthathewascompletelyomnivorousanduniver­sal,assimilatingandmakinguseofanynewchesstrendsItisapity,ofcourse,thatinhedidnotplayamatchwitheitherRubinstein,orCapablancaIdon'tknowhowtheseduelsGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorswiththeshiningleadersofthenewgenerationwouldhaveended,butonethingisclear:atthattimeLaskerwasstillinexcellentformandhadretainedhisrealpracticalstrengthTheFirstWorldWarsignificandychangedthebalanceofpowerinthechessarenaLaskerlivedinpoverty,Schlechterdied,andRubinsteinbecameapaleshadowofhisformerselfAlekhine'sprogresswasseriouslydelayed,asaresultofwhichhematuredmuchlaterthannaturehadintendedgivennormaldevelopment,withouttheWar,imprisonmentandtheRevolution,AlekhinewouldalreadyhavebeenaquiteworthychallengerbyOnlyCapablancawasnotaffectedbytheWar,andhewasabletodevelopasaplayerAl­though,infactIthinkthatinthoseyearshewasnolongerdeveloping,butatleasthelivedcomfortably,preparedlitdebylitde,playedinAmericantournamentsandretainedhisfor­merstrengthInthematchwiththeshakyLaskerhegainedaconfidentvictory,butchesslostmuchduetothefactthatsuchageniusasCapadidnothavetoextendhimselffullyTheeaseofhisvictories,especiallyinNewYork(whereLasker,RetiandBogoljubowwereabsent,andAlekhinewasthinkingonlyofsecondplace),lulledtheCuban,andhecametohissensesonlytowardstheendofhismatchwithAlekhine,whenthescorewasHow­ever,hewasnolongerabletosavehiscrown:hewasletdownbyhisbeingunaccustomedtohardwork,andinadditionthegeniehadescapedfromthebotde!Ofcourse,inthematchCapablancahad'calcified',andthiswasobservedbyLasker,whosawinAlekhine'svictory'arejuvenationofthecultureofthegameitself,whichhasclearlybecomenecessary,toavoidthestagnationthreateningourart'Yes,Capawasthelastrepresentativeoftheclassicalchess,stemmingfromSteinitzandLasker,andinithewasin­vincibleHewastheidealplayerofthatera!However,theCubanoverlookedthearrivalofanewgenerationinchessandhewastoolateinadoptingtheideaspropagatedbyNimzowitschandReti,andbroughttotheforebyAlekhineAclassicalwresderencounteredtheunusualtechniquesofjudoandkarateThesehypermodernrevelationstheNimzoIndianandGriinfeldDefencesetcswifdyconqueredthechessworld,asplaynowextendedbeyondtheboundsoftheQueen'sGambit,TarraschDefence,RuyLopezandItalianGame,andthelateswasmarkedbyaflourish­ingofchessthinkingNewpeoplearrivedanewgamebegan!Alekhinewasthecatalystofthisprocess(yearslaterFischerwasasimilarcatalyst)ThegreatRussianmaster,afterab­sorbingandenrichingtheideasofhypermodernism,playedadifferent,morecomplicatedformofchessandaccomplishedanunparalleledfeatbysucceeding,afteralltheadversitythathadbefallenhim,inreachingthetopAlas,Capablancawasunabletoregainhisformerhaloofinvincibility:afterhisdefeatatthehandsofAlekhinethedeferenceforthe'chessmachine'disappeared,andevengrandmas­terswhohadbeendefeatedmanytimesbytheCubanbeganplayingmuchmoreconfidendyagainsthimAndasfortheyoungplayersledbyBotvinnikandKeres,healtogethercouldnotkeeppacewiththemInshort,inthenewformofthegameCapawassomewhatlostButwhataboutAlekhineAftercrushingBogoljubowinthematchandscoringbril­liantvictoriesinSanRemoandBled,hetoolitdebylitdebeganto'calcify'!AllthesummitshadbeenconqueredandhehadapparendylosthissenseofpurposeHealsowonLondonandBern'onautopilot'andthensetoffonanendlessroundtheworldtripwithsimultaneousdisplays:USA,Mexico,Cuba,Hawaii,Japan,Shanghai,HongKong,thePhilip­pinesandsoonMeanwhile,lifewasnotstandingstillandanewerawasbeginninginchessThematchwithBogoljubowalreadyshowedtheonsetofacrisisinAlekhine'splay:thechampionexperiencedcolossalopeningproblemsHeplayedinanaudaciousandbizarreIntroductionmanner,andoftenendedupinindifferentpositionsbutextricatedhimselfthankstohisenormouspracticalstrength!BogoljubowlackedtheconsistencyandaccuracytopunishhisopponentAndthencameEuwetheleaderofanewgeneration,bornatthestartofthethcen­tury,aplayerwhowasperhapsnotsostrikingasBogoljubow,buthighlyeruditeandextremelyconsistent,rationalandmethodicalItwaspreciselythisstylethatwasthemostunpleasantforAlekhine,andinthematch,toeveryone'ssurprise,therewasachangeofchampionAdetailedaccountofhowEuwemanagedtowrestthetitle,andwhyheagainconcededitinthereturnmatch,willbefoundinthechapteraboutthefifthworldchampionWhereasthefirsthalfoftheswasaperiodofstagnationasregardstheemergenceofnew,youngcontenderstothethrone(Euwe,Flohrandthencompletequiet),inthesecondhalfofthedecadethesplendidnextgenerationloudlyannounceditselfBotvinnik,Keres,Fine,ReshevskyThedeclining,almostyearoldchampionfacedadifficultmatchforthecrown,butaworldwaragaininterferedwiththecourseofchesshistoryThiswasapity,sinceamatchbetweenAlekhineandeitherBotvinnikorKereswouldhavebeenveryinterestingandimportantforchessThewaragainsharplychangedthebalanceofpowerinthechessarenaFollowingLaskerandCapablanca,theexhaustedbutalsoundefeatedAlekhinepassedawayKerescameundertheSovietNazimachine,Reshevskywasoutofpractice,Finegaveupthegamealtogether,Euwehadfallenhopelesslybehind,whiletheyoungSmyslovandBronstein,bycontrast,hadnotyetcaughtupInshort,byofthetopclassfightersonlyBotvinnikremainedForhimtheSecondWorldWarplayedthesameroleastheFirstdidforCapablanca:itclearedthewaytothethroneThewarsremovedtheirmainrivals:theFirstWorldWarRubinstein,andtheSecondKeresItisprobablethatbothCapaandBotvinnikwouldallthesamehavebe­comechampions,butwithanaturalcourseofeventstherewouldhavebeenbothadifferentconfiguration,andadifferentstruggleIntheBotvinnikerathereoccurredthesecond,afterSteinitz,revolutionarychangeinap­proachtoopeningtheorySteinitz'sideashadanenormousinfluenceonatleasttwogenera­tionsofplayersTheyallplayedtheclassicalschemes(Queen'sGambit,SteinitzDefencetotheRuyLopezetc),andwereguidedbycommonsense:whyseek'disreputable',riskyopen­ings,iftherewasasimplewayofobtainingasafeposition!Theclassicaltheoryoftheearlythcenturydevelopedatarapidpace,anditsprimemoverwasRubinsteinAseriousexpan­sionoftherangeofopeningsbeganwithAlekhineandthehypermodernists,andwascontin­uedbytheenergeticeffortsofthegreatmethodologistEuwe,butagenuinelyrevolutionaryleapwasaccomplishedbyBotvinnik,whohadcarefullystudiedtheexperienceofhisprede­cessors,inparticularRubinstein,AlekhineandEuweTheyallthoughtschematicallyandendeavouredtolinktheopeningwithasubsequentplaninthemiddlegameButwhereasearlieritwascustomarywithBlacktoplaystrictlyforequality,Botvinnikwentfurtherandcreatedasystemofopeningpreparation,withwhichBlackplaystoseizetheinitiativefromtheveryfirstmovesHeshowedthatthisispossible!Botvinnikdeliberatelydisruptedthepositionalbalance,choosingsharp,committalvariations,butonesthathehadstudieddeeplyandheachievedexcellentresultsBotvinnikcreatedsomeoriginalopeningsystems,andinadditionhereinterpretedanumberoftypicalpositions,forcingthemtobelookedatanewforexample,thosewithanisolateddpawnAndingeneralhehadadifferent,farmoreglobalapproachtothesolvingofopeningproblemsThenextfourworldchampionsSmyslov,Tal,PetrosianandSpasskydidnotachieveGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsanyradicalprogressintheopeningandtheydevelopedtheoryalongthelinesoftheBotvinnikera,whichthuscontinuedtotheendofthesFinally,Fischercreatedthenextrevolution­aryleapforward,forthefirsttimedemonstratingtheentirepowerofopeningpreparationforbothcolours,sharplyexpandingtherangeofopeningsstudiedand,ineffect,layingthefoun­dationsofpresentdayprofessionalchessMoreover,initiallyFischer,likeSteinitzinhistime,wasextremelyobstinateinhischoiceofopeningsetups,butthenhefoundinhimselfthestrengthtobecomemoreflexibleandmadehimselfalmostunbeatableNotewhataninterestinglinecanbetraced:Steinitz(stchampion)Botvinnik(th)Fischer(th),thatis,arevolutionwasaccomplishedbyeveryfifthchampion!Incidentally,inthesecondhalfofthethcenturytoo,thechampionswhobecamecom­placentandceasedtobetheobviousleadersofchessthinking,alsolosttheirtitleItisalwaysdifficulttocatchupwithtime,sincetheleadersofnewgenerationsintroduceintochesstheirideasandparticularstyles,andmoreeasilysolvethoseplayingproblemsthatwerepreviouslyconsideredcomplicatedThus,whereasinthelatesBotvinnikwassuperiortoeveryone,intheearlysaverypowerfulnewgenerationhademergedanditsleaderBronsteinalmosttookthetitlefromthechampion,whohadnotplayedforalongtime()Botvinnikrealisedthathewasfal­lingbehind,andheagainbeganworkingandthrewhimselfintotournamentplayInthenextmatch,withSmyslov()hehadalmostceasedto'calcify'andheconfidentlyremainedonthethroneThenBotvinniktwiceconcededthecrowntoSmyslov()andtoTal(),butun­fortunatelyforthemtheybothhadstoppedmovingforwardandayearlatertheyeachlosttotheirmightyopponent,whohadlearnedthelessonsfromhisdefeatandmodifiedhisplayButinthematchwithPetrosian()Botvinniknolongerknewhowtoovercomehisimpregna­bleopponent,anditisdoubtfulwhetheranythingwouldhavechanged,eveniftheyhadplayedareturnmatchInturn,PetrosianlogicallyconcededthethronetothedynamicSpassky(),andhetotheirrepressibleFischer()However,inthesecondhalfofthesitwouldhavebeenratherhardevenforFischertocombattheyoungKarpovButin,strangelyenough,evenKarpovbeganto'calcify'veryslightlyTrue,afterlosingthecrownheasthoughcametohissenses,andforalongtimeafterwardshedemonstratedgoodresultsandexcellentplay(forwhichtheauthoroftheselinesisalsohoping,afterslightly'calcifying'beforethematchwithKramnikbutthatisthetopicofanotherbook)IwilltalkindetailaboutthechesscareersofPetrosian,Spassky,FischerandKarpovinsubsequentvolumes,butinthepresentoneIinviteyoutoenjoythegamesoftheirremark­ablepredecessorsInconclusion,IwishtoexpressmyheartfeltthankstoUSSRHonouredTrainersAlexan­derNikitinandMarkDvoretskyfortheirhelpintheconcludingstageofpreparationofthisvolumeGarryKasparovOctoberCHAPTERONEIMaxtheFifthThefifthworldchampionMaxEuwe(MayNovember)wasamanofverymanyparts:mathematician,engineer,as­tronomer,computerspecialistandtowardstheendofhislifePresidentofFIDE!TheDutchmanwasnotreallyregardedasaprofes­sionalchessplayer,buthehadasplendidgraspofthenuancesoftheancientgameHewasaferventfollowerofSteinitz'spositionalteaching,aswellasaprominentchesswriter,teacherandmethodologistInhisbestyearsDrEuwedidagreatdealoffruitfulworkonchess,deeplystudyingtheproblemsofthetransitionfromopeningtomiddlegameandworkingonendgametheoryButthestrongestsideofhisgamewashissplendidcombinativevisionAsAlekhinekeenlyobserved,hewasabletorefuteincor­rectcombinationsbyhisopponents,sincebyoriginhischesstalentwaspurelytactical:'Heisatactician,whohasdecidedatanycosttomakehimselfagoodstrategistEuwebe­lievesperhapstooimplicidyintheinvariabilityofrules'Hencethecertaindirectnessofhisstyle:whenheheldtheinitiativeheonlyeverwentforwardHewasthefirsttobeginpreparingprofes­sionallyforworldchampionshipmatches,devotingdueattentiontophysical,practicalandtheoreticalpreparation(laterBotvinnikwastocreateanentiresystemonthisbasis)InhisbatdeswithAlekhine,withthetenacityofascientisthesoughtandfoundforhimselfanopeningrepertoirewhichenabledhimtoneutraliseattheboardthesuperiorchessqualitiesoftheRussiangeniusIfweaddtothisEuwe'sprecisecalculation,feelingfortheinitiativeandoutstandingpsychologicalstabil­ity,itwillbecomeclearwhyhewasalwayssuchanuncomfortableopponentforAlek­hineEuweheldthecrownforonlytwoyears(),andsomeoneoncechristenedhim'kingforaday',inviewofAlekhine'sindiffer­entformHowever,inthisquestionIamfullyinagreementwithSmyslov:'Nothingacciden­talhappensinlife:whateverformAlekhinewasinthen,amatchagainsthimcouldbewononlybyamasterofthehighestclassEuweplayedbetterandherighdybecamechampion'Hedidnotbelieveineitherthedrawingorthecomputerdeathofchess,andintheearlysheasserted:'Recentbatdesbetweendif­ferentstylesshowthatchessisnotexhaustedandcontinuestoremainalively,dynamicandeternallydevelopinggameItissorichthatitwillexistforanotherthousandyears!'GarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsEmergenceEuwewasbornatthedawnofthethcen­turyinAmsterdam,intothemodestfamilyofaschoolteacher,inwhichthereweresixchil­drenHisparentsenthusiasticallyplayedchesswitheachother,andthechildrenlearnedtomovethepiecesvirtuallywhentheywerestillinnappiesThesecondson,Max,provedtobethemostcapable:attheageoffourhewassittingattheboardandsoonwasalreadybeat­ingtheadultsWhenhewasMaxwasad­mittedtotheAmsterdamChessClubHischildhoodimpressionswereofasimultaneousdisplaybythefamousAmericanchampionMarshall,thefirstwininhislifeoveramasterinasimultaneousdisplaywithteKoiste,andexcitingeventsattheStPetersburgsupertournamentRegularlyplayingintournaments,bytheageofMaxhadqualifiedforthe'B'groupofthechampionshipofthecountryandwonthefirstprizeinhiscareerguildersAbigroleinhischessemergencewasplayedbyhisconstantassociationwiththeoutstandingmasterswhowerethenlivinginHolland:Reti,Tartakower,Tarrasch,MarczyForEuwethelastofthesealwaysremainedateacherandanoldfriendAfterfinishingschoolinMaxenteredtheMathsFacultyofAmster

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