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首页 Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessors_Volume_1

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Kasparov_-_My_Great_Predecessor…

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amodemhistoryoftheearlydevelopmentofchesswiththeparticipationofDmitryPlisetskyGloucesterPublisherspicwwweverymanchesscomSteinitzLaskerCapablancaAlekhineEVERYMANCHESSPublishedbyGloucesterPublishersplc,formerlyEverymanPublishersplc,GloucesterMansions,aShaftesburyAvenue,LondonWCHHDCopyright©GarryKasparovEnglishtranslation©KenNeatFirstpublishedbyEverymanPublishersplcReprintedTherightofGarryKasparovtobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeCopyrights,DesignsandPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrostatic,magnetictape,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutpriorpermissionofthepublisherBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishlibraryISBNDistributedinNorthAmericabyTheGlobePequotPress,POBox,GooseLane,Guilford,CTAllothersalesenquiriesshouldbedirectedtoEverymanChess,GloucesterMansions,AShaftesburyAvenue,LondonWCHHDtel:fax:email:infoeverymanchesscomwebsite:wwweverymanchesscomEverymanistheregisteredtrademarkofRandomHouseIncandisusedinthisworkunderlicensefromRandomHouseIncEVERYMANCHESSSERIES(formerlyCadoganChess)Chiefadvisor:GarryKasparovCommissioningeditor:ByronJacobsTranslationbyKenNeatProofreadingbyKenWhyldandJohnEmmsTypesettingandeditingbyFirstRankPublishing,BrightonCoverdesignbyHoratioMonteverdeProductionbyNavigatorGuidesPrintedintheUnitedStatesbySheridanBooksIncCONTENTSIIntroductionChessbeforeSteinitzWilhelmtheFirstEmanueltheSecondJoseRaultheThirdAlexandertheFourthIndexofPlayersIndexofOpeningsINTROVUCTIONITheChampionsasSymbolsoftheirTimeForquitesometimeIhavebeenwantingtowriteabookonthenewandmodernhistoryofchessAndmoreover,deviatingfromthetraditionalapproach,todemonstratethecontinuousprogressofthegamethroughtheplayoftheworldchampionsSinceitisthiselitegroupofsuperstars(onlyinyears!)thathasmadethegreatestcontributiontochess:towinthesupremetitle,theyhadtoovercomethebestofthebest,discoversomethingnew,andcatchhighlyexperiencedandtalentedopponentsunawaresAccordingtoofficiallegend,aslowwargamenotunlikechessoriginatednearlytwothou­sandyearsagoinIndia,and,undergoingslightchanges,madetheendlesslylongjourneythroughthesouthofCentralAsia,PersiaandtheArabcountriesoftheMiddleEast,totheIberianPeninsulaHowever,the'Indian'versionoftheoriginofchessbecameknowntoEuropeansonlyattheendofthethcenturyOnlyonethingcanhestatedwithcertainty:modernchessoriginatedinthethcenturyontheMediterraneanAndthisisalreadyapurelyEuropeaninventionanintellectualgame,modellingpsychologicalwarfareThebestchessmastersofeveryepochhavebeencloselylinkedwiththevaluesofthesoci­etyinwhichtheylivedandworkedAllthechangesofacultural,politicalandpsychologicalbackgroundarereflectedinthestyleandideasoftheirplayThisdeepcoimectioncanbetracedbackalongtimeWasitnotlogicalthat,intheeraoftheRenaissance,intheththcenturies,chessdevelopedmostrapidlyinSpainandItalyWasitanaccidentthatthefirstmaestro,whotriedtocreateatheoryofpositionalplay,livedintheepochoftheEnlighten­mentandofthephilosophyofrationalismthegreatFrans:oisAndrePhilidor(incidentally,awellknowncomposerandafriendofDiderot)Andrememberthesloganthatheproclaimedinthemiddleofthethcentury'Thepawnsarethesoulofchess!'DowenothearinthisechoesofthecomingGreatFrenchRevolutionLater,inthefirsthalfofthethcentury,infullaccordancewithgeopoliticalreality,chesswasthearenaforbattlesbetweenthebestplayersfromEnglandandFrance:McDonnellLaBourdonnais,StauntonSaintAmantInthemiddleofthecenturytheoutstandingchessro­manticAdolfAnderssenwastheleadingplayerHisstylewasthatofrecklessattacksontheking,withmindbogglingsacrifices,personifyingthetriumphofmindovermatter(fullytypi­calofaneducatedGerman,andnotalientotheideasofHegelandSchopenhauer)GarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsWealsorememberthebrilliantflightoftheAmericansupergeniusPaulMorphy,whoinacoupleofyears()conqueredboththeNewandtheOldWorldsHerevealedathun­derousblendofpragmatism,aggressionandaccuratecalculationtotheworldqualitiesthatenabledAmericatoaccomplishapowerfulspurtinthesecondhalfofthethcenturyTheLondoninternationaltournamentofintriguedthepublic:whowasinfactthestrongerWilhelmSteinitzorJohannHermannZukertortAndin(onlyafterMorphy'sdeath!)theyfinallymetinanofficialmatchforthetide'ChampionoftheWorld'ThatwashowthistidearosetheresultofpublicrecognitionoftheresultofamatchbetweenthetwostrongestplayersontheplanetRunningthroughthefourteenchampionsoftheworld,weagainobserveaninseparablelinkbetweenchessandsocialsurroundingsWilhelmSteinitz(worldchampion)SteinitzeffectivelydominatedchessfromtheearlysHewasanardentfollowerofthescientificmethod,whichcould,inhisopinion,providethekeytothesolvingofanyproblemsarisingonthechessboardHewasthefirsttodivideapositionintoitscomponentelements,topickoutitsmostimportantfactors,andtostatethegeneralprinciplesofstrategyThiswasagreatdiscovery,aturningpointinchesshistory!ButinpracticeSteinitzoftenoverestimatedtheimportanceofthetheoryofpositionalplayhehadcreated,andreliedexcessivelyonab­stractprinciplesWell,hewasatruechildofhismaterialistictime,whenthereprevailedana­IvebeliefintheomnipotenceofscienceandintheinevitabilitythatsoonallnaturalprocesseswouldbecompletelyunderstoodEmanuelLasker(worldchampion)AnativeofGermany,aDoctorofphilosophyandmathematics,Laskerwasthefirst,andatthattimetheonlyplayertoappreciatetheimportanceofpsychologicalfactorsWhilebeinganexcellenttacticianandstrategist,atthesametimeherealisedthattheartofexploitingtheop­ponent'sdeficiencieswassometimesfarmoreimportantthantheabilitytomakethemostcorrectmovesAdeepknowledgeofhumanpsychologyandanunderstandingoftherelativevalueofchessstrategyhelpedhimtowinalmostalltheeventsinwhichhecompeted,andtoretainthetideofchampionforlongyearsAnabsoluterecord!AndwhoatthattimewerethemastersofthinkingOfcourse,EinsteinandFreud!Astheysay,commentaryissuperflu­ousJoseRaulCapablanca(worldchampion)'Thechessmachine'thiswaswhattheCubangeniuswascalled,onaccountofthepurityofhisplayingstyleAfavouritewiththepublic,hewasapersonofrefinedmannersandamanoftheworldThegreatCapacrushedhisopponentsinanapparendyoffhandmanner,withex­quisiteeaseandeleganceAlsoattractivewasthefactthathegainedhisbrilliantvictoriesap­parendywithoutanyseriouspreparatoryworkonchessButnowrememberthattimetheyearsofhopeandoptimism,whentheworldwasenjoyingthepeaceandquietafterthehor­rorsoftheFirstWorldWarItwasatthattimethattheglobalexportofAmericanculturalvaluesbeganfromliterarybestsellerstoHollywoodproductionsStoriesinvolvingsuccessfulheroes,withdazzlingsmilesandinvariablehappyendings,healedthewoundsoftherecentwarAndCapa,asuccessfulsocialiteandaspoiltchildoffortune,correspondedexcellendywiththespiritofthetimesIntroductionAlexanderAlekhine(worldchampion,)TheproductofarichnoblefamilyandatthesametimethefirstchampionofSovietRussia!EvenbeforethishehadknownmuchsorrowinthehardtimesofwarandrevolutionThencameemigrationtoFrance,thediplomaofDoctorofLaw,thegrandiosebattlewithCapab­lanca,yearsoftravelling,victoriesanddefeats,theSecondWorldWar,tournamentsinoccu­piedEurope,thenaccusationsofcollaborationwiththeNazisandthethreatofdisqualifica­tionAlekhine'sstylewastheembodimentofpsychologicalaggressionEnormousprepara­torywork,explosiveenergyattheboard,andamaniacalstrivingtofinishofftheopponent,togetherwithrichcombinativeimaginationAllthisamazinglyresemblesthedevastatingwarsthatshookEuropeinthefirsthalfofthethcenturyTowardstheend,thependulumofAlekhine'slifewasabouttoswingback:thenewSovietchampionBotvinnikofficiallychal­lengedhimtoamatchfortheworldcrownHowever,thekingdiedprematurely,thusremain­ingundefeatedMaxEuwe(worldchampion)Asymboloftheageofscientificandtechnologicalrevolution,thestartoftheeraofatomicenergyandthecomputerAnearnestfollowerandpopulariseroftheteachingsofSteinitz,'apragmatist,whostudiedeverythingthathadbeenpublishedinchess,'EuwewasalsoaDoctorofMathematicsandaprominentspecialistinelectronicsatonetimehewaschairmanoftheEuroatomcommissiononchessprogrammingHewasthefirstofthechesskingstobecomePresidentofFIDE(),notwithouttheinfluenceofBotvinnik,whothoughtthat'onlyachessplayerwhohasbeenworldchampioncanunderstandtheimportanceofthefirmandjustrulesforconductingcompetitionsfortheworldchampionship'MikhailBotvinnik(worldchampion,,)FromhisyouthastaunchcommunistThecold,mercilessstyleofthePatriarchoftheSovietChessSchool,basedondeepopeningandpsychologicalpreparationisthisnotasymbolofthemightoftheStalinregime!Inordertoplayatthehighestlevel,Botvinnikstudiedchessveryseriously,scientificallyandprofessionallyHewaschampionintheinitialyearsoftheColdWar,whensportemergedintotheworldpoliticalarena,andwastransformedintoaninstrumentintheideologicalbattlebetweenEastandWestButprofessionalsportwasthenonlyinitsinfancy,whilesciencewasbeingdrawnintoatomic,cosmicandcomputerventuresIshouldremindyouthatBotvinnikwasaDoctorofTechnologyandoneofthepioneersofchessprogrammingVasilySmyslov(worldchampion)Undoubtedlyasymboloftheearlythaw,thecomparativelylibertarianeraThedeathofStalin,thethCommunistPartyCongress,thestartoftherehabilitationofthevictimsofrepres­sion,theworldyouthfestivalinMoscowOntothechessthroneclimbedamild,intelligentmanwithafinebaritonevoice,whohaddreamedofasingingcareerHewasnotacommu­nist,andhisdeepreligiousnessasthoughanticipatedtheapproachingrebirthoftheOrthodoxChurchInaddition,Smyslov'sstylewasmuchlighterandmoreairycomparedwithBotvin­nik'stanklikeonslaughtThesegiantsplayedthreematchesagainsteachother!Alas,Smyslov,whowasthenclearlythestrongestplayerintheworld,didnotholdthechampionshipforlong:thepreviouseradidnotwanttogivewayGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsMikhailTal(worldchampion)Althoughhistenureofthechampionshiplastedarecordshorttime,TalundoubtedlyremainsoneofthebrighteststarsinthehistoryofchessHisdaring,riskystylewithitsstunningcom­binationsandsacrifices,hisyouth,irrepressibleoptimismandwitallthisreflectedthehopesofSovietsociety,whichhadbarelyawokenafterthedarknessofStalinismandhadeagerlybreathedagulpoffreedomintheKhrushchevthawTalbecamechampionin,buthissparklingplaywonoverthepublicasearlyasHisvictoryoverBotvinnikwasthetri­umphofarestlesspoetoveracoldmaterialistictechnician(inBronsteinhadcomeclosetothis,butthetimehadnotyetarrived)Butinthereturnmatchheldayearlatertheyoungromantichadnochanceofsuccessagainstthe'bulwarkoftheSovietsystem'Incidentally,itwasinthatthefirstsignsoftheendingofthethawappearedThehardlinesupportershadtriumphedTigranPetrosian(worldchampion)Theidealsonofhistime,whoreplacedBotvinnikThiswastheperiodofthe'earlyBrezhnev',atimeofthemethodicaltighteningofthescrewsTheproceedingsagainstBrodsky,thetrialofSinyavskyandDaniel,theinvasionofCzechoslovakia,thecompletestiflingoffreedomofspeechBeliefincommunistidealslessened,anditsplacewastakenbyconformism,reti­cence,cautionanddiscretionAndforPetrosian,withhisdifficultchildhood,soberprudenceandenormousnaturaltalent,thesequalitieswerepresentinfullmeasureBorisSpassky(worldchampion)AkindofSovietdandy,themasterofthespectacularattack,anaturalactoronthechessstageAlsoagreattalent,butatthesametimeaboldandindependentperson,knownforhiscaustic,unprejudicedcommentsIncontrasttoothercelebrities,heneverclungtopower,didnottrytogetanythingoutofitandnevertriedtosqueezepoliticalcapitaloutofhisnameSpassky'sdissidentbehaviour,likethatofanumberofprominentfiguresinscienceandculture,re­flectedthegrowinghostilityofthepostStalingenerationofSovietpeopletothedecayingre­gimeAnewwaveofemigrationbeganInSpasskyalsoescapedtofreedom,marriedaFrenchwomanandmovedtoasuburbofParisButhewasdeprivedoftheredflagandhisstipendfromtheUSSRSportsCommitteeonlyafterLinares,wheretheformerworldchampiontookfirstplace,aheadofthecurrentchampionKarpovRobertJamesFischer(worldchampion)ThemostrestlessandambiguouschampionByachievingunprecedentedsuccesseshebecamealivinglegendFischer'senergeticstyleisthatofa'killeratthechessboard':monstrouspur­posefulness,furiouspressure,sweepingawayeverythinginitspathThelonegeniuschal­lengedtheformidableSovietChessSchooland,tothedelightoftheWest,hewon!Hefirmlyanduncompromisinglydemandedimprovementsinplayingconditions,andrespectforchessandchessplayersFischermodernisedpracticallyallaspectsoftheancientgameandcouldwellhaveimplementeditsconversionontoprofessionallinesButduetocertaintraitsofhischaracterandhisextremeindividualism,intheendhebecamearecluseandslippedoutoftheonwardprocessofchessdevelopmentApity,sinceitcouldhavebeenbroughtontoafundamentallydifferentlevelonlybyFischeranoutstandingcontemporaryoftheBeatles,hippiesandmassdisturbancesbystudents,demandinggreaterindividualfreedomIntroductionAnatolyKarpov(worldchampion)Karpov'spowerfulinstinctforsurvival,multipliedbyhisuniquechesstalent,gavebirthtoasupersolidalloyofLasker'spsychologicalrefinementwithCapablanca'simpeccable,machine­liketechniqueAfavouriteofBrezhnevandavividsymbolof'stagnation'thelastdecadeoftheregime,whentheUSSRinvadedAfghanistan,andthepartyauthorities,hidingbehindthescreenofthedecayedideology,dideverythingtoengageinpersonalenrichmentPreciselyduringtheseyearstheInternationalChessFederation(FIDE)becameanorganisationrunbythecountriesofthesocialistcampandtheThirdWorld,andeffectivelybytheSovietUnionanditsworldchampionAnatolyKarpovCorruption,stagnation,cynicismandconformismthesewerethetypicalfeaturesofSovietrealityinthetwilightcommunisteraButtheWestacceptedtheideaofthepeacefulcoexistenceofthetwosystemsandwasreadytolivewithdoublestandardsforalongtimeyetThetwomatchesfortheworldcrownbetweenKarpovandKorchnoi(and)areanexcellentillustrationofthatperiodKorchnoi,evenafterbecomingaWesternerandenlistingthesupportofthefreeworld,wasunabletowithstandtheheartlessmightoftheSovietmachineGarryKasparov(worldchampion)IseemyownstyleasbeingakindofsymbiosisofthestylesofAlekhine,TalandFischerIbecamechampioninthehistoricyearof,thefirstyearofGorbachev'sperestroika,whichledtothebreakupoftheUSSRandafundamentalchangeinthemapoftheworldAstormofchangeswepttheplanet,overturningthelivesofmillionsofpeopleInchesstootheoldordercouldnotsurviveAfteranumberofdesperateattemptstoreanimatethepast(afurtherthreematcheswithKarpov!),itneverthelessbrokeawayonanewpathandisaimingtobe­comeoneofthemaintypesofprofessionalsportHowever,manychangesstilllieaheadbothinchess,andintheworldasawholeVladimirKramnik(worldchampion)Ontheborderofthethandstcenturies,inRussia,andalsointheWest,itbecamethetimeofthepragmaticmarketandquestionssuchas'Whatisyourcompanyworth'or'Howmuchareyourshares'AndtherecameintochessapersonwhopersonifiedthisapproachwithhisstyleofplayandlifeThechampionlikescaleofhistalentwasevidentbackintheearlys,whenIinsistedontheinclusionofVolodyaintheRussianOlympiadteam,buthischessstylereachedcompletiononlybythetimeofourmatchinThisistheheightofpragmatism,aquaintsynthesisofthepsychologicalinsightofLasker,thedeepopeningprepa­rationofBotvinnikandtheextraordinarytenacityofKarpov,whosecollectionofgameswasKramnik'sbedsidebookAtrulysymbolicplaceforthehistoryofchessisPragueacitywhereinMaythefirstworldchampionSteinitzwasborn,andwhereinMaytheFIDEPresidentKirsanIlyumzhinov,togetherwiththethandthchampions,signeda'Resolutionforunitingthechessworld'Alinewastherebydrawnunderthehistoricdisputeregardingtowhomthetitle'ChampionoftheWorld'belongs:asaresultoftheunification,theonlyrightfulownerandtheonlyorganisation,stagingtheofficialworldchampionships,remainsFIDEThiswasaserious,butnecessaryconcessiononthepartofthechampions:todaythereisnootherwayofattractingmoneyintochessfrombigcorporationsandofensuringadecentlivingforhun­dredsofprofessionalsGarryKasparovonMyGreatPredecessorsNextinturnisthecreationofdynamicsystemforconductingtheworldchampionshipatwoyearcycle,consistingofaqualifyingknockouttournament,quarterflnalandsemifinalcandidatesmatchesandamatchfortheworldchampionshipofgamesmoreover,thechampionwillnowjoininatthesemifinalstage,andsubsequendyevenatthequarterfinalToallappearances,theformersignificanceandsymbolismofthetide'ChampionoftheWorld'willfadeintothepastWhatcanbedoneTherapidaccelerationinthetempooflife,andtheoverallcomputerisationandcommercialisati

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