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首页 Renaissance and Englightment.doc

Renaissance and Englightment.doc

Renaissance and Englightment.doc

上传者: Beyourself 2011-12-21 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Renaissance and Englightmentdoc》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含RenaissanceandReformationRenaissanceinItalyⅠFillintheblanksGenerallyspeaki符等。

RenaissanceandReformationRenaissanceinItalyⅠFillintheblanksGenerallyspeaking,RenaissancereferstotheperiodbetweenthethandmidthcenturyHumanismistheessenceoftheRenaissanceInessence,RenaissancewasahistoricalperiodinwhichtheEuropeanhumanistthinkersandscholarsmadeattemptstogetridofconservatisminfeudalistEuropeandintroducenewideasthatexpressedtheinterestsofbourgeoisie(资产阶级),tolifttherestrictionsinallareasplacedbytheRomanChurchauthoritiesRenaissancestartedinFlorenceandVenicewiththefloweringofpaintings,sculptureandarchitectureBeginningfromthethcentury,citiesbegantoriseincentralandnorthItalyDecameron(《十日谈》)isacollectionoftalestoldbyyoungladiesandyoungergentlemenontheirwaytoescapetheBlackDeathofPetrarchwasbestknownforCanzoniers(诗集),abookoflyricalsongswritteninhisItaliandialectTheRenaissanceartistsintroducedintheirworksscientifictheoriesofanatomyandperspectiveThefourrepresentativeartistsofHighRenaissanceinItalyareLeonardodaVinci,Michelangelo,RaphaelandTitianLeonardodaVinci’smajorworks:LastSupperisthemostfamousofreligiouspicturesMonaLisaprobablyistheworld’smostfamousportraitMichelangelocreatedastyleofartinwhichhefreedhimselffromtheoldtraditionofdecorationontheonehandanddocumentaryrealismontheotherTitian’spaintingisacknowledgedtohaveestablishedoilcoloroncanvasasthetypicalmediumofthepictorialtraditioninwesternartInworldtrade,ItalyhadlostitssupremacybecauseofthediscoveryofAmericainandtheroundingoftheCapeofGoodHopein,theopeningofanallwaterroutetoIndiawhichprovidedacheapermeansoftransportPetrarch(彼特拉克)islookedupasthefatherofmodernpoetryItalyisregardedasthebirthplaceoftheRenaissanceⅡChoiceWheredidtheRenaissancestartwiththefloweringofpaintings,sculptureandarchitectureAinGreeceandRomeBinFlorenceandVeniceCinMilanandFlorenceDinItalyandGermanyWhendidtheRenaissancereachitsheightwithitscentermovingtoMilan,thentoRome,andcreatedHighRenaissanceAinthethcenturyBinthethcenturyCinthethcenturyDinthethcenturyWhichofthefollowingworksiswrittenbyBoccaccioADecameronBCanzoniersCDavidDMosesWhoistheauthorofthepainting,KissofJudas(见下图)a)Giotto(乔托:意大利画家、雕刻家、建筑师)BBrunelleschiCDonatelloDGiorgioneWhichofthefollowingHighRenaissanceartistsisthefatherofthemodernmodeofpaintingARaphaelBTitianCdaVinciDMichelangeloWhichofthefollowingHighRenaissanceartistswasbestknownforhisMadonna(VirginMary)ATitianBdaVinciCMichelangeloDRaphaelWhichofthefollowingpaintingswasbasedonthestoryintheBiblewithMariaridingonadonkeyreadytofacethehardshipaheadATempestaBSacredandProfaneLoveCFlightintoEgypt(见下图)DTheReturnoftheHuntersKissofJudasFlightintoEgypt(逃往埃及)ⅢInterpretationARenaissanceBDecameronⅣQuestionsWhatmadeItalythebirthplaceoftheRenaissanceWhatarethemainelementsofhumanismHowaretheseelementsreflectedinartandliteratureduringtheItalianRenaissanceHowdidItalianRenaissanceartandarchitecturebreakawayfrommedievaltraditionInwhatwaywasLeonardodaVinciimportantduringtheRenaissanceReformationandCounterReformationⅠFillintheblanksTheReformationledbyMartinLutherwhichsweptoverthewholeofEuropewasaimedatopposingtheabsoluteauthorityoftheRomanCatholicChurchandreplacingitwiththeabsoluteauthorityoftheBibleMartinLutherwastheGermanleaderoftheProtestantReformationHisdoctrinemarkedthefirstbreakintheunityoftheCatholicChurchWhenthePoperefusedtorecognizedHenry’smarriagewithAnneBoleyn,BritishParliament,in,passedtheActofSupremacy(确立英皇权力高于教会的法令)whichmarkedtheformalbreakoftheBritishwiththePapalauthoritiesIgnatiusandhisfollowerscalledthemselvestheJesuits,membersoftheSocietyofJesusJohnCalvinputhistheologicalthoughtsinhisInstitutesoftheChristianReligion(《基督教原理》),whichwasconsideredoneofthemostinfluentialtheologicalworksofalltimesⅡChoiceWhotookupthetranslationoftheBibleintoEnglishforthefirsttimeAJanHusBJohnWyliffCMartinLutherDJohnCalvinWhoistheauthorInstitutesoftheChristianReligionAJohnWycliffBJanHusCJohnCalvinDErasmusInwhosereigndidtheformalbreakoftheBritishwiththepapal(教皇制度的)authoritiestakeplaceAElizabethIBWilliamICEdwardIIIDHenryVIIIAftertheformalbreakoftheBritishwiththepapalauthorities,whowastheheadofthechurchAKingBPopeCBishopDQueenⅢInterpretationCalvinismtheCouncilofTrentCounterReformationⅣQuestionsWhatarethedoctrinesofMartinLutherWhatwasthesignificanceoftheReformationinEuropeancivilizationRenaissanceinotherCountriesⅠFillintheblanksTheProtestantgroupinFrancewasknownastheHuguenots(法国胡格诺派教徒)whoserivalrywiththeCatholicChurchledtothewarsofreligionfromtoIntheMoors(摩尔人)thathadruledSpainforfourcenturiesweredrivenoutfromtheirlaststrongholdInColumbusdiscoveredAmericanandclaimedAmericaforSpainTheauthorofDonQuixote(《堂吉诃德》)isCervantes(塞万提斯)AlbrechtDürerwastheleaderoftheRenaissanceinGermanyHisengravingsareunsurpassedandhispaintingsofanimalsandplantsareexceedinglysensitiveUnderthereignofElizabethI,EnglandbegantoembarkontheroadtocolonizationandforeigncontrolthatwastotakeitontoitsheydayofcapitalistdevelopmentThomasMorewasagreathumanistduringtheRenaissanceAmonghiswritingsthebestknownisUtopiaCervantescrownedliteratureofSpainandShakespeareofEnglandduringtheRenaissanceⅡChoiceWhichofthefollowingworkswaswrittenbyRabelais(拉拍雷),inwhichhepraisesthegreatnessofman,expresseshisloveofloveandhisreverenceandsympathyforhumanistlearningAGargantuaandPantagruel(《庞大固埃》和《卡冈都亚》)BDonQuixoteCThePraiseofFollyDUtopiaWhosemottoputdowninhisessays“WhatdoIKnow”isworldfamousACervantesBRabelaisCMontaigne(蒙田:法国人文主义思想家)DShakespeareWhichofthefollowingworksisworthreadingforMontaigne’shumanistideasandastylewhichiseasyandfamiliarASonnetsBDecameronCRabelaisDOfRepentanceWhichofthefollowingisNOTFrenchwriterpoetACervantesBPierredeRonsardCRabelaisDMontaigneInwhopublishedthefirstGreekeditionoftheNewTestamentABruegelBErasmus(伊拉兹马斯)CElGrecoDRabelais“Tobe,ornottobe,thatisthequestion”fromwhoseworksAChaucerBDanteCRogerBaconDShakespeareⅢQuestionsWhydidEnglandcomelaterthanothercountriesduringtheRenaissanceInwhatwaywasEnglishRenaissancedifferentfromthatofothercountriesWhowerethemajorfiguresandwhatweretheircontributionsScienceandTechnologyduringtheRenaissanceⅠFillintheblanksTheRenaissancewasthegoldenageofgeographicaldiscoveries:bytheyearofthesurfaceoftheknownearthwasdoubledColumbuswasaGenoesebornnavigatoranddiscovereroftheNewWorldDiaswasaPortuguesenavigatorwhodiscoveredtheCapeofGoodHopeVascodaGama(达伽马)wasaPortuguesenavigator,whodiscoveredtheroutetoIndiaroundtheCapeofGoodHopebetweentheyearofandAmerigoVespucci(韦斯普奇)wastheItaliannavigatorinwhosehonorAmericawasnamedAmerigoVespuccidiscoveredandexploredthemouthoftheAmazon(亚马逊河)andacceptedSouthAmericaasanewcontinentCopernicus(哥白尼)cametobeknownasfatherofmodernastronomyDuringhislifetimeLeonardodaVincidissectedmorethanthirtycorpseandwasagreatanatomistinItalyAndreasVesalius(维萨里)wasthefounderofmodernmedicineVesaliuswasaFlemishanatomistHisworkFabrica(《人体结构》)markedthebeginningofanewerainthestudyofanatomy(解剖学)Machiavelli(马基雅弗利)wascalled“Fatherofpoliticalscience”intheWest(政治学之父)TheReformationshatteredMedievalChurch’sstifling(沉闷的令人窒息的)controloverman,thuspavingthewayforcapitalismⅡQuestionsWhatweresomeofthescientificadvancesduringtheRenaissanceTheSeventeenthCenturyScienceⅠFillintheblanksAlthoughCopernicus(哥白尼)didnotbelongtothethcentury,hewastheimmediateforerunnerofmodernscienceInthethcentury,thePtolemaicsystem(天动说)hadbeenacceptedbyalmostalllearnedmen,whichsaidthattheearthwasthecenteroftheuniverse,whichwasinagreementwithreligiousdoctrinesCopernicusputforwardhistheorythatthesunisthecenteroftheuniversewhilethetraditionalPtolemy’ssystemheldthattheearthisthecenteroftheuniverseThefirstimportantastronomerafterCopernicustoadopttheheliocentrictheorywastheGermanscientistKepler(开普勒)Kepler’slawsformedthebasisofallmodernplanetaryastronomyandledtoNewton’sdiscoveryofthelawsofgravitationGalileowasthefirsttoapplythetelescopetothestudyoftheskiesGalileowasthefirsttoestablishthelawoffallingbodiesGalileorefusedtodeclarethattheCopernicantheorywasnothingbutahypothesisnotyetprovedbyscienceandwasbroughttotrailbytheInquisition(中世纪天主教审判异教徒)宗教裁判所)Asamathematician,IssacNewtoninventedcalculus(微积分学)OfallIssacNewton’sachievementsinphysics,hisdiscoveryofthelawoftheuniversalgravitation(万有引力定律)isthemostimportantⅡChoiceWhoeversaidthat“Themodernworld,sofarasmentaloutlookisconcerned,beginsinthethcentury”ACopernicusBFrancisBaconCBertrandRussell(拉塞尔)DLeibnizTheauthorofTheRevolutionoftheHeavenlyOrbsisAKeplerBCopernicusCGalileoDNewtonGalileoisthegreatestnameinthephysicsofthethcenturyHistelescopemagnifiedobjectsAathousandtimesBahundredtimesCtenthousandtimesDfivehundredtimesWhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutNewton’scontributiontothescienceisNOTtrueAHediscoveredthelawoftheuniversalgravitationBHeinventedcalculusCHediscoveredthatwhitelightiscomposedofallthecolorsofthespectrumDHediscoveredthelawofrelativityWhichofthefollowingaboutGalileoisNOTtrueAHeinventedthetelescopeandwasthefirsttoapplythetelescopetothestudyoftheskiesBHediscoveredthelawofinertiaCHediscoveredtheimportanceofaccelerationindynamicsDHewasthefirsttoestablishthelawoffallingbodiesThefirstmajoradvanceofmodernscienceoccurredinAanatomyBastronomyCprintingDgeographicaldiscoveriesandNewtoninventedindependentlythedifferentialandintegralcalculusADescartesBCopernicusCLeibnizDKeplerEngels(恩格斯)said:“Therevolutionaryactbywhichnaturalsciencedeclareditsindependence…wasthepublicationoftheimmortalwork…”,whatdoestheimmortalworkrefertoASidereusNunciusBNewEassaysConcerningHumanUnderstandingCNewsystemofNatureDTheRevolutionoftheHeavenlyOrbsⅢInterpretationKepler’sLawsthelawoftheuniversalgravitationⅣQuestionsWhatwereGalileo’scontributionstomodernscienceHowdidKepler’slawsclarifyandamendCopernicantheoryWhyisNewtongenerallyconsideredtobethegreatestscientistthateverlivedWhatwerethemeritssharedbythegreatestscientistsofthethcenturyPhilosophy,PoliticsandLiteratureinEnglandⅠFillintheblanksFrancisBaconheldthatphilosophyshouldbekeptseparatefromtheology,notintimatelybeblendedwithitasinscholasticismFrancisBaconrejectedthetraditionaldeductivemethodandfoundedtheinductivemethodThomasHobbswastheauthorofLeviathan(《圣经》中象征邪恶的)海中怪兽),whichwasoneofthemostcelebratedpoliticaltreatisesinEuropeanliteratureAccordingtoHobbes’theoryofthesocialcontract,thebestformofgovernmentismonarchyInthefirstTreatiseofCivilGovernment,LockeflatlyrejectedthetheoryofdivinerightofkingsTheserfdomintheEnglishcountrysidehadbegunbreakingupfromthethcenturyasaresultoftheEnclosureMovement(圈地运动)In,theCivilWarbrokeoutWiththesupportofthepeopleandtheleadershipofOliverCromwell,theEnglishbourgeoisiewonthevictoryIn,theBillofRightswasenactedbytheEnglishParliamentInEnglishliteratureJohnMiltonrankswithShakespeareandChaucerParadiseLostisalongepicpoemdividedintotwelvebooks,itsthemeisthefallofmenThePuritanMovementwasthereligiouscauseoftheEnglishRevolutionThereweretwoleadersintheEnglishRevolution,CromwellwasthemanofactionandMiltonthemanofthoughtⅡChoiceWhoeversaidthat“knowledgeispower”AShakespeareBFrancisBaconCThomasHobbesDJohnLockeWhichofthefollowingworkswasnotwrittenbyFrancisBaconAEssayConcerningHumanUnderstandingBTheNovumOrganum(NewMethod)CTheNewAtlantisDTheAdvancementofLearningWhichofthefollowingphilosophersbelievedthatmanisselfishbynatureAJohnLockeBDescartesCPierreGassendiDThomasHobbesWhatkindofgovernmentformedinEnglandaftertheGloriousRevolutionandtheenactmentoftheBillofRightsAconstitutionalmonarchyBrepublicCanarchyDabsolutemonarchyWhendidtheGloriousRevolutioninEnglandbreakoutABCDWhichofthefollowingworksisNOTwrittenbyJohnMiltonAParadiseLostBAreopagiticaCSamsonAgonistesDAndromaqueIn,JohnMiltonwroteaprotestagainstaparliamentarydecreereimposingcompletecensorshipofthepressThiswashisbestknownproseAAndromaqueBAreopagiticaCParadiseLostDParadiseRegainedWhichofthefollowingisNOTthecontentoftheBillofRightswhichlimitedtheSovereign’spowerincertainimportantdirectionsAParliamentwasresponsibleforallthelawmakingBThepowerofsuspendingthelawsbyroyalauthoritywasdeclaredtobeillegalCTheKingshouldlevynomoneyatanytimeDTheKingshouldnotkeepastandingarmyintimeofpeacewithoutconsentofParliamentⅢInterpretationtheGreatInstaurationtheEnglishRevolutiontheGloriousRevolutiontheBillofRightsⅣQuestionsWhydowesaythatFrancisBaconwasafounderofmodernphilosophyWhatwerethemajordifferencesbetweenLocke’sconceptof“Socialcontract”andHobbes’DescartesFrenchClassicismⅠFillintheblanksItisgenerallybelievedthatmodernphilosophybeginswithBaconinEnglandandwithDescartes(笛卡尔:法国哲学家、数学家)inFranceInmathematics,DescarteswasthefounderofanalyticalgeometryCorneille(高乃依)wasthefirstgreatFrenchneoclassicaldramatistRacine(拉辛)wasthegreatesttragicdramatistoftheFrenchneoclassicaltheatreMoliere(莫里哀)wasthebestrepresentativedramatistofFrenchclassicalcomediesCorneille,Racine,andMolierearethethreemajordramatistsoftheFrenchneoclassicisminthethcenturyⅡChoiceWhichofthefollowingphilosopherseversaid“Ithink,thereforeIam”AFrancisBaconBPierreGassendiCDescartesDJohnLockeWhichofthefollowingworksdisplaysthegrandstyleofCorneille’sworkALeCidBAndromaqueCTartuffeDLeMisanthropeWhichofthefollowingphilosophersbelievedthatknowledgeoftheuniverseandcertainprincipleandlawsofphysicsisinnateAJohnLockeBPierreGassendiCFrancisBaconDDescarteswhosesloganis“Ithink,thereforeIam”AJohnLockeBPierreGassendiCDescartesDFrancisBaconⅢInterpretationInnateIdeasFrenchClassicismIVQuestionsWhowasthemostwellknownwriterinthethcenturyFrenchliteratureSaysomethingaboutoneofhismajorworksArtI.FillintheblanksBaroqueart,flourishedfirstinItaly,andthenspreadtoSpain,Portugal,FranceandtoFlanderandNetherlandsinNorthEuropeBaroqueartwascharacterizedbydramaticintensityandsentimentalappealwithalotofemphasisonlightandcolorPalaceofVersaillesGardenFrontandEastFrontoftheLouvreareamongthemasterpiecesofarchitecturewhichbecamemodelsforEuropeanarchitectswhocametoParisforideasThelandmarkinEnglisharchitectureisthedesigningandbuildingofStPaul’sCatheralbytheEnglishscientistandarchitectChristopherWrenTheNewartrepresentedatransformationofitselementsintoaswelling,emotionalstylethatlatergenerationsweretocall“baroque”,tocharacterizetheperiodroughlybetweenand,theBaroquePeriodIIChoiceWhichofthefollowingartistshelpedtobringtheRomanBaroquestyletoitsclimaxARubensBBorromini(普罗密尼)CCaravaggioDBerniniWhichofthefollowingartistshelpedtospreadtheBaroquestyletoNorthEuropeARubens(鲁本斯)BVelazquezCBorrominiDBerniniInpaintingofthethcentury,whowoninternationalfameandhisstyleisbasicallyclassical,hisfiguresarefrozenandtheiractionstiffAChristopherWrenBRembrandtCPoussin(普珊:法国画家)DRubbensInthemiddleofthethcentury,whichcountrywastherichestandthemostpowerfulcountryinEuropeAFlanderBtheNetherlandsCEnglandDFranceIIIInterpretationBaroqueArtIVQuestionsWhataresomeofthecharacteristicsofBaroqueartTheAgeofEnlightenmentFrenchPhilosophyandLiteratureⅠFillintheblanksTheEnlightenmentwasanintellectualmovementoriginatinginFrance,whichattractedwidespreadsupportamongtherulingandintellectualclassesofEuropeandNorthAmericainthesecondhalfofthethcenturyTheEnlightenmentissometi

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