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首页 A_BASIC_INTRODUCTION_TO_RFID_TECHNOLOGY_AND_ITS_…

A_BASIC_INTRODUCTION_TO_RFID_TECHNOLOGY_AND_ITS_USEIN_SUPPLY_CHAIN.pdf

A_BASIC_INTRODUCTION_TO_RFID_TEC…

zhaokuiman 2011-12-16 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《A_BASIC_INTRODUCTION_TO_RFID_TECHNOLOGY_AND_ITS_USEIN_SUPPLY_CHAINpdf》,可适用于工程科技领域,主题内容包含WhitePaperABASICINTRODUCTIONTORFIDTECHNOLOGYANDITSUSEINTHESUPPLYCHAINJanua符等。

WhitePaperABASICINTRODUCTIONTORFIDTECHNOLOGYANDITSUSEINTHESUPPLYCHAINJanuaryConfidentialTABLEOFCONTENTSEXECUTIVESUMMARYINTRODUCTIONTORFIDHOWRFIDWORKSRFIDsystemsCommunicationAnticollisionRFIDBUILDINGBLOCKSRFIDTagsPackagingExamplesofdifferentformatsTagCostTagIC’sTagClassesSelectingatagActiveandpassivetagsHowtagscommunicateTagOrientation(polarization)TagstandardsRFIDReadersHandheldReadersRFIDLabelPrintersReaderAntennasRFIDTECHNOLOGYINTHESUPPLYCHAINDefinitionoftheSupplyChainHowwillRFIDhelpimprovesupplychainefficiencyThemainbenefitsofRFIDinthesupplychainTHEEPC–ELECTRONICPRODUCTCODEEPCOriginsEPClayoutEPCinfrastructureMiddlewareorSavantSoftwareObjectNameService(ONS)PhysicalMarkupLanguage(PML)HowtheEPCwillautomatethesupplychainSECURITYINRFIDSYSTEMSCONCLUSIONABOUTTHEAUTHORAPPENDIX–A–MoreaboutNearandFarfieldsAPPENDIX–B–EIRPandERPPowerEmissionsConfidentialExecutiveSummaryInRFIDseemedtohaveappearedfromnowhere,andintothespotlightasoneofthehottesttechnologiesaroundEveryonefromjournalists,analysts,VC’s,technologycompaniesandretailgiantslikeWalMartweremakingpublicstatements,mandates,predicationsandinvestments,basedonthepromisethatRFIDwassettorevolutionizetheglobalsupplychainonascalenotseensincetheinternetrevolutioninthe’sEquallysurprisingisthatRFIDisnotnew,itsbeenaroundforwelloveryears,andisalreadyinuseinapplicationslikeaccesscontrolandtransportWhilsttherehavebeenmanyfalsestartsandpromisesinthepast,whathasmadethedifferencethistimearound,isthecreationoftheEPC(electronicproductcode)coupledwithlowertagcosts,andthemandatedadoptionofRFIDbyWalMartandTescoforalltheirsuppliersbyFurthermore,theEuropeanParliamenthasannouncedlegislationwhichobligesallgoodstobetraceablethroughoutthesupplychainbyTheseinitiatives,andothersliketherecentUSDODannouncementsarenowdrivingthemarketandincitingmanycompaniestodevelopstrategiesforRFIDcomplianceTheuseofRFIDcombinedwiththeEPCpromisestoprovidedataaboutproductsneveravailablebeforeManyitemsproducedwilleventuallyhavetheirownuniqueIDnumbersAllpartsofthesupplychainincludingmanufactures,distributorsandretailerswillbeabletohaveinstantaccesstoinformationaboutanindividualproductRFIDisnotexpectedtoreplacebarcodessimplybecausetagsarestilltooexpensiveeventhoughtheirpriceshavefallentoaroundcentsinvolumeversuscentsforabarcodelabelAdoptionisthereforelikelytohappenfirstatthePaletteandCratelevel,thenastechnologyadvancesandcostsreducefurther,wecanexpecttoseetagsonmoreandmorehighvalueitemsThewideadoptionofRFIDacrossthesupplychainwillbringsignificantbenefitsleadingtoreducedoperationalcostsandhenceincreasedprofitsManyanalystssuggestthatthiswillhappeninthreeprimaryareasReducedinventoryandshrinkageBenefitfromareductioninstoreandwarehouselaborexpensesAreductioninoutofstockitemsWithsomuchhighprofilebacking,momentumandindisputablebenefits,canRFIDfailMostanalyststhinknot,butareawareofthemanyobstacles,misconceptionsandissuestoberesolvedonthewayincludingTagpricesandefficienciesHarmonizationofRFIDstandards,InteroperabilitythroughoutthesupplychainITinfrastructuretohandlelargevolumesofdataChangeofworkandlaborpracticesSharedcostofdeploymentPrivacyissuesThispaperisaimedatbothtechnicalandbusinessprofessionalswhowanttounderstandhowRFIDbasicallyworks,thevariousbuildingblocksandthepotentialthetechnologyhasforthesupplychainFinallyIhopethatitwillalsoshedlightonsomeofthemysteriesandconfusionsurroundingRFIDandallthatitpromiseswtwuHighlightConfidentialIntroductiontoRFIDIngeneralterms,RFID(RadioFrequencyIdentification)isameansofidentifyingapersonorobjectusingaradiofrequencytransmissionThetechnologycanbeusedtoidentify,track,sortordetectawidevarietyofobjectsCommunicationtakesplacebetweenareader(interrogator)andatransponder(SiliconChipconnectedtoanantenna)oftencalledatagTagscaneitherbeactive(poweredbybattery)orpassive(poweredbythereaderfield),andcomeinvariousformsincludingSmartcards,Tags,Labels,watchesandevenembeddedinmobilephonesThecommunicationfrequenciesuseddependstoalargeextentontheapplication,andrangefromKHztoGHzRegulationsareimposedbymostcountries(groupedintoRegions)tocontrolemissionsandpreventinterferencewithotherIndustrial,ScientificandMedicalequipment(ISM)TableMostcommonlyusedRFIDfrequenciesforpassivetags–PerformanceoverviewLFHFUHFMicrowaveFrequencyRange<KHzMHzMHzGHzStandardsSpecificationsISOIECISOIECAutoIDHFclassISO,ISO(AB)ISOIECAutoIDclass,classISOIECTypicalReadRange<m~m~–m~mGeneralLargerAntennasresultinginhighercosttagsleastsusceptibletoperformancedegradationsfrommetalsandliquidsLessexpensivethanLFtags,BestsuitedforapplicationsthatdonotrequirelongrangereadingofhighnumberoftagsThisfrequencyhasthewidestapplicationscopeInvolumeUHFtagshavethepotentialtobecheaperthanLForHFduetorecentadvancesinICdesignGoodforreadingmultipletagsatlongrangeMoreaffectedthanLFandHFbyperformancedegradationsfrommetalsandliquidsSimilarcharacteristicstoUHFbutfasterreadratesDrawbackismicrowavesaremuchmoresusceptibletoperformancedegradationsfrommetalsandliquidsTagpowersourceMainlypassiveusinginductivecoupling(nearfield)Mainlypassiveusinginductivecoupling(nearfield)ActiveandpassivetagsusingEFieldbackscatterinthefarfieldActiveandpassivetagsusingEFieldbackscatterinthefarfieldTypicalapplicationsAccessControl,Animaltagging,VehicleimmobilizersSmartcards,AccessControl,Payment,ID,Itemleveltagging,baggagecontrol,Biometrics,Libraries,laundries,Transport,ApparelSupplyChainpalletandBoxtagging,BaggageHandling,electronictollcollectionElectronictollcollection,RealTimeLocationofgoodsNotesLargestinstalledbaseduetomaturetechnologyHoweverwillbeovertakenbyhigherfrequenciesCurrentlythemostwidelyavailablehighfrequencyworldwideduetotheadoptionofsmartcardsintransportDifferentfrequenciesandpowerallocatedbydifferentcountriesUSW(EIRP)MHz,EuropeW(ERP)MHz,GHzmoreorlessabandonedforRFIDMultipleTagReadRateSlowerFasterAbilitytoreadnearmetalorwetsurfacesBetterWorsePassiveTagSizeLargerSmallerJapanhasrecentlyannouncedallocationforMHzbandforRFIDmisforunlicensedreadersandmforsitelicenseintheUSInEuropewithcurrentpowerrestrictionsonlyaroundcmisachievableHoweverthisisexpectedtoimprovetonearmaspoweremissionsincreasefromWattstowattsConfidentialHowRFIDworksFigureTypicalRFIDsystemRFIDsystemsInatypicalsystemtagsareattachedtoobjectsEachtaghasacertainamountofinternalmemory(EEPROM)inwhichitstoresinformationabouttheobject,suchasitsuniqueID(serial)number,orinsomecasesmoredetailsincludingmanufacturedateandproductcompositionWhenthesetagspassthroughafieldgeneratedbyareader,theytransmitthisinformationbacktothereader,therebyidentifyingtheobjectUntilrecentlythefocusofRFIDtechnologywasmainlyontagsandreaderswhichwerebeingusedinsystemswhererelativelylowvolumesofdataareinvolvedThisisnowchangingasRFIDinthesupplychainisexpectedtogeneratehugevolumesofdata,whichwillhavetobefilteredandroutedtothebackendITsystemsTosolvethisproblemcompanieshavedevelopedspecialsoftwarepackagescalledsavants,whichactasbuffersbetweentheRFIDfrontendantheITbackendSavantsaretheequivalenttomiddlewareintheITindustryCommunicationThecommunicationprocessbetweenthereaderandtagismanagedandcontrolledbyoneofseveralprotocols,suchastheISOandISOforHFortheISO,andEPCforUHFBasicallywhathappensisthatwhenthereaderisswitchedon,itstartsemittingasignalattheselectedfrequencyband(typicallyMHzforUHForMHzforHF)AnycorrespondingtaginthevicinityofthereaderwilldetectthesignalandusetheenergyfromittowakeupandsupplyoperatingpowertoitsinternalcircuitsOncetheTaghasdecodedthesignalasvalid,itrepliestothereader,andindicatesitspresencebymodulating(affecting)thereaderfieldAnticollisionIfmanytagsarepresentthentheywillallreplyatthesametime,whichatthereaderendisseenasasignalcollisionandanindicationofmultipletagsThereadermanagesthisproblembyusingananticollisionalgorithmdesignedtoallowtagstobesortedandindividuallyselectedTherearemanydifferenttypesofalgorithms(BinaryTree,Aloha)whicharedefinedaspartoftheprotocolstandardsThenumberoftagsthatcanbeidentifieddependsonthefrequencyandprotocolused,andcantypicallyrangefromtagssforHFanduptotagssforUHFOnceatagisselected,thereaderisabletoperformanumberofoperationssuchasreadthetagsidentifiernumber,orinthecaseofareadwritetagwriteinformationtoitAfterfinishingdialogingwiththetag,thereadercantheneitherremoveitfromthelist,orputitonstandbyuntilalatertimeThisprocesscontinuesundercontroloftheanticollisionalgorithmuntilalltagshavebeenselectedConfidentialRFIDBuildingBlocksRFIDTagsPackagingEveryobjecttobeidentifiedinanRFIDsystemwillneedtohaveatagattachedtoitTagsaremanufacturedinawidevarietyofpackagingformatsdesignedfordifferentapplicationsandenvironmentsThebasicassemblyprocess(seeFig)consistsoffirstasubstratematerial(Paper,PVC,PET),uponwhichanantennamadefromoneofmanydifferentconductivematerialsincludingSilverink,AluminumandcopperisdepositedNexttheTagchipitselfisconnectedtotheantenna,usingtechniquessuchaswirebondingorflipchip(seeFig)FinallyaprotectiveoverlaymadefrommaterialssuchasPVClamination,EpoxyResinorAdhesivePaper,isoptionallyaddedtoallowthetagtosupportsomeofthephysicalconditionsfoundinmanyapplicationslikeabrasion,impactandcorrosionFigBasicTagAssemblyExamplesofdifferentformatsCreditcardsizeflexiblelabelswithadhesivebacksTokensandcoinsEmbeddedtags–injectionmoldedintoplasticproductssuchascasesWristbandtagsHardtagswithepoxycaseKeyfobsTagsdesignedspeciallyforPalettesandcasesPapertagsTagCostThetypeofmaterialsandassemblymethodsusedtopackagetagsimpactdirectlyonthefinalcost(around),andtosomeextentonthecommunicationperformanceInthesupplychain,thecostoftagsisoneofthemainconsiderationsformassadoption,withthecenttagbeingthemuchtalkedabouttargetHowtoachievethisfigureiscurrentlyoneofthegreatdebatesTraditionallychipdiesizehasalwaysbeenthekeyfocus,andICcompanieshavemanagedtogetdiesizes(chiparea)downtoaroundmmforUHFchips,resultinginamanufacturingcostofaboutcentsdependingontheSiliconprocessThisleavescentsfortherest!whichiswheretherealchallengenowseemstolieTherearesolutionsin•PVC•PET•PAPER•………SubstrateAntenna•Copper•ALU•ConductiveInk•………ChipFlipchipconnectionAntennaWireGoldbumpsChipSurfaceOverlay•PVC•EpoxyResin•AdhesivePaper•………ConfidentialthepipelinefromcompanieslikeAlienTechnologyandPhilipsSemiconductors,whomhavebothdevelopednewchipassemblytechniqueswhichwhenusedwiththeverylargevolumes(billionsoftags)expectedinthesupplychainpromisestooptimizecoststothelevelsrequiredinordertoreachthecentgoalFigHF(MHz)TagexamplesPaperlabelswithconductivesilverinkantennasFlexiblelabelwithanaluminumantennaCourtesyofASKCourtesyofInsideContactlessFigUHF(–MHz)tagexamplesCourtesyofMATRICSCourtesyofIPICOCoilonchipTags(imagecourtesyofMaxell)AnewandfascinatingdevelopmentfortagsisbasedonhavingtheantennadepositeddirectlyontothetagchipssurfaceAlthoughthecommunicationdistanceislimitedtoaroundmm,theresultisamicroscopictagwhichcanbeconcealedforexampleinbanknotes,asproposedrecentlybyHitachiMaxellBothMaxellandInsidecontactlesshavedevelopedworkingversionsofthesetagsatUHF,HF(Maxell)andHF(Inside)ConfidentialTagIC’sFigBasicTagICarchitectureRFIDtagIC’saredesignedandmanufacturedusingsomeofthemostadvancedandsmallestgeometrysiliconprocessesavailableTheresultisimpressive,whenyouconsiderthatthesizeofaUHFtagchipisaroundmmieaboutthesizeofthesquarebelowIntermsofcomputationalpower,RFIDtagsarequitedumb,containingonlybasiclogicandstatemachinescapableofdecodingsimpleinstructionsThisdoesnotmeanthattheyaresimpletodesign!Infactveryrealchallengesexistsuchas,achievingverylowpowerconsumption,managingnoisyRFsignalsandkeepingwithinstrictemissionregulationsOtherimportantcircuitsallowthechiptotransferpowerfromthereadersignalfield,andconvertitviaarectifierintoasupplyvoltageThechipclockisalsonormallyextractedfromthereadersignalMostRFIDtagscontainacertainamountofNVM(NonvolatileMemory)likeEEPROMinordertostoredataTheamountofdatastoreddependsonthechip

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