加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 统计建模与R软件

统计建模与R软件

统计建模与R软件

casanova80
2011-12-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《统计建模与R软件pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

�DXY��Vw�)rÆ�jIMXD�a)VMR�pup}X�pqupGZX��dp���K!�!�D℄��O�,G#�dp��t}XoU)|Ou�Nl!}X�$�pGZX�}XX!�G�`P�#}X�H^!G#:O�!QGeAG!JG#℄�#���d�ze!Pp!D!}XXSK�(�R�p|g*!G#℄��oG#!�r�X��!℄R�pp��S!X�$'}*��℄���'�q�{�R�p!SD$`}X�G�|"�~Z$�E�R�p!�Kq|:gS!�GDB�,�!R�f�l*!e���Z��z�{W~�GL}X!z<BR�pJZ��w�u�!��H���TE�KFegp��u�R!�sW�|(K�L�p�p!��eA�xQ!(�Tb�����t���oTC��V�L��>�A#S�!n!}X�qOT}Xs�SK{�p�pT�qJn�(KB�$�qs����O��pJn�|OBX��J℄�!u�W�{L|}XLvE}�HGL}X{L!C�LUu�}X!Er!|"|R�ph}Xq)��}XX!SKF��'}Xm!X�q��L���V��L���#�sZ�GL}Xo!h�{LC{ZQq�}XXo!{L�GZs���!h�{L�D^Rnt$�}XSK!���XGÆ�R�p$,L�SKÆSVDH���pÆGL}XSK!}XO�$��}X�H�XSKCe�!R�p�z!�'�q!Jv�BX��J℄����GL}X!{LC{{WDLJ{L{p|GL}X!LvE}uiTLv�SK����B�Xu!|�E|�X{�!'}KL�!}XSKS�KHa���}XX!q�H��℄}XX!{Lu"uKLu)�G℄�CXSK`HD�F��!�p�Ui��$�G℄�$�!qk}X�H���!�pu}X!�℄�D!�!SAS�p�SPSS�p�LJMEÆ���p(�M�℄xi�u�}Xr�u!"��ZH��!u��GL}XC}XX!{qH`u��R�p!(�XFutYK�!!{�!n)�!R�pDuGL}X!Erv�XSK�R�pup}X�pqupGZX��dp���K!�!�D℄��O�,G#�dp��t}XoU)|Ou�Nl!}X�$�pGZX�}XX!�G�`P�#}X�H^!G#:O�!QGeAG!JG#℄�#���d�ze!Pp!D!}XXSK�(�R�p|g*!G#℄��oG#!�r�X��!℄R�pp��S!X�$'}*��℄���'�q�{�R�p!SD$`}X�G�|"�~Z$�E�R�p!�Kq|:gS!�GDB�,�!R�f�l*!e���{L!:Ca|�()|�℄l!GL}X{L!$�E�:*BGL}X!Er�ESK�u~g��i!���qE}!|"Vq}XO�}XSK!���()|R�f{:C!XoU�LK℄$�!�!�Y~'uZ$R�p!:oSKE�R�p!ETb�'I{�:o�B}XSK!��E�|"|{�:iii℄fo�BR�pm��G!��()���!X�G�NBSD}XSKR�pp��Z!$`X�G(�K`P>�G#���!���LuK℄!C�q)VBX��!}X��{���D℄�{�!G#qE�!}XSK�L�{L�{p!nqH|�T��p��!{L�qa}Xs�|O�(�R�p��TX���!����!{p$��'uCrq}X!EW�{p�!k$}X!EW�B'�C$�!L��'ICR�p!(��{p��R�p!E(�SK�'�CG#�DK℄��G#�D*℄�G#{p��G#!EnQ�)�S`��G#��!p�I�ZS���)�#�'RCQGX���QGX!ESK�)X�pdX�q��R�pm�X��!�G�'�C`�fk���`�fk!ESKuJQGfk�fuJWQGfk�WQGfkpC!{p$�q)��R�pm�WQGfk!J�G�(�SK�'jC=�℄����=�℄�!ESKq��=�℄�!�o�SK��(�R�p�=�℄��{u"!=�SK�i�zJ=��WK=�!#$��'SCS`℄������XS`℄��I�XS`℄�|OSxk�X�S`℄�Xd!��'�C�D!℄�I����℄��!J℄�L�$���℄J���'�C�D!℄�II����{l℄℄��{��℄��*H�℄�d�D!℄�mvÆX!$��'!CXG�(����XG�(!MonteCarloSK|O}�(SK�'���(SKAvm!��Z$!$�X'*>J,����}X$�TX�k!�(�R�pX'L��q|"gU���'�b:C!R�G|Ob��!R�G)|R$E}(�℄!$R,Fe�)�d~,$>�Du�),FeuKoU)J{�K��Pp�K:!RoU|J��p�Kar�p℄�xueyibjuteducnL���V��L���#�sZ�C�sz#�'}XX�qF:C|�ÆD�sZ�GL}Xo!h�{LC{ZQq�}XXo!{L�GZs���!h�{L�iii��<:KKIbmu�H��d��X��KHb^S����p℄�xueyibjuteducn(Y�)chenlipingbjuteducn(hQH):K,,�,��s�Ziv℄f(��C℄iWh���BR#�k^Gp�rq^Gprq�*rHRrHvprqrq!nK��urq��Bayes�QpnqBernoullikOTrqX^G<ZOT℄I^G<Z!�^G<Z!℄I�GK�H^G<ZTVH^G<Z^GZ^G<Z!GÆnQGZQS`Rp�^G<Z℄I!Q�S`AS`��G��AS`�PKL�Gpiii��mmEKLGL}X!Er�r�~r�g�^GmQGd�℄I�}XZ�xm℄ISh�rm)�mS`!℄I$quWmRXPRmuR�pg�R�p!(���yRR{��g�<�SGÆ�Æe�ZZa���p!U^xLZvG#ÆeHZkGZZ(=B�d!��BKÆ�BK�mode�lengthMqB!d<attributes()�attr()�GB!classBK��factor()�G��miiitapply()�Ggl()�GDÆG���P�lG�C�PG�(=G�!R:�P!��P(G�)��!�G^>�G#>^>(list)G#>(dataframe)^>�G#>!:L�CG#�p���pTd|!G#�pV`�!G#:CG#�pgi℄U�m����:CS!�Gg�!P��D!I!��QG��v(��G$qIiv��mWe�}Rw�D}XZ�f!<Z℄�o<!<Z℄II�!<ZG#!℄I℄I�GZS���k℄I��QQ��t���O�G�AShKfk�℄I(!fkR�pm!��gxKI��GxKI�m!�g$KI���GD!G#!G#nQ��℄�I!G#!GÆnQO�GI!G#!�KfkD!G#!GÆnQO��PE��G!<Z℄JD!G#!�>,SKuC�G��q�$q�W��B)X�K��mvK�SxKXZ!�XK�:�BX�K!K(ueK)pdXu~Sh�r!jY~Sh�r!jWSh�r!pdX�VfFpdX$qRWGbK``�fk!ErEr`�fk!EO�Jv`�fk!YJ��qp!QGfkSh�r)!`�fkSh�rS`!`�fkI℄I�r!`�fk�tqp!WQGfkPearson(!�<χfkKolmogorovSmirnovfk^S>G#!QKfke�fki}XZi�fkWilcoxonifk$q�vi��mXi����CS$�lu}Xs���p��!!{TuDq)VGL}X!ESK��R�pJ!X�rbsWGL}X|rqvE}��W�R!GZZ℄U{�BkC�G#J℄�De�^G,|�Be�B!��pK�z!L!X���!�!����}Xs��R�pWX℄�p*=u(�!rq�GL}X!Er|OGL}X!~�℄U�C�R�!$�g�=rqv!E}W�u�!$�g���GL}X!Er�Lm�!�!(KB{�rqv!W�u~u�!��=BGL}X!r�u~E!|�ÆtQ|��sPsPuvp(b�!��H*�uwF`wDp��m!upjLp,^G,�P�u�T���z,S�q�z,N��x:f℄n$�!(}�G������···|u�}vp(�az!"T(���d�>�YZ|u�r!d<"��yWO�<��!�D�YZ!�����`�##�L�,^G,�(^G,�|$,�Bd�!u�oj^Gk(randomexperiment),YE^G$k~�|(vp�()||vp(qkJ�()���DpKCeb���*{W�()�u�k���~��z,*Hw�j^Gk!b����l!N!md(samplespace),YΩk!�u~��jm)(samplepoint),Yω'uCrq}X!EWjΩm~�uvp!�N^Gp(randomevent),��CÆ�A,B,C,···>,�u~^Gp`�u~H℄!k��ju~Ep(Pu~m)b�l!N!{ω})kmju~pJ�^�lpp!u~m)z,���mdΩ)�b�!m)b|��kmd�J���jΩxp(certainevent)N∅H)�{m)e��km�HJ�b|j∅Hp(impossibleevent)sP�IR��pA!J�x�epB!J�:jpA)��pB,CpB)�pA,YA⊂B,jp!)�(contain)���A⊂BeB⊂A,:jpA�pB#a(equivalent),YA=B�pA�pBd��u~J�:jp!�(union),YA∪B�n~pA,A,···,Anmd��u~J�:jn~p!�YA∪A∪···∪AnCn⋃i=Ai|m|�^�l~p!�A∪A∪···∪An∪···C∞⋃i=Ai,>,�l~pmd��u~J���pAJ�FpBHJ�:jpA�pB!`YA−B�pA�B|"J�:jpA�pB!H(intersection),YA∩BCAB�n~pA,A,···,An|"J�:jn~p!HYA∩A∩···∩AnCn⋂i=Ai|m|�^�l~p!HA∩A∩···∩An∩···C∞⋂i=Ai,>,�l~p|"J���pA�BH|"J�:jpA�pBup(mutuallyexclusiveevent)CH�p(incompatiableevent),YAB=∅u�kmEpXdYYu!��A^Gpj�pAHJ��!ppA!BQp(oppositeevent)Cp(complementaryevent),YAp�BTQp��(�^Gp�rq�A∪A=Ω,AA=∅��W�BQpuup�upHuBQp�sPR���()x:pA∪B=B∪A,AB=BA()()�!p(A∪B)∪C=A∪(B∪C),(A∩B)∩C=A∩(B∩C)()()℄<p(A∪B)C=(AC)∪(BC),A∪(BC)=(A∪B)(A∪C)()()�·��pA∪A=A∩A,A∩A=A∪A()B�n~C^�l~p�n⋃k=Ak=n⋂k=Ak,n⋂k=Ak=n⋃k=Ak,∞⋃k=Ak=∞⋂k=Ak,∞⋂k=Ak=∞⋃k=Ak()()iK~�A−B=ABCA−B=A∩B()����R�,orqvmCWmdΩ!{�N)|,�pb�!pXd~�u!�G���'uCrq}X!EWooVYEVO�Ω,FRΩ<�<aB`()Ω∈F()A∈F,"A∈FLf�nbY�()Ai∈F,i=,,···,"∞⋃i=Ai∈FL�d�nbY�"�F�ΩwσaQU�FG<���QU�VOΩ�σaQ(Ω,F)���xO�ooVYEVO�Ω,(Ω,F)R�xOL�JwQUA∈F,nwIaP(A)�Lu�aP(·)B`�U�()LJwQUA,~~≤P(A)≤()P(Ω)=()QUA,A,···**��L�i,j=,,···,i=j,AiAj=∅~~P(A∪A∪···)=P(A)P(A)···,"�P(A)�QUAn:(probability),�(Ω,F,P)�n:O���RR!R!:P(∅)=,PHp!rq��KjN�DHlQPP(A)=⇒A=∅R!:�pA,A,···,AnYYu:�P(A∪A∪···∪An)=P(A)P(A)···P(An),()Pup�!rq#�d�rq!��R!:B{upA,)�P(A)=−P(A)R!:BY~pA�B,�A⊂B,:�P(B−A)=P(B)−P(A),P(B)≥P(A)()R!:(K�)B{�Y~pA�B,�P(A∪B)=P(A)P(B)−P(AB)()^Gp�rqKj|���P(A∪A∪A)=P(A)P(A)P(A)−P(AA)−P(AA)−P(AA)P(AAA),()P(A∪A∪···∪An)=S−SS−S···(−)n−Sn,()TmS=n∑i=P(Ai),S=∑≤i<j≤nP(AiAj),S=∑≤i<j<k≤nP(AiAjAk),···,Sn=P(AA···An)��O�^GpE!mdm`��~m)PΩ={ω,ω,···,ωn},Tmnm)�G��~m)ωi(i=,,···,n)z,#!Ce��k�e��u~m)J�:jLJ,�*rH(classicalprobabilitymodel)�pA)�m~m):pA!rq�P(A)=mn=pA)�!EpGEp�G()�~kwk��`^��Jw�Cj�n:l>lwu(l≥k)JwG�Jwu�^'mMw�V`a�,)*QUA�Bn:�A:kwuGx~w��B:��kwuGx~w������~m|y�l~|�m!{u~Ce�u~|�my�{�D~mb|k~my�l~|�m!℄Ij��l~|�mXrk~!qk^�md��lkp#!E���pAb�E��Gk~m^!k~|�m!u^GPk!,b|P(A)=k!lkzpBb�!EpG�℄YJJ��k~|�|{�Xr!�*l~|�m{�Xzk~DXK��Cklp�B�'uCrq}X!EW�pX!k~|�vÆD�u~m!�L:�k!~E���B��Cklk!~E���b|P(B)=Cklk!lk=l!(l−k)!lkrqv!NÆ�u~L|�!�q��q�nk~|!|Z��Yz�|!rq���Lk~|Z,�Pm!k~mF�u,t,�|�Pl=,:ÆD!P(B)�bpn!rq�P�k="P(B)=CK:M~|Zmd�Y~z|ut��!rq�P(B)=−=,Trq�!z)�℄��O�^Gk!md�u<Z!p�Ce{�u)y<Z(d<��H�rH)|!�p�$#!:pA!rq�P(A)=SAS=�lpA!�p�!<Zmd!<Z()Lprq�HjRrH(geometricprobabilitymodel)�(Buffon(O)~N�q)�R:!~z�a��E��H��l(l<a)om)�R:���En:���x>,N!mE��ÆuvIJ!Kθ>,N��Zd!xz(�(a)),:(θ,x)�u'Nby!�f�N!b�!�fΩ={(θ,x):≤θ≤pi,≤x≤a}d�θ−xI�Æ!u~�ID>,(�(b))N�IJx!v℄pvpx≤lsinθ,P�(b)m��K℄d!�HSA=∫pilsinθdθ=l�����I�Æ^�}u�NL�Ω$!{u)#eYN�{uIJx!pA,:P(A)=SAS=lpia()^Gp�rqxaax=lsinθpiaθxθ(a)(b)�:Buffon~N!Rrq�()|O�~NkXpi��^G~Nn�Tmk�Nx�nv℄�"�Eqkn�rqp!XFn�pi!Xpi=lnak()�#�(),NÆ=�u�ZK�^G~NkC��pi!X��P��e�^GpXd!�"{W��pJ�!vp(ofu�pJ�!rq�p��<O�<!℄qp!��A�BY~peP(B)>,jP(A|B)=P(AB)P(B)()pBJ�!vp(pAJ�!vprq(conditionalprobability)P��Nrm�N~!z�M~zTm�K!KnzKmz��Ω>,pNrA>,TmurK!N!B>,Tmur�K!N!���Ωm^�xruz:L~z℄K��K�|"ZK��K!rq℄P(A)=MMN,P(B)=mnMN,P(AB)=mMN��`Km^Gxruz(PpA{J�),��L~z�K!(vp)rqP(B|A)=mM=P(AB)P(A)'uCrq}X!EWvprqqrqd~�rq�L�m!�vP()B�~pA,)�≤P(A|B)≤()P(Ω|B)=()�pA,A,···,YYuPB�i,j=,,···,i=j,AiAj=∅�P((A∪A∪···)|B)=P(A|B)P(A|B)···,CeB�℄��z!rqKj��q��vprq�P�B{�!pA,A,�P((A∪A)|B)=P(A|B)P(A|B)−P(AA|B)��R�o�o�P���o�Bayes�o�vprq��P(AB)=P(A|B)P(B)=P(B|A)P(A)()j()rq!nK�(multiplicationformula)nK�!���B�{SRGn≥,�P(AA···An−)>"�P(AA···An−An)=P(A)P(A|A)P(A|AA)···P(An|AA···An−)()o,QUB,B,···B`()B,B,···**��Bi⋂Bj=∅,i=j,i,j=,,···,�P(Bi)>,i=,,···()B∪B∪···=Ω,"�QUB,B,···RVOΩw"`��B,B,···mdΩ!u~℄A{up:P(A)=∞∑i=P(Bi)P(A|Bi)()j()urq�(formulaoftotalprobability)^Gp�rq�B,B,···mdΩ!u~℄:B{upA(P(A)>),�P(Bi|A)=P(BiA)P(A)=P(Bi)P(A|Bi)∞∑j=P(Bj)P(A|Bj),i=,,···,()j()Bayes(tN)�(Bayesformula),jm!P(Bi)(i=,,···)*krqjP(Bi|A)(i=,,···)'krq�$mrBmdΩ!�℄B,B,···,BnP�B�B��lmdΩ!u~℄��Bi�ek��AJ�!�"��FP(Bi)>,p�"��J�!K�=�j*krq�P(Bi|A):N�ka���AX'Bp�"��rq!D|�j'krq��KzR�JtGSKqA�zC`OUPY~qA,QUzA`OUPY�ZFUu,QU�P(A|C)=,P(A|C)=#GP(C)=,~ZFUu��"�qA)n:P(C|A)��Bayes��P(C|A)=P(C)P(A|C)P(C)P(A|C)P(C)P(A|C)=×××=b�sP��YpA,B!HpJ�!rq#�LY~p!rq!nHPP(AB)=P(A)P(B),:jpA�pBQ!(mutuallyindependent)R!��pA�pBQ:A�B,A�B,A�BqQ�"���A,A,···,Ann~pn≥��B�Tm!{�k(k≥)~pAi,Ai,···,Aik,≤i≤i≤···≤ik≤n,#P(AiAi···Aik)=P(Ai)P(Ai)···P(Aik)

用户评价(3)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/49

统计建模与R软件

仅供在线阅读

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利