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法国刑法典 英文版.pdf

法国刑法典 英文版.pdf

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简介:本文档为《法国刑法典 英文版pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含PENALCODEPENALCODEWiththeparticipationofJohnRasonSPENCERQCProfessorofLaw,U符等。

PENALCODEPENALCODEWiththeparticipationofJohnRasonSPENCERQCProfessorofLaw,UniversityofCambridgeFellowofSelwynCollegeFIRSTPARTENACTEDPARTSArticlestoBOOKIGENERALPROVISIONSArticlestoTITLEITHECRIMINALLAWArticlestoCHAPTERIGENERALPRINCIPLESArticlestoARTICLECriminaloffencesarecategorisedasaccordingtotheirseriousnessasfelonies,misdemeanoursorpettyoffencesARTICLEStatutedefinesfeloniesandmisdemeanoursanddeterminesthepenaltiesapplicabletotheirperpetratorsRegulationsdefinepettyoffencesanddeterminethepenaltiesapplicabletothosewhocommitthem,withinthelimitsandaccordingtothedistinctionsestablishedbylawARTICLENoonemaybepunishedforafelonyorforamisdemeanourwhoseingredientsarenotdefinedbystatute,norforapettyoffencewhoseingredientsarenotdefinedbyaregulationNoonemaybepunishedbyapenaltywhichisnotprovidedforbythestatute,iftheoffenceisafelonyoramisdemeanour,orbyaregulation,iftheoffenceisapettyoffenceARTICLECriminallegislationistobeconstruedstrictlyARTICLECriminalcourtshavejurisdictiontointerpretadministrativedecisionsofaregulatoryorindividualnature,andtoappreciatetheirlegalitywherethesolutiontothecriminalcasetheyarehandlingdependsuponsuchexaminationCHAPTERIIOFTHEOPERATIVEPERIODOFACRIMINALLAWArticlestoARTICLEConductispunishableonlywhereitconstitutedacriminaloffenceatthetimewhenittookplaceOnlythosepenaltieslegallyapplicableatthesamedatemaybeimposedHowever,newprovisionsareapplicabletooffencescommittedbeforetheircomingintoforceandwhichhavenotledtoaresjudicataconviction,whentheyarelessseverethanthepreviousprovisionsARTICLEThefollowingareimmediatelyapplicabletotherepressionofoffencescommittedbeforetheircomingintoforce:lawsgoverningjurisdictionandjudicialorganisation,providednofirstinstancejudgmentontheissuehasbeenpronouncedlawsdeterminingthemodesofprosecutionandproceduralformalitieslawsgoverningtheexecutionandenforcementofpenaltieshowever,wheretheywouldresultinmakingthepenaltiesimposedbythesentenceharsher,suchlawswillonlybeapplicabletooffencescommittedaftertheircomingintoforcewherethelimitationperiodhasnotexpired,lawsgoverningthelimitationofthepublicprosecutionandthelimitationofpenaltiesARTICLELawsgoverningthetypeandavailabilityofmeansofreview,aswellastimelimitswithinwhichtheyaretobeinstitutedandthelegalcapacityofpersonsallowedtoapplyareapplicabletoremediessoughtagainstdecisionspassedaftertheircomingintoforceRemediesarecoveredbyrulesastoformalitieswhichareinforceatthetimetheyaresoughtUpdatedPagePENALCODEARTICLETheimmediateapplicationofanewlawshallnotaffectthevalidityofproceduralstepscarriedoutinaccordancewithanypreviouslawHowever,thepenaltyceasestobeenforceablewhereitwasimposedforamatterwhich,inconsequenceofanylawenactedafterthejudgmentwaspassed,nolongeramountstoacriminaloffenceCHAPTERIIIOFTHETERRITORIALAPPLICABILITYOFACRIMINALLAWArticlestoARTICLEFortheapplicationofthepresentChapter,theterritoryoftheRepublicshallincludetheterritorialwatersandairspacewhichareattachedtoitSECTIONIOFFENCESCOMMITTEDORDEEMEDTOHAVEBEENCOMMITTEDWITHINTHETERRITORYOFTHEFRENCHREPUBLICArticlestoARTICLEFrenchCriminallawisapplicabletoalloffencescommittedwithintheterritoryoftheFrenchRepublicAnoffenceisdeemedtohavebeencommittedwithintheterritoryoftheFrenchRepublicwhereoneofitsconstituentelementswascommittedwithinthatterritoryARTICLEFrenchCriminallawisapplicabletooffencescommittedonboardshipsflyingtheFrenchflag,orcommittedagainstsuchships,wherevertheymaybeItistheonlyapplicablelawinrelationtooffencescommittedonboardshipsofthenationalnavy,oragainstsuchships,wherevertheymaybeARTICLEFrenchCriminallawisapplicabletooffencescommittedonboardaircraftregisteredinFrance,orcommittedagainstsuchaircraft,wherevertheymaybeItistheonlyapplicablelawinrelationtooffencescommittedonboardFrenchmilitaryaircraft,oragainstsuchaircraft,wherevertheymaybeARTICLEFrenchcriminallawisapplicabletoanypersonwho,withintheterritoryoftheFrenchRepublic,isguiltyasanaccomplicetoafelonyormisdemeanourcommittedabroadifthefelonyormisdemeanourispunishablebothbyFrenchlawandtheforeignlaw,andifitwasestablishedbyafinaldecisionoftheforeigncourtSECTIONIIOFFENCESCOMMITTEDOUTSIDETHETERRITORYOFTHEFRENCHREPUBLICArticlestoARTICLEFrenchcriminallawisapplicabletoanyfelonycommittedbyaFrenchnationaloutsidetheterritoryoftheFrenchRepublicItisapplicabletomisdemeanourscommittedbyFrenchnationalsoutsidetheterritoryoftheFrenchRepubliciftheconductispunishableunderthelegislationofthecountryinwhichitwascommittedThepresentarticleapplieseveniftheoffenderhasacquiredFrenchnationalityafterthecommissionoftheoffenceofwhichheisaccusedARTICLEFrenchCriminallawisapplicabletoanyfelony,aswellastoanymisdemeanourpunishedbyimprisonment,committedbyaFrenchorforeignnationaloutsidetheterritoryoftheFrenchRepublic,wherethevictimisaFrenchnationalatthetimetheoffencetookplaceARTICLEInthecasessetoutunderarticlesand,theprosecutionofmisdemeanoursmayonlybeinstigatedatthebehestofthepublicprosecutorItmustbeprecededbyacomplaintmadebythevictimorhissuccessor,orbyanofficialaccusationmadebytheauthorityofthecountrywheretheoffencewascommittedARTICLE(InsertedbyActnoofMarcharticleOfficialJournalofMarch)Withoutprejudicetotheapplicationofarticlesto,FrenchCriminallawisalsoapplicabletoanyfelonyormisdemeanoursubjecttoapenaltyofatleastfiveyears'imprisonmentcommittedoutsidetheterritoryoftheFrenchRepublicbyanalienwhoseextraditiontotherequestingStatehasbeenrefusedbytheFrenchauthoritieseitherbecausetheoffenceforwhichtheextraditionhasbeenrequestedissubjecttoapenaltyortoasafetymeasurethatiscontrarytoFrenchpublicpolicy,orbecausethepersoninquestionhasbeentriedintheaforesaidStatebyacourtwhichdoesnotrespectthebasicproceduralguaranteesandtherightsofthedefence,orbecausethematterinquestionshowsthecharacteristicsofapoliticaloffenceProsecutionfortheoffencessetoutinthefirstparagraphmayonlybeinitiatedattherequestofthepublicprosecutorItmustbeprecededbyanofficialaccusation,transmittedbytheMinisterofJustice,fromtheauthoritiesinUpdatedPagePENALCODEthecountrywheretheoffencehasbeencommittedandwhichhasrequestedtheextraditionARTICLEInthecasessetoutunderarticlesandnoprosecutionmaybeinitiatedagainstapersonwhoestablishesthathewassubjecttoafinaldecisionabroadforthesameoffenceand,intheeventofconviction,thatthesentencehasbeenservedorextinguishedbylimitationARTICLE(ActnoofDecemberArticleOfficialJournalDecember)FrenchcriminallawappliestofeloniesandmisdemeanoursdefinedasviolationsofthefundamentalinterestsofthenationandpunishableundertitleIofBookIV,toforgeryandcounterfeitingofStateseals,ofcoinsservingaslegaltender,banknotesorpublicpaperspunishableunderArticles,,,and,andtoanyfelonyormisdemeanouragainstFrenchdiplomaticorconsularagentsorpremisescommittedoutsidetheterritoryoftheFrenchRepublicARTICLE(InsertedbyActnoofDecemberartOfficialJournalDecemberintoforceonMarch)Subjecttotheprovisionsofarticle,FrenchCriminallawisapplicabletofeloniesandmisdemeanourscommittedonboardoragainstaircraftnotregisteredinFrance:wheretheperpetratororvictimisaFrenchnationalwheretheaircraftlandsinFranceafterthecommissionofthefelonyormisdemeanourwheretheaircraftwasleasedwithoutcrewtoanaturalorlegalpersonwhosemainplaceofbusiness,orfailingthis,whosepermanentresidenceisonFrenchterritoryInthecaseprovidedforinabove,thenationalityoftheperpetratororvictimoftheoffenceisdeterminedinaccordancewitharticle,lastparagraph,andarticleARTICLE(InsertedbyActnoofDecemberartOfficialJournalofFebruary)FrenchCriminallawisapplicabletooffencescommittedbeyondterritorialwaters,wheninternationalconventionsandthelawprovideforthisThepresentarticleisapplicableintheoverseasterritories,NewCaledoniaandtheterritorialcollectivityofMayoteTITLEIIOFCRIMINALLIABILITYArticlestoCHAPTERIGENERALPROVISIONSArticlestoARTICLENooneiscriminallyliableexceptforhisownconductARTICLE(ActnoofJulyarticleOfficialJournalofJuly)(ActnoofMarcharticleOfficialJournalofMarch)Legalpersons,withtheexceptionoftheState,arecriminallyliablefortheoffencescommittedontheiraccountbytheirorgansorrepresentatives,accordingtothedistinctionssetoutinarticlesandHowever,localpublicauthoritiesandtheirassociationsincurcriminalliabilityonlyforoffencescommittedinthecourseoftheiractivitieswhichmaybeexercisedthroughpublicservicedelegationconventionsThecriminalliabilityoflegalpersonsdoesnotexcludethatofanynaturalpersonswhoareperpetratorsoraccomplicestothesameact,subjecttotheprovisionsofthefourthparagraphofarticleARTICLE(ActnoofMayArticleOfficialJournalofMayActnoofJulyarticleOfficialJournalofJuly)ThereisnofelonyormisdemeanourintheabsenceofanintenttocommititHowever,thedeliberateendangeringofothersisamisdemeanourwherethelawsoprovidesAmisdemeanouralsoexists,wherethelawsoprovides,incasesofrecklessness,negligence,orfailuretoobserveanobligationofduecareorprecautionimposedbyanystatuteorregulation,whereitisestablishedthattheoffenderhasfailedtoshownormaldiligence,takingintoconsiderationwhereappropriatethenatureofhisroleorfunctions,ofhiscapacitiesandpowersandofthemeansthenavailabletohimInthecaseasreferredtointheaboveparagraph,naturalpersonswhohavenotdirectlycontributedtocausingthedamage,butwhohavecreatedorcontributedtocreatethesituationwhichallowedthedamagetohappenwhofailedtotakestepsenablingittobeavoided,arecriminallyliablewhereitisshownthattheyhavebrokenadutyofcareorprecautionlaiddownbystatuteorregulationinamanifestlydeliberatemanner,orhavecommittedaspecifiedpieceofmisconductwhichexposedanotherpersontoaparticularlyseriousriskofwhichtheymusthavebeenawareThereisnopettyoffenceintheeventofforcemajeureARTICLETheperpetratorofanoffenceisthepersonwho:UpdatedPagePENALCODEcommitsthecriminallyprohibitedactattemptstocommitafelonyor,inthecasesprovidedforbyStatute,amisdemeanourARTICLEAnattemptiscommittedwhere,beingdemonstratedbyabeginningofexecution,itwassuspendedorfailedtoachievethedesiredeffectsolelythroughcircumstancesindependentoftheperpetrator'swillARTICLETheaccomplicetotheoffence,inthemeaningofarticle,ispunishableasaperpetratorARTICLETheaccomplicetoafelonyoramisdemeanouristhepersonwhoknowingly,byaidingandabetting,facilitatesitspreparationorcommissionAnypersonwho,bymeansofagift,promise,threat,order,oranabuseofauthorityorpowers,provokesthecommissionofanoffenceorgivesinstructionstocommitit,isalsoanaccompliceCHAPTERIIGROUNDSFORABSENCEORATTENTUATIONOFLIABILITYArticlestoARTICLEApersonisnotcriminallyliablewho,whentheactwascommitted,wassufferingfromapsychologicalorneuropsychologicaldisorderwhichdestroyedhisdiscernmentorhisabilitytocontrolhisactionsApersonwho,atthetimeheacted,wassufferingfromapsychologicalorneuropsychologicaldisorderwhichreducedhisdiscernmentorimpededhisabilitytocontrolhisactions,remainspunishablehowever,thecourtshalltakethisintoaccountwhenitdecidesthepenaltyanddeterminesitsregimeARTICLEApersonisnotcriminallyliablewhoactedundertheinfluenceofaforceorconstraintwhichhecouldnotresistARTICLEApersonisnotcriminallyliablewhoestablishesthathebelievedhecouldlegitimatelyperformtheactionbecauseofamistakeoflawthathewasnotinapositiontoavoidARTICLEApersonisnotcriminallyliablewhoperformsanactprescribedorauthorisedbylegislativeorregulatoryprovisionsApersonisnotcriminallyliablewhoperformsanactioncommandedbyalawfulauthority,unlesstheactionismanifestlyunlawfulARTICLEApersonisnotcriminallyliableif,confrontedwithanunjustifiedattackuponhimselforuponanother,heperformsatthatmomentanactioncompelledbythenecessityofselfdefenceorthedefenceofanotherperson,exceptwherethemeansofdefenceusedarenotproportionatetotheseriousnessoftheattackApersonisnotcriminallyliableif,tointerruptthecommissionofafelonyoramisdemeanouragainstproperty,heperformsanactofdefenceotherthanwilfulmurder,wheretheactisstrictlynecessaryfortheintendedobjectivethemeansusedareproportionatetothegravityoftheoffenceARTICLEApersonispresumedtohaveactedinastateofselfdefenceifheperformsanactiontorepulseatnightanentrytoaninhabitedplacecommittedbybreakingin,violenceordeceptiontodefendhimselfagainsttheperpetratorsoftheftorpillagecarriedoutwithviolenceARTICLEApersonisnotcriminallyliableifconfrontedwithapresentorimminentdangertohimself,anotherpersonorproperty,heperformsanactnecessarytoensurethesafetyofthepersonorproperty,exceptwherethemeansusedaredisproportionatetotheseriousnessofthethreatARTICLE(ActnoofSeptemberartOfficialJournalofSeptember)Minorsabletounderstandwhattheyaredoingarecriminallyresponsibleforthefelonies,misdemeanoursorpettyoffencesofwhichtheyhavebeenfoundguilty,andaresubjecttomeasuresofprotection,assistance,supervisionandeducationaccordingtotheconditionslaiddownbyspecificlegislationThislegislationalsodeterminestheeducationalmeasuresthatmaybeimposeduponminorsagedbetweentenandeighteenyearsofage,aswellasthepenaltieswhichmaybeimposeduponminorsagedbetweenthirteenandeighteenyearsold,takingintoaccountthereductioninresponsibilityresultingfromtheirageTITLEIIIOFPENALTIESArticlestoCHAPTERIOFTHENATUREOFPENALTIESArticlestoSECTIONIUpdatedPagePENALCODEPENALTIESAPPLICABLETONATURALPERSONSArticlestoSubsectionPenaltiesforfeloniesArticlestoARTICLEThepenaltiesincurredbynaturalpersonsforthecommissionoffeloniesare:criminalimprisonmentforlifeorlifecriminaldetentioncriminalimprisonmentorcriminaldetentionforamaximumofthirtyyearscriminalimprisonmentorcriminaldetentionforamaximumoftwentyyearscriminalimprisonmentorcriminaldetentionforamaximumoffifteenyearsTheminimumperiodforafixedtermofcriminalimprisonmentorcriminaldetentionistenyearsARTICLEThepenaltiesofcriminalimprisonmentorcriminaldetentiondonotprecludetheimpositionofafineandofoneormoreoftheadditionalpenaltiessetoutunderarticleSubsectionOfpenaltiesformisdemeanoursArticlestoARTICLEThepenaltiesincurredbynaturalpersonsforthecommissionofmisdemeanoursare:imprisonmentafineadayfineacitizenshipcoursecommunityservicepenaltiesentailingaforfeitureorrestrictionofrights,setoutunderarticletheadditionalpenaltiessetoutunderarticleARTICLE(ActnoofMarchArtOfficialJournalofMarch)Thescaleofcustodialsentencesisasfollows:AmaximumoftenyearsAmaximumofsevenyearsAmaximumoffiveyearsAmaximumofthreeyearsAmaximumoftwoyearsAmaximumofoneyearAmaximumofsixmonthsAmaximumoftwomonthsARTICLE(ActnoofSeptemberArticleOfficialJournalofSeptemberinforceJanuary)(ActnoofMarchArticleOfficialJournalofMarchinforceJanuary)Whereamisdemeanourispunishablebyimprisonment,thecourtmayorderadayfineThisrequirestheconvictedpersontopaytheTreasuryasum,thetotalamountofwhichisadailycontributiondeterminedbythejudge,multipliedbyacertainnumberofdaysTheamountofeachdayfineisdeterminedbytakingintoaccounttheincomeandexpensesoftheaccusedItmaynotexceedThenumberofdayfinesisdeterminedbytakingintoaccountthecircumstancesoftheoffenceitmaynotexceedthreehundredandsixtyARTICLE(ActnoofMarchArticleIIOfficialJournalofMarchinforceOctober)Whereamisdemeanourispunishedby

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