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The Authority of Law.pdf

The Authority of Law.pdf

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简介:本文档为《The Authority of Lawpdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含THEAUTHORITYOFLAWEssaysonLawandMoralityBYJOSEPHRAZOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSGre符等。

THEAUTHORITYOFLAWEssaysonLawandMoralityBYJOSEPHRAZOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESSGreatClarendonStreet,OxfordOXDPOxfordUniversityPressisadepartmentoftheUniversityofOxfordItfurtherstheUniversity'sobjectiveofexcellenceinresearch,scholarship,andeducationbypublishingworldwideinOxfordNewYorkAthensAucklandBangkokBogotáBuenosAiresCalcuttaCapeTownChennaiDaresSalaamDelhiFlorenceHongKongIstanbulKarachiKualaLumpurMadridMelbourneMexicoCityMumbaiNairobiParisSãoPauloSingaporeTaipeiTokyoTorontoWarsawwithassociatedcompaniesinBerlinIbadanOxfordisaregisteredtrademarkofOxfordUniversityPressintheUKandincertainothercountriesPublishedintheUnitedStatesbyOxfordUniversityPressInc,NewYorkJosephRazThemoralrightsoftheauthorhavebeenassertedDatabaserightOxfordUniversityPress(maker)FirstpublishedAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofOxfordUniversityPress,orasexpresslypermittedbylaw,orundertermsagreedwiththeappropriatereprographicsrightsorganizationEnquiriesconcerningreproductionoutsidethescopeoftheaboveshouldbesenttotheRightsDepartment,OxfordUniversityPress,attheaddressaboveYoumustnotcirculatethisbookinanyotherbindingorcoverandyoumustimposethissameconditiononanyacquirerBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataDataavailableLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataRaz,JosephTheauthorityoflawLawandethicsITitle'BJISBNPbkPrintedinHongKongContentsPREFACEPartI:LawandAuthority:LEGITIMATEAUTHORITY*THEPARADOXESAMETHODOLOGICALDETOURTHESIMPLEEXPLANATIONFIRSTOBJECTIONTOTHESIMPLEEXPLANATIONSECONDOBJECTIONTOTHESIMPLEEXPLANATIONNORMATIVEPOWERPOWERANDAUTHORITYREFUTINGTHEOBJECTIONSDISSOLVINGTHEPARADOXES:THECLAIMSOFLAWPartII:TheNatureofLawandNaturalLaw:LEGALPOSITIVISMANDTHESOURCESOFLAW*THENATUREOFLEGALPOSITIVISMTHESOCIALTHESISTHESOURCESOFLAWLEGALREASONS,SOURCES,ANDGAPS*PROFESSORDWORKIN'SREFUTATIONOFPOSITIVISMSOURCESANDLAWSLEGALGAPS:THEIDENTITYOFLEGALSYSTEMS*THEPROBLEMISOLATEDTHEPROBLEMCLARIFIEDTHEINSTITUTIONALNATUREOFLAW*INTRODUCTIONPRIMAIRYINSTITUTIONSTHELIMITSOFLAWTHEUNIQUENESSOFLAWTHEIMPORTANCEOFLAW:KELSEN'STHEORYOFTHEBASICNORM*EXPLAININGTHEDOCTRINETHEBASICNORMANDTHEUNITYOFLEGALSYSTEMSKELSENONNATURALLAWTHEORIESTHEBASICNORMANDAVALUEFREESTUDYOFLAWKELSENONTHENATUREOFTHENORMATIVITYOFLAWANINDIVIDUAL'S'POINTOFVIEW''THELEGALPOINTOFVIEW'CONCLUSION:LEGALVALIDITY*ITSNATURESYSTEMICVALIDITYSTATEMENTSFROMAPOINTOFVIEWVALIDITYANDPOSITIVISMPartIII:InternalLegalValues:THEFUNCTIONSOFLAW*SOCIALFUNCTIONSOFTHELAWPRIMARYFUNCTIONSSECONDARYANDINDIRECTFUNCTIONSONHLAHART'SCLASSIFICATIONOFLAWS:LAWANDVALUEINADJUDICATION*THEPROBLEMREGULATEDDISPUTESDISTINGUISHINGREGULATEDDISPUTESOVERRULINGREGULATEDDISPUTESCLOSURERULESUNREGULATEDDISPUTESJUDICIALLAWMAKINGANDLEGISLATIONCONSERVATIVERESTRAINTSANALOGICALREASONINGTHECONTINUITYOFAPPLYINGANDMAKINGLAW:THERULEOFLAWANDITSVIRTUE*THEBASICIDEASOMEPRINCIPLESTHEVALUEOFTHERULEOFLAWTHERULEOFLAWANDITSESSENCESOMEPITFALLSPartIV:MoralAttitudestotheLaw:THEOBLIGATIONTOOBEYTHELAWTHECHARACTEROFTHEOBLIGATIONMORALREASONSTOOBEYPRUDENTIALREASONSTOOBEYGOODLAWWITHOUTANOBLIGATIONTOOBEY:RESPECTFORLAWAPARADOXICALCLAIMFRIENDSHIP:ANANALOGYRESPECTFORLAW:THEANALOGYTHEWORTHOFRESPECT:ARIGHTTODISSENTICIVILDISOBEDIENCEFORMSOFDISSENTCOMMONPHILOSOPHICALATTITUDESTOCIVILDISOBEDIENCEARIGHTTOPOLITICALPARTICIPATIONCIVILDISOBEDIENCEINALIBERALSTATE:ARIGHTTODISSENTIICONSCIENTIOUSOBJECTIONCONSCIENCEANDRESPECTFORPERSONSCONSCIENCEANDTHEPURPOSEOFLAWFREEDOMOFCONSCIENCEANDARIGHTTOOBJECTPREFACEThelawclaimsourallegianceandobedienceEverylegalsystemclaimsauthorityButwhatauthorityhasthelawoverusWhatauthorityshouldweacknowledgeasduetothelawThisisthemainquestionthisbookattemptstoanswerWhatkindofananswercanphilosophyprovideUnrealisticexpectationsattheoutsetareboundtoleadtounjustifieddisappointmentThequestionisofgreatpracticalimportanceinsomanyaspectsofdailylifeItsimportanceisgrowingasthelawpenetratesmoreandmoreintoeverycornerofsocialandindividualactivityButthedeeperthelaw'spenetrationintovariousaspectsoflifethemorecomplextheproblemoftheauthorityoflawbecomesandthemoreonedespairsofthepossibilityofageneralphilosophicalanswertoitConsideranymaninanyofalargenumberofrathercommonsituationsConsider,forexample,aheadmasterobjectingtotheroutingofabypassnearhisschoolHowshouldhebehaveShouldheconfinehimselftopresentinghiscaseinthelocalpublicinquiryOrshouldhetrytodisrupttheinquirysinceheknowsthatitis,bylaw,weightedagainsthiscauseShouldheorganizeamassivelocalsitinOrchoosesomeothercourseofactionSincesomanyconsiderationshavetobetakenintoaccount,theircombinationmaywellmakethecaseuniqueThenatureoftheharmtheimplementationoftheproposedplanwillcause,thebenefitsitwillbring,thechancesofhavingitchangedbythevariouspossiblecoursesofactionopentohim,thedangerthatitwillbereplacedbyaworseplan,thecostofhisactiontotheschoolintermsofreputation,affecting,forexample,possibilitiesofraisingmoneyfromoldmembers,itsimpactonhisstandingintheeyesofhisstudents,itsconsequencestohispersonalandfamilylifedophilosophersreallyexamineorneedtoexaminealltheseconsiderationsTheanswermustbebothyesandnoThedifficultyofeachindividualcasearisesbecauseoftheparticularwayinwhichgeneralconsiderationscombineinitPhilosophicaldeliberationhelpstodeterminewhichgeneralconsiderationsarerelevanttopracticaldecisionsanditimprovesourunderstandingoftheirvalueandimportanceThisunderstandingismostvaluableformakinginformeddecisionsinconcretecases,butitisinsufficientTheactualdecisionmustbebasedoncomplexjudgmentsaboutthewaythesegeneralconsiderationsmanifestthemselvesinthecaseathand,andabouttherightwaytoresolveconflictsbetweenthemPhilosophycanprovideguidance,butitishelplesstospareusanyoftheagonyoftheactualdecisionLegalphilosophyprovidesonlyonepartofthephilosophicalanswertopracticalquestionsClearlyeachconcreteprobleminvolvesmanyotheraspectsaswellThesemaybediscussedbyotherdepartmentsofthephilosophyofpracticalreasonLegalphilosophyitselfisconcernedonlywiththelegalangleofallpracticalproblems,namelywiththewayinwhichthefactthatacertainactionhassomelegalconsequencesshouldaffectpracticaldeliberationgenerallyandmoralconsiderationsinparticularThisisthequestionoftheauthorityoflawThebookisdividedintofourpartsThesecondandthirdprimarilycriticizevariousattemptstoestablishaconceptualconnectionbetweenlawandmoralitywhichensuresaninescapablemoralauthoritytothelawThelastpartprovidesaconstructiveargumentestablishingthecharacterofthelaw'smoralauthorityandcontributing(thoughonlytoolittle)totheperennialquestionoftheconditionsthelawmustsatisfytobedeservingofmoralrespectThefirstpartprovidesanintroductiontotheargumentofthebookbysupplyingaphilosophicalanalysisoftheconceptoflegitimateauthorityThisanalysisispresupposedinthelastconstructivepart,especiallyintheessaysentitled'TheObligationtoObeytheLaw'and'RespectforLaw'Thisisfollowedbyseveralessaysrefuting,directlyandbyimplication,avarietyoftraditionalnaturallawargumentsSomeoftheseargumentsattempttoshowthatourcriteriaforidentifyingwhatislawandwhatisnotassurethelawofmoralcontentEssay('LegalPositivismandtheSourcesofLaw')explainsthereasonsforrejectinganyapproachtothelawwhichassumesthatthedeterminationofthelegalvalidityofanystandardofconductinvolvesamoralargumentEssay('LegalReasons,Sources,andGaps')exploressomeoftheconsequencesofthealternativeapproach,generallyknownas'legalpositivism',whichregardslawascreatedbysocialsourcessothattheexistenceandcontentoflegalsystemscanbedeterminedonthebasisofsocialfactwithoutresorttomoralargumentThisessaydefendsthesourcebasedconceptionoflawfromaccusationsofincoherenceandexplainswhyandinwhatsensealllegalsystemscontaingapscallingfortheexerciseofdiscretionandforrelianceonextralegalconsiderationsbycourtsincertaincasesThesourcebasedconceptionoflawisthendescribedingreaterdetailinthefifthandsixthessayson'TheIdentityofLegalSystems'and'TheInstitutionalNatureofLaw'Sincetheprimaryaimofthebookistoexamineargumentsforthemoralauthorityoflaws,thediscussionofthepictureoflawwhichemergesfromthepursuitoflegalpositivismhasnotbeencarriedveryfarForamorecompletelyarticulatedanddefendedexplanationthereaderisreferredtothelasttwochaptersofmyPracticalReasonandNorms(London,)Oneofthemainstumblingblocksforlegalpositivistshasbeentheuseofnormativelanguage,ietheverysameterminologywhichisusedinmoraldiscourse,inlegaldiscourseThefactthatthelawisdescribedandanalysedintermsofduties,obligations,rightsandwrongs,etc,haslongbeenregardedbymanyassupportingtheclaimofthenaturallawyerthatlawisinescapablymoralThebestpositivistexplanationoftheuseofnormativelanguageinlawwassuggestedbyKelsenandisdiscussedintheseventhessayTheeighth('LegalValidity')offersanoutlineofanaccountoflegaldiscourselargelyderivedfromKelsenbutfree,Ihope,frommanyofhisobscurities,anddissociatedfromotheressentiallyunrelatedKelseniandoctrinesThesecondpartofthebookdoesnotadvanceusfartowardsshowingthatlawhasmoralauthorityItrejectsonekindofargumenttothateffectandintheprocessitdefendsaviewofthenatureoflawandoflegaldiscourseThethirdpartissimilarinnaturethoughlessunifiedroundacentralthemeItisconcernedwiththerefutationofthreepopularargumentsFirst,thatanunderstandingoflawinevitablyinvolvesanunderstandingofitsfunctionsandthosecannotbedescribedexceptinamorallyloadedwayFromthisvariousconsequencesaboutthemoralityoflawareoftenallegedtofollowEssayoffersanindirectrefutationbyshowinghowlegalfunctionscanbeanalysedinvalueneutraltermsSecondistheargumentthatsincelegaladjudicationdoesandshouldinvokemoralargument,lawcannotbeseparatedfrommoralityThisargumenthasalreadybeenrefutedintheessayon'LegalReasons,Sources,andGaps',whichestablishesthepossibilityofconceptuallyseparatinginageneralwaylawandvalueinadjudicationEssay('LawandValueinAdjudication')examinestheadjudicativeprocessmorecloselyandexploresthethemeoftheseparabilityandconnectednessoflawandvalueinthecourtroomFinally,theargument(mostcloselyconnectedwithLonFuller)thattherearecertainproceduralvaluesinseparablefromthelawwhichformitsinternalmoralityisexaminedintheeleventhessayon'TheRuleofLawanditsVirtue'andisseentoguaranteenoinherentmoralvaluetothelawThesecondandthirdpartsofthebookaredevotedtoarefutationofsomenaturallawargumentsfortheauthorityoflawItremainstothelastparttodevelopaviewoftheauthorityoflawconsistentwithlegalpositivismThoughsomenaturallawargumentsareconsistentwithlegalpositivism(seePracticalReasonandNorms,ch),IhavetriedtoexplaininEssaythateventheyfailtoestablishthemoralauthorityoflawTheresultisthatonecannotexplainwhylawhasmoralauthorityItmayhavenoneIfacertainlegalsystemhasmoralauthoritythiscannotbejustaresultofitsstatusaslaworoffeaturesentailedbyitslegalaspectItmustbaseitsmoralclaimonsubstantivefeatureswhichithas,butwhichitispossibleforalegalsystemtolackHencetherealquestioniswhatshould

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