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首页 Domino(2006) Psychological_Testing__An_Introduct…

Domino(2006) Psychological_Testing__An_Introduction(2rd).pdf

Domino(2006) Psychological_Test…

书男
2011-11-16 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Domino(2006) Psychological_Testing__An_Introduction(2rd)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

P:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:iiThispageintentionallyleftblankP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:PSYCHOLOGICALTESTING:ANINTRODUCTIONSecondEditionThisbookisanintroductorytexttothefieldofpsychologicaltestingprimarilysuitableforundergraduatestudentsinpsychology,education,business,andrelatedfieldsThisbookwillalsobeofinteresttograduatestudentswhohavenothadpriorexposuretopsychologicaltestingandtoprofessionalssuchaslawyerswhoneedtoconsultausefulsourcePsychologicalTestingisclearlywritten,wellorganized,comprehensive,andrepletewithillustrativematerialsInadditiontothebasictopics,thetextcoversindetailtopicsthatareoftenneglectedbyothertextssuchascrossculturaltesting,theissueoffakingtests,theimpactofcomputers,andtheuseofteststoassesspositivebehaviorssuchascreativityGeorgeDominoistheformerDirectorofClinicalPsychologyandProfessorofPsychologyattheUniversityofArizonaHewasalsotheformerdirectoroftheCounselingCenterandProfessorofPsychologyatFordhamUniversityMarlaLDominohasaBAinPsychology,anMAinCriminalLaw,andaPhDinClinicalPsychologyspecializinginPsychologyandLawShealsocompletedapostdoctoralfellowshipinClinicalForensicPsychologyattheUniversityofMassachusettsMedicalSchool,LawandPsychiatryProgramSheiscurrentlytheChiefPsychologistintheSouthCarolinaDepartmentofMentalHealth’sForensicEvaluationServiceandanassistantprofessorintheDepartmentofNeuropsychiatryandBehavioralSciencesattheUniversityofSouthCarolinaShewasrecentlyawardedbytheSouthCarolinaDepartmentofMentalHealthasOutstandingEmployeeoftheYearinForensics()iP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:iiP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:SECONDEDITIONPsychologicalTestingAnIntroductionGeorgeDominoUniversityofArizonaMarlaLDominoDepartmentofMentalHealth,StateofSouthCarolinaiiicambridgeuniversitypressCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,Cambridgecbru,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatisbnisbn©CambridgeUniversityPressInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressisbnxisbnCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorghardbackeBook(EBL)eBook(EBL)hardbackP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:ContentsPrefacepageixAcknowledgmentsxiPARTONEBASICISSUESTheNatureofTestsAim,�Introduction,�CategoriesofTests,�EthicalStandards,�InformationaboutTests,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,TestConstruction,Administration,andInterpretationAim,�ConstructingaTest,�TestItems,�PhilosophicalIssues,�AdministeringaTest,�InterpretingTestScores,�ItemCharacteristics,�Norms,�CombiningTestScores,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,ReliabilityandValidityAim,�Introduction,�Reliability,�TypesofReliability,�Validity,�AspectsofValidity,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,PARTTWODIMENSIONSOFTESTINGPersonalityAim,�Introduction,�SomeBasicIssues,�TypesofPersonalityTests,�ExamplesofSpecificTests,�TheBigFive,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,CognitionAim,�Introduction,�TheoriesofIntelligence,�OtherAspects,�TheBinetTests,�TheWechslerTests,�OtherTests,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,Attitudes,Values,andInterestsAim,�Attitudes,�Values,�Interests,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,vP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:viContentsPsychopathologyAim,�Introduction,�Measures,�TheMinnesotaMultiphasicPersonalityInventory(MMPI)andMMPI,�TheMillonClinicalMultiaxialInventory(MCMI),�OtherMeasures,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,NormalPositiveFunctioningAim,�SelfConcept,�LocusofControl,�Sexuality,�Creativity,�Imagery,�Competitiveness,�Hope,�Hassles,�Loneliness,�DeathAnxiety,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,PARTTHREEAPPLICATIONSOFTESTINGSpecialChildrenAim,�SomeIssuesRegardingTesting,�CategoriesofSpecialChildren,�SomeGeneralIssuesAboutTests,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,OlderPersonsAim,�SomeOverallIssues,�AttitudesTowardtheElderly,�AnxietyAboutAging,�LifeSatisfaction,�MaritalSatisfaction,�Morale,�CopingorAdaptation,�DeathandDying,�NeuropsychologicalAssessment,�Depression,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,TestinginaCrossCulturalContextAim,�Introduction,�MeasurementBias,�CrossCulturalAssessment,�MeasurementofAcculturation,�SomeCultureFairTestsandFindings,�StandardizedTests,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,DisabilityandRehabilitationAim,�SomeGeneralConcerns,�ModifiedTesting,�SomeGeneralResults,�LegalIssues,�TheVisuallyImpaired,�HearingImpaired,�PhysicalMotorDisabilities,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,PARTFOURTHESETTINGSTestingintheSchoolsAim,�PreschoolAssessment,�AssessmentinthePrimaryGrades,�HighSchool,�AdmissionintoCollege,�TheGraduateRecordExamination,�EntranceintoProfessionalTraining,�TestsforLicensureandCertification,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,OccupationalSettingsAim,�SomeBasicIssues,�SomeBasicFindings,�Ratings,�TheRoleofPersonality,�BiographicalData(Biodata),�AssessmentCenters,�IllustrativeIndustrialConcerns,�TestingintheMilitary,�PredictionofPoliceP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:ContentsviiPerformance,�ExamplesofSpecificTests,�IntegrityTests,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,ClinicalandForensicSettingsAim,�ClinicalPsychology:NeuropsychologicalTesting,�ProjectiveTechniques,�SomeClinicalIssuesandSyndromes,�HealthPsychology,�ForensicPsychology,�LegalStandards,�LegalCases,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,PARTFIVECHALLENGESTOTESTINGTheIssueofFakingAim,�SomeBasicIssues,�SomePsychometricIssues,�TechniquestoDiscourageFaking,�RelatedIssues,�TheMMPIandFaking,�TheCPIandFaking,�SocialDesirabilityandAssessmentIssues,�Acquiescence,�OtherIssues,�TestAnxiety,�Testwiseness,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,TheRoleofComputersAim,�HistoricalPerspective,�ComputerScoringofTests,�ComputerAdministrationofTests,�ComputerBasedTestInterpretations(CBTI),�SomeSpecificTests,�AdaptiveTestingandComputers,�EthicalIssuesInvolvingComputerUse,�OtherIssuesandComputerUse,�ALookatOtherTestsandComputerUse,�TheFutureofComputerizedPsychologicalTesting,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,TestingBehaviorandEnvironmentsAim,�TraditionalAssessment,�BehavioralAssessment,�TraditionalvsBehavioralAssessment,�ValidityofBehavioralAssessment,�BehavioralChecklists,�BehavioralQuestionnaires,�ProgramEvaluation,�AssessmentofEnvironments,�AssessmentofFamilyFunctioning,�BroadBasedInstruments,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,TheHistoryofPsychologicalTestingAim,�Introduction,�TheFrenchClinicalTradition,�TheGermanNomotheticApproach,�TheBritishIdiographicApproach,�TheAmericanAppliedOrientation,�SomeRecentDevelopments,�Summary,�SuggestedReadings,�DiscussionQuestions,Appendix:TabletoTranslateDifficultyLevelofaTestItemintoazScoreReferencesTestIndexIndexofAcronymsSubjectIndexP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:viiiP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:PrefaceMyfirstprofessionalpublicationinwasasagraduatestudent(withHarrisonGough)onavalidationalstudyofaculturefairtestSincethen,IhavetaughtacourseonpsychologicaltestingwithfairregularityAtthesametime,Ihavesteadfastlyrefusedtospecializeandhavehadtheopportunitytopublishinseveraldifferentareas,toworkinmanagementconsulting,tobedirectorofacounselingcenterandofaclinicalpsychologyprogram,toestablishanundergraduatehonorsprogram,andtobeinvolvedinawidevarietyofprojectswithstudentsinnursing,rehabilitation,education,socialwork,andotherfieldsInalloftheseactivities,IhavefoundpsychologicaltestingtobecentralandtobeverychallengingandexcitingInthisbook,wehavetriedtoconveytheexcitementassociatedwithpsychologicaltestingandtoteachbasicprinciplesthroughtheuseofconcreteexamplesWhenspecifictestsarementioned,theyarementionedbecausetheyareusedasanexampletoteachimportantbasicprinciples,orinsomeinstances,becausetheyoccupyacentralhistoricalpositionNoattempthasbeenmadetobeexhaustiveMuchofwhatiscontainedinmanytestingtextbooksisratheresotericinformation,ofuseonlytoveryfewreadersForexample,mosttextbooksincludeseveralformulastocomputeinteritemconsistencyIthasbeenourexperience,however,thatofthestudentswhotakeacourseontestingwillneverhaveoccasiontousesuchformulas,eveniftheyenteracareerinpsychologyoralliedfieldsTheveryfewwhomightneedtodosuchcalculationswilldothembycomputerorwillknowwheretofindtherelevantformulasItistheprinciplethatisimportant,andthatiswhatwehavetriedtoemphasizeBecauseofmyvariedexperienceinindustry,inacounselingcenter,andotherserviceorientedsettings,andalsobecauseasaclinicallytrainedacademicpsychologistIhavedoneaconsiderableamountofresearch,Ihavetriedtocoverbothsidesofthecoin–thebasicresearchorientedissuesandtheapplicationoftestsinserviceorientedsettingsThusPartsOneandTwo,thefirsteightchapters,serveasanintroductiontobasicconcepts,issues,andapproachesPartsThreeandFour,Chaptersthrough,haveamuchmoreappliedfocusFinally,wehaveattemptedtointegratebothclassicalapproachesandnewerthinkingaboutpsychologicaltestingTheareaofpsychologicaltestingisfairlywelldefinedIcannotimagineatextbookthatdoesnotdiscusssuchtopicsasreliability,validity,andnormsThus,whatdistinguishesonetextbookfromanotherisnotsomuchitscontentbutmoreaquestionofbalanceForexample,mosttextbookscontinuetodevoteoneormorechapterstoprojectivetechniques,eventhoughtheiruseandimportancehasdecreasedsubstantiallyProjectivetechniquesareimportant,notonlyfromahistoricalperspective,butalsoforwhattheycanteachusaboutbasicissuesintestingInthistext,theyarediscussedandillustrated,butaspartofachapter(seeChapter)withinthebroadercontextoftestinginclinicalsettingsMosttextbooksalsohaveseveralchaptersonintelligencetesting,oftendevotingconsiderablespacetosuchtopicsastheheritabilityofintelligence,theoriesoftraitorganization,longitudinalstudiesofintelligence,andsimilartopicsSuchtopicsareofcourseimportantandfascinating,ixP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:xPrefacebutdotheyreallybelonginatextbookonpsychologicaltestingIftheydo,thenthatmeansthatsomeothertopicsmoredirectlyrelevanttotestingareomittedorgivenshortshriftInthistextbook,wehavechosentofocusontestingandtominimizethetheoreticalissuesassociatedwithintelligence,personality,etc,exceptwheretheymaybeneededtohaveabetterunderstandingoftestingapproachesItisnosurprisethatcomputershavehad(andcontinuetohave)amajorimpactonpsychologicaltesting,andsoanentirechapterofthisbook(Chapter)isdevotedtothistopicThereisalsoavastbodyofliteratureandgreatstudentinterestonthetopicoffaking,andheretooanentirechapter(Chapter)hasbeendevotedtothistopicMosttextbooksbeginwithahistoricalchapterWehavechosentoplacethischapterlast,sothereadercanbetterappreciatethehistoricalbackgroundfromamoreknowledgeablepointofviewFinally,ratherthanwritingatextbookabouttesting,wehaveattemptedtowriteatextbookabouttestingtheindividualWebelievethatmosttestingapplicationsinvolveanattempttousetestsasatooltobetterunderstandanindividual,whetherthatpersonisaclientintherapy,acollegestudentseekingcareeroracademicguidance,abusinessexecutivewishingtocapitalizeonstrengthsandimproveonweaknesses,oravolunteerinascientificexperimentP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:AcknowledgmentsInmycareerasapsychologist,Ihavehadtheexcellentfortunetobementored,directlyandindirectly,bythreegiantsinthepsychologicaltestingfieldThefirstisHarrisonGough,mymentoringraduateschoolatBerkeley,whoshowedmehowusefulandexcitingpsychologicaltestscanbewhenappliedtoreallifeproblemsMoreimportantly,GoughhascontinuedtobenotonlyamentorbutalsoagenuinemodeltobeemulatedbothasapsychologistandasahumanbeingMuchofmythinkingandapproachtotesting,aswellasmymajorinterestinstudentsatalllevels,isadirectreflectionofGough’sinfluenceThesecondwasAnneAnastasi,atreasuredcolleagueatFordhamUniversity,agenerousfriend,andthebestchairpersonIhaveeverworkedwithHertextbookhasbeentrulyamodelofscholarshipandconcisewriting,theproductofanextremelykeenmindwhoadvancedthefieldofpsychologicaltestinginmanywaysThethirdpersonwasLeeJCronbachofStanfordUniversityMyfirstundergraduateexposuretotestingwasthroughhistextbookIn,Cronbachwrotewhatisnowaclassicpapertitled,“Beyondthetwodisciplinesofscientificpsychology”(AmericanPsychologist,,vol,pp–),inwhichhearguedthatexperimentalpsychologyandthestudyofindividualdifferencesshouldbeintegratedInthatpaper,CronbachwaskindenoughtociteatsomelengthtwoofmystudiesoncollegesuccessasexamplesofthisintegrationSubsequentlyIwasabletoinvitehimtogiveacolloquiumattheUniversityofArizonaMycontactswithhimwereregrettablybrief,buthiswritingsgreatlyinfluencedmyownthinkingOnapersonalnote,IthankValerie,mywifeofyears,forherloveandsupport,andforbeingthebestcompaniononecouldhopeforinthisvoyagewecalllifeOurthreechildrenhavebeenanenormoussourceofloveandpride:Brian,currentlyaprofessorofphilosophyatMiamiUniversityofOhioMarisa,aprofessorofhealtheconomicsattheUniversityofNorthCarolina,ChapelHillandMarla,chiefforensicpsychologistintheDepartmentofMentalHealthofSouthCarolina,andcoauthorofthiseditionZenoandPaolo,ourtwograndchildren,areunbelievablysmart,handsome,andadorableandmakegrandparentingajoyIhavealsobeentrulyblessedwithexceptionalfriendswhoseloveandcaringhaveenrichedmylifeenormouslyGeorgeDominoTucson,AZAnabundanceofgratitudetomyfatherforgivingmetheopportunitytocollaboratewithoneofthegreatestpsychologistseverknownAndanimmeasurableamountofloveandrespecttomyheroes–myDadandMomIwouldalsoliketothankmymentorandfriend,StanBrodsky,whoseprofessionalaccomplishmentsareonlysurpassedbyhiswarmth,kindness,andgeneroussoulMarlaDominoColumbia,SCxiP:JZPpreCBDominoMarch,:xiiP:JZPcCBDominoFebruary,:PARTONE:BASICISSUESTheNatureofTestsAIMInthischapterwecoverfourbasicissuesFirst,wefocusonwhatisatest,notjustaformaldefinition,butonwaysofthinkingabouttestsSecond,wetrytodevelopa“taxonomy”oftests,thatiswelookatvariouswaysinwhichtestscanbecategorizedThird,welookattheethicalaspectsofpsychologicaltestingFinally,weexplorehowwecanobtaininformationaboutaspecifictestINTRODUCTIONMostlikelyyouwouldhavenodifficultyidentifyingapsychologicaltest,evenifyoumetoneinadarkalleySotheintenthereisnottogiveyouonemoredefinitiontomemorizeandrepeatbutrathertosparkyourthinkingWhatisatestAna

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