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首页 民族国家的体现

民族国家的体现.pdf

民族国家的体现

九月虺
2011-11-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《民族国家的体现pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ExamCopyEmbodimentofaNationCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyEmbodimentofaNationHumanForminAmericanPlacesCeceliaTichiHarvardUniversityPressCambridge,MassachusettsLondon,EnglandCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyCopyright©bythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaChapter’sfourthepigraphisfromTheMoonIsAlwaysFemalebyMargePiercy,copyright©byMargePiercyUsedbypermissionofAlfredAKnopf,adivisionofRandomHouse,IncLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataTichi,Cecelia,–Embodimentofanation:humanforminAmericanplacesCeceliaTichipcmIncludesbibliographicalreferences(p)andindexISBN(alkpaper)UnitedStatesIntellectuallifeUnitedStatesHistory,LocalUnitedStatesEnvironmentalconditionsNationalcharacteristics,AmericanHumanbodySocialaspectsUnitedStatesHistoryAnthropomorphismLandscapeUnitedStatesPsychologicalaspectsHistoryLandscapeSocialaspectsUnitedStatesHistoryHistoricsitesUnitedStatesITitleETdcCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyForBill,Claire,andJuliaThereisnoendowmentinmanorwomanthatisnottalliedinyou,Thereisnovirtue,nobeautyinmanorwoman,butasgoodisinyouwaltwhitman,BirdsofPassage,Copyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyContentsAcknowledgmentsxiIntroductionICraniaAmericanaMtRushmore:HeadsofStateandStatesofHeadsWaldenPond:HeadTripsIIFrontierIncarnationsPittsburghatYellowstone:OldFaithfulandthePulseofIndustrialAmericaAmerica’sMoon:“ADreamoftheFuture’sFace”IIIBonAquaHotSprings:AmericanHygeiaLoveCanal:Hygeia’sCrisisNotesReferencesCreditsIndexCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyIllustrationsStateofCaliforniaasmusculararm,Athleteasembodiedmap,ErosionNo:MotherEarthLaidBare,MtRushmore,SouthDakotaMtRushmoreduringconstruction,TheMountWashingtonRoad,Ceramicphrenologymodel,cTheImagePeddlar(detail),cTheOldManoftheMountain,AdvertisementcaricaturingMtRushmore,PresidentGeorgeHWBushMtRushmore,USpostagestampCeramiccranialflowerpotDoonesburycomicstrip,HenryDavidThoreau,USpostagestamp,WaldenPondDisneyland’sMainStreetElectricalParadeCivilRightsMemorial,Montgomery,Alabama,YellowstoneNationalPark,sTheGrandCañonoftheYellowstone,IndustrialchimneysofPittsburgh(detail),sOldFaithfulgeyser,sIndustrial“geyser”fieldofPittsburgh,sDisneyland’sTomorrowland,Copyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyCratersoftheMoon,Idaho,NASAApollorocket,NeilArmstrongonthemoon,ApolloastronautsEdwin(Buzz)Aldrin,MichaelCollins,andNeilArmstrong,TeatinfeaturingfemalemoonWaterGoddessofHealth,Scenesofbathhouses,HotSprings,Arkansas,CreeksidescenenearArlingtonHotel,HotSprings,Arkansas,StainedglassceilinginFordyceBathHouse,HotSprings,Arkansas(detail)AngelicfigureofHygeia,Watercuretreatments,LakeatFranconiaNotch,WhiteMountains,ndLoveCanal,NewYork,“ThePoisoningofAmerica,”xIllustrationsCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyAcknowledgmentsBooksarecollaborativeendeavors,provingthat“colleague”and“friend”aresynonymousThisprojecthasbeennoexceptionAttheverybeginning,AmyLangsawpossibilitiesinthetopicandencourageditspursuitAtVanderbiltUniversity,IamgreatlyindebtedtomycolleagueTeresaGoddu,whohasbeenconsistentlyencouragingandcritical,readingdraftsandofferingadviceateverypointLateintheproject,inaddition,ThadiousDavisproposedavaluabledirectionofinquiryandparticularreferencesIthankherforthetimeliestofadviceHelenVendler’ssuggestionofaRobinsonJefferspoemandAnnCook’sfestivegiftoftheceramic“flowerpower”planter(Figure)aremuchappreciatedalsoThisprojecthasbenefitedsubstantiallyfrominstitutionalresearchsupportVanderbiltUniversityprovidedsabbaticalleaveandfundsforresearch,includingtraveltotheNewberryLibrary,theNationalArchives,andtheHotSprings(Arkansas)NationalPark,wherearchivistSharonShugartgenerouslyaidedmyresearchIamindebted,too,tothestaffsoftheJeanandAlexanderHeardLibraryandoftheHistoricalCollectionsoftheEskindBiomedicalLibraryofVanderbiltUniversity,especiallyMaryTeloandJamesThweatt,fortheirhelpIalsomuchappreciatetheresearchassistanceofJillAndersonandAlisonPiepmeierTheprojectwasenrichedbymymonthlongstayattheRockefellerFoundationStudyCenteratBellagio,Italy,whosestaffprovidedidealconditionsforwritingIespeciallythankGiannaCelli,assistantdirectorofthecenter,forherwarmthandsupportThescholarsinresidencethatfallofofferednumeroushelpfulsuggestions,andIamparticularlyCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopygratefultoAlixKatesShulmanandBrendaSilverAlongtheway,facultyandgraduatestudentshaveposedimportantquestionsinresponsetopresentationsIhavemadeofvariousportionsofthiswork,andIthanktheDepartmentsofEnglishatBrandeisUniversity,CaseWesternReserveUniversity,andtheCaliforniaInstituteofTechnologyinadditiontotheAmericanStudiesAssociationofIsraelandtheDibnerInstituteoftheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyAportionofChapterappearedin“PittsburghatYellowstone:OldFaithfulandthePulseofIndustrialAmerica,”AmericanLiteraryHistory,no(Fall):–,andIappreciatethepermissionofOxfordUniversityPresstoreprintithereinrevisedformFinally,outsidereviewershavecontributedmuchtothisundertaking,whichisthebetterfortheireffortsIalsowishtoexpressmyappreciationtoLindsayWaters,KimSteere,andElizabethGilbertofHarvardUniversityPress,whohaveguidedtheprojectateverystepxiiAcknowledgmentsCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyEmbodimentofaNationCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyIntroductionThisprojectbeganonacrosscountrydrivelateinthesummerofIhadreachedSouthDakota’sBlackHillsandwasonatwolaneblacktopwindingamongthearea’ssignaturepinesandgranitepeaksForasplitsecondthatafternoon,aparticularmountainrangeseenthroughtheFordwindshieldcaughtmyattentionbecauseitlookedsobizarre,sodeformedSomehowtheAAAguidebookhadnotquitepreparedmefortheactualencounter,itsabruptness,itsincongruityIttookaninstantforthenameofthetouristsitetomeshwiththeresolutionofrocksintohumanheadsOfcourse,MtRushmoreAtthetime,itdidnotoccurtome,asayounggraduatestudentinliterarystudies,thatMtRushmoreconnectedsubstantivelywithcanonicalAmericanliteratureorthatitmightprovecentraltoaprojectonenvironmentalnationalityEncounteredonaroadtrektowardaPhDprograminCalifornia,theoutdoorpresidentialsculptureofferedameretransitorymoment,anexcusetopullover,getout,andstareupwardalongwithmyfellowautomobiletourists,mostofthemvacationingfamilies,alleyesonGutzonBorglum’smonumentalsculptureofUSpresidentsWashington,Jefferson,TheodoreRoosevelt,andLincolnLikethevacationers,Islippedaquarterintooneofthecoinoperatedbinoculars,aGeorgeWashingtonquartertobetterviewthegargantuanWashingtonandhispresidentialcohortsofthemountainMosteveryoneontheshouldergravelatthatmomentseemedrespectfulbothoftheheadsandoftheautomileageclockedjusttogetthereThevisitorswantedtofeelthemselvesatasiteofnationalsymboliccommemoration,notaPTBarnumsideshowofthekindKaralAnnMarlinglaterdubbedthe“ColossusofRoads”Copyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyItwas,aboveall,anuncomplicatedmomentforme,awhitefemalegraduatestudentinthateradominatedbyformalistNewCriticism,forpoliticswasnotyetunderstoodtobeinherenttoallliteratureandartMorethanadecadeintothefuturewerethesocioculturalargumentstoberaisedbyliterarytheoryandculturalstudiesintheUnitedStatesInAugust,MtRushmoreviewedthroughroadsidebinocularswasnotacontestedsite,atleastnottoamainstreamwhiteThoselensesdidnotshowasculpturalideologicalmessageofwhitemaleauthorityoverminoritygroupsorwomenThequarter’sworthofmagnificationwasnotenoughtofocusMtRushmore’slink,say,tothecivilrightsmovementwithitssitinsandmarchesbyNegroes,ortomarkahorizonlineofthewomen’sliberationmovementthenintheoffingNordidthehugeheadsshowtheextenttowhichMtRushmorecouldbeconsideredanimperialistproject,sincewhitemainstreamAmericaknewnothingofthemonument’sviolationofthesacredgroundoftheOglalaSioux(andmightwellhavebeenindifferenthaditknown,sincetheNativeAmericanrightsmovementhadnotyetorganizeditscivilrightsinitiatives)TheVietnamWar,atthattime,hadnotintensifiedsufficientlytotroublealargesegmentofthecitizenryandimplicatethepatriarchalarroganceexpressedinthemountaintopcarvingThebinocularmomentwastherefore“innocent”andalsobrief,justafewminutes’durationTherewasn’tmuchrushfromRushmore,thoughnotouristsaidsoaloudasthecardoorsclunkedshutandthelotofushittheroadagainTheincidentmighthavebecomeaminorentryinmemory’sscrapbookexceptfortwocrucialother“lenses”thatsoonappearedand,yearslater,provedcrucialtothisprojectTheseweretwobooklengthcompilationsconsideredrequiredreadingbothinandoutofthemidsgraduateseminarroomEachcastalongshadowinliteraryculturalanalysisfordecades:PerryMiller’sErrandintotheWilderness(rpt)andNormanOBrown’sLove’sBody()Miller’sbookisagatheringofessaysmainlyonAmericancolonialliterature,andBrown’saseriesofmeditationsorpenséesonthecentralityofthehumanbodytopersonhood,socialorganization,actsofdocumentation,andhistoryConjoined,theseworkswouldbecomefoundationalforthisstudyTobesure,whenPerryMillerincluded“NatureandtheNationalEgo”inErrandintotheWilderness,hewasnotthinkingofMtRushmoreorHotSprings,Arkansas,orYellowstone’sOldFaithfulgeyserMillerdidnotanticipatetheSixtiescounterculture’sembraceofThoreauandWaldenPondHedidnotlivetoponderthemoonoftheApollospaceprojectHecouldnothaveforeseenthatanobscurewastecanalinupstateIntroductionCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyNewYorkwouldbecomenotoriousinthelatesLoveCanal,anationalsymbolofenvironmentalcontaminationHecertainlydidnotforeseethemomentousrolethatgenderwouldsoonplayinliteraryculturalstudiesWhatinterestedMiller,principallyascholarofNewEnglandPuritanism,wasanenvironmentalcrisisheperceivedintheAmericannineteenthcenturyHefoundadeepsocialanxietyunderlyingAmerica’scelebrationofcivilizationadvancingundertheaxofdeforestationMillerfoundthat,whenfacedwiththecrisisofhasteningenvironmentaltransformation,theAmericanwritersandartistsofthefirsthalfofthenineteenthcenturytoiledmightilytoidentifytheRepublicwithtimeless“virtuesofpristine‘romantic’Nature,”andhastenedtheireffortstorecordthatnatureinprintandpaintbeforeitfelltotheaxanddisappeared()Inthefaceofamuchfeared“European”stylecivilizingoftheNewWorldwilderness,Millerrealized,thecohortofAmericanwritersandartists“identifiedthehealth,theverypersonalityofAmericawithNature”()Milleridentified“Nature”(versuscivilization)asthegreatsubjectofAmericanliterature,politicaldiscourse,andvisualartinthefirsthalfofthenineteenthcenturyThisromantic“veneration”ofcapitalNNature,hefound,waspervasiveinprintandvisualtextsIfAmericancharacterexists,Millersaid,itwasmoldedbythesalutarynaturalworldandthe“impositionsofgeography”()Itperceivedallvirtuetobe“inherent”inthenaturalenvironment,andthusitmadeAmerica“Nature’snation”()Inthismodelofnationality,natureitselfimpartsvirtueratherlikeanirradiatingforcefromageologicmoralcoreGeographyistheactiveagentinmoralandethicalsuasionIntermsofhistoricity,thekeyterminNature’snationis“inherent,”whichnotonlylocatesthemoralexcellenceofthenationinitsnaturalenvironmentbutcategorizesthatmoralstateasphenomenalAssuch,itisnotdevelopmental,anditsetiologyisnotknowableNature’snationselfevidentlymanifestsitselfintheverytopographyandgeomorphologyofAmericaAnditistimeless,transcendentofthevicissitudesofhistoricalprocessthroughyears,decades,centuries,millenniaBodiesformtheconceptualcomplementtothisproject,anditwasMiller’scontemporary,NormanOBrown,whoproducedthecrucialantecedentbodyproject,Love’sBodyThiswastheurtextforthe“body”scholarshipthatwouldflourishinthelatertwentiethcentury,thoughclaimitspaterfamiliasintheFrenchtheorists,notablyMichelFoucaultIntroductionCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopyTheauthorofLifeagainstDeathandotherbooks,BrownchoseanexperimentalformforLove’sBody(),adazzlingandpuzzlingnonlinearpastiche,akindofdiarycollageofmeditationsandbluntassertions:“knowledgeiscarnalknowledge,”“toexploreistopenetratetheworldistheinsidesofmother,”“thebodyisabodypolitic”(,,)Absentfootnotes,thetextquotesfromandreferstomyriadsources,itsargumentationlargelyFreudianpsychoanalyticAboveall,Brownshowedtheextenttowhichthehumanbodyoperatesashomologyandsynecdocheineverysocial,personal,andgovernmentalorganizationBrown’sbookdemonstratesoneverypagethat“knowledgeiscarnalknowledge”Indeed,backin,Brown’schapter“Head”mightwellhavepromptedrethinkingofmyownrecentMtRushmoremomentAtthattime,however,IfailedtograsptheconnectionandreturnedtoLove’sBodyonlyaftermanyyearsofrepeatedliteraryencounterswithtropesoftheAmericanenvironmentembodiedThesearetropesextendingfromtheeraofdiscoverytothecontemporarymoment,tropesofNature’snationTropesofbodies,ofcourse,havebeencommonplaceinrepresentationsoftheearthformillennia,andinonesenseAmericantextshavesimplyresumedthetraditioninwhichgeophysicalfeatureshadbeenlikenedtopartsofthehumanbody:foothills,headwaters,mouthsofrivers,snowymountainbreasts,andsoon,withmountainsas“bonesoftheworld”andwaterflowingintheveinsofearth,andthehumanheadwritlargeintheveryglobeitself(Nicolson,Mountain,,Nicolson,Breaking,)Asconceptionsofcosmologychangedwiththedevelopmentofmodernscience,withthebeliefinactualcorrespondencesbetweenthehumanbodyandtheearthdiscredited,literatureoftheNewWorldnonethelessexhibitedaremarkablystubbornpatternofgeomorphologicalbodilyincarnationtheContinentalDivideasnationalbackbone,theGrandTetonsasfemalebreasts,arockformationinNewHampshire’sWhiteMountainsastheOldManoftheMountainTheAmericanpatterndatesatleastfromChristopherColumbus’s“LettertotheSovereignontheThirdVoyage”(),whichrepresentstheworldasa“veryroundball,ononepartofwhichsomethinglikeawoman’steatwereplaced”()ThatimagewastakenupagaininthetwentiethcenturywitheroticovertonesinFScottFitzgerald’sGreatGatsby(),whosenarratorimaginesthesailorsinHenryHudson’sexplorationofthe“fresh,greenbreast”oftheNewWorld()ThetropeofenvironmentasbodycrossesgenderlinesandextendsthroughthenineteenthcenturyInanessayinNaturalHistoryofIntellect,Emerson,echoingScripture,urgesgeographicalexplorationbecause“NaIntroductionCopyright©ThePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeExamCopytureisboneofourbone,fleshofourflesh,madeofus”(“CountryLife,”,NHI),whileHenryDavidThoreauopensCapeCod()withanextendedtropeofthestate’sgeographyasafemalepugilist:“CapeCodisthebaredandbendedarmofMassachusettstheshoulderisatBuzzard’sBay,theelbow,orcrazybone,atCapeMallebarre,thewristatTruro,andthesandyfistatProvincetownlikeanathleteprotectingherbay”()OtherexamplesofgeographicembodimentincludetheturnofthecenturyhistorianFrederickJacksonTurner,remarkingthat“civilizationinAmericahasfollowedthearteriesmadebygeology,”andMarkTwain,commentinginLifeontheMississippi()on“theMississippiRiveralwayschangingitshabitatbodily”(Turner,–Twain,)HarrietBeecherStoweexclaimedinUncleTom’sCabin()ontheMississippi’s“bosom,”bearingunprecedented“wealthandenterprise”(Stowe,)InthetwentiethcenturyLangstonHughesreprisedthesameimageinthepoem“TheNegroSpeaksofRivers,”inwhichthepoetclaimsriparianAfricanAmericanancestryinaMississippiwhose“muddybosomturnsallgoldeninthesunset”(HughesqtdLewis,)Suchtwentiethcenturyembodimentcontinues,notonlyinFitzgerald’sfamousfigureofthe“fresh,greenbreast”butinthequasiepicpoemofWilliamCarlosWilliams,Paterson(–),whichrepresentsthehillandvalleyofthenorthernNewJerseygeographicsiteofthepoemasamalefemalecouple:“PatersonliesinthevalleyunderthePassaicFallsitsspentwatersformingtheoutlineofhisbackHeliesonhisrightside,headnearthethunderofthewatersfillinghisdreams!Andthere,againsthim,stretchesthelowmountainThePark’sherhead,carved,abovetheFalls,facinghim,hisarmsupportingher,bytheValleyoftheRocks,asleep”(Paterson,–,)AllthesetropesexhibitwhatWaltWhitman,inhisprefacetotheeditionofLeavesofGrass,calledincarnationTheAmericanbard,hewrote,res

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民族国家的体现

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