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天然气化工.doc

天然气化工

charity4146
2011-11-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《天然气化工doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

NaturalgasandchemicalindustryOneofthebranchesofthechemicalindustryTonaturalgasasrawmaterialstoproducechemicalproductsindustriesSeparationandpurificationofnaturalgasthroughthecracking,steamreforming,oxidation,chloride,Sulfide,nitrification,andsoondehydrogenationreactioncanbemadeofsyntheticammonia,methanolandtheirprocessedproducts(formaldehyde,aceticacid,etc),ethylene,acetylene,methylenechloride,Carbontetrachloride,carbondisulfide,nitromethane,andsoonNaturalgasandchemicalindustrynaturalgastonaturalgasandchemicalindustryasrawmaterialstoproducechemicalproductsindustry,chemicalindustryisanintegralpartofthefuelAstheoilandnaturalgasarebothburiedinthegroundfloorofhydrocarbonresources,andinsomecasesforthesymbioticmineraldeposits,processingtechnologyanditsproductsarecloselyrelatedtoeachother,itcanalsobeattributedtonaturalgasandchemicalindustryPetrochemicalNaturalgasandchemicalindustryingeneral,includingtheseparationofnaturalgaspurification,chemicalprocessing(containedmethane,ethane,propane,andotherprocessingandutilizationofalkanes)NaturalgasandchemicalindustrynaturalgasprocessingCanbedividedintoseparationandpurificationofchemicalprocessingPurification,includingseparationfromtheundergroundnaturalgasinthegasfield,dehydration,separationfromsandandcondensateoil,gascompositionbasedonfurthercleanseparationprocessingSulfiderichgas,desulfurizationmustbedealtwithinordertomeetdeliveryrequirementsofthebyproductofsulfurassulfurresourcestotheproductionofsulfuricacid,carbondisulfideandaseriesofsulfidedesulfurization,afteracryogenicgasseparation(seecryogenicgasseparation),Availableliquefiednaturalgas(seemethane)ifthegasrichraregashelium,heliumcanbeobtainedatthesametime(seecolorpictures)ifnaturalgasisrichinethaneparaffinoverthemoisturecanbeobtainedatthesametimenaturalgascondensateAnalysisoffluid,whichRectificationofthemethodsoftenusedtorecoverethane,propane,butane,andalsopartofthecondensateChemicalprocessingIncludinghightemperatureforthepyrolysisofnaturalgastoproducecarbonblackandacetylenesteamreformingofnaturalgasorpartialoxidationofnaturalgas,syntheticgascanbeobtainednaturalgasthroughchlorination,sulfide,nitrification,ammoniatedoxide,oxidationcanbeobtainedANallkindsofderivativesinthewetgasethane,propane,butaneandnaturalgasliquidcondensate,andsoon,thesteamcrackerorpyrolysistoproduceethylene,propyleneandbutadienedehydrogenationofbutaneoxidationorproducesmallDieneoraceticacid,methylethylketone,andmaleicanhydride,andsoon(seeFigure)Naturalgasandchemicalindustrytheworld'snaturalgasandchemicalindustryintheworld,aboutcountriesinvaryingdegreesofdevelopmentofnaturalgasandchemicalindustryDistributionofnaturalgaschemicalindustryinmoredevelopedcountriesaretheUnitedStates,theSovietUnion,andCanadaUSdevelopmentofthefirstnaturalgaschemicalindustry,productvarietyandstilltopthecurrentproductionConsumptionofnaturalgasinthechemicalindustry,accountingforthechemicalindustryrawmaterialsandfuelconsumptionbymorethanhalfofthetotalThemidstheSovietUniontoadjustthechemicalindustry,chemicalindustrytospeedupthedevelopmentofnaturalgasproductionSiberiannaturalgasproducingareasintheproductionofnewdevices,usedinlargescalesyntheticammonia,ethyleneandmethanol,carbondisulfideAtpresent,itschemicalproductsandnaturalgasproductionaftertheUnitedStatesCanadaisrichinnaturalresources,forammonia,urea,methanolandethyleneproductionThemaindirectionoftheproductinoftheworld'smajorcountries,chemicalproductsandnaturalgasproductionmorethanMtWithanannualoutputofmorethanMtoftheproductsofsyntheticammonia,urea,methanol,formaldehydeandethyleneIntheworldofsyntheticammoniaproduction,aboutofnaturalgasasrawmaterialsWorldammoniaplantconstructionwasthefocusfromEuropeandtheUnitedStatesandothercountriestorichnaturalgasresourcesintheregionNaphthaasfuelorrawmaterialstotheammoniaplantwillbenaturalgasorcoalasrawmaterialtransition(Seeindustrialammonia)MethanolforthebulkoftheworldorganicchemicalproductsoneoftheworldproductionofmethanolinofnaturalgasasrawmaterialsInadditiontothedirectionoftheapplicationofmethanoltomaintaintraditionaluses,isdevelopingalternativeenergysourcesandusesofchemicalproductsNaturalgasasrawmaterialsofethyleneproductioncapacityofethyleneproductioncapacityoftheworldaccountingforaboutofitsethyleneyieldthanlightoildistillatessuchasnaphthaasrawmaterials,abouttwiceashighWiththeincreaseintheproductionofnaturalgasandethane,propanerecoveryrateofincreaseintheproportionofwhichareincreasingNaturalgasandchemicalindustrynaturalgaschemicalindustryinChinastartedintheearlys,hasnowbeguntotakeshape,mainlydistributedinSichuan,Heilongjiang,Liaoning,Shandong,TaiwanProvinceandotherplacesChinamainlynaturalgasusedintheproductionofnitrogen,followedbytheproductionofmethanol,formaldehyde,acetylene,methylenechloride,carbontetrachloride,carbondisulfide,nitromethane,hydrocyanicacidandextractionofheliumandcarbonblackSincethes,hasbuiltmorethannaturalgasandoilfieldassociatedgasasrawmaterialsforlargescaleammoniaplant,aswellasanumberofsmallandmediumsizedammoniaplant,sothatthenationalstructureofthesyntheticammoniaproductionofrawmaterials,naturalgasshareofaboutalsobebuiltatthesametimeAsystemofacetylenegasplanttomanufactureVinylonandvinylacetate,acetylenegasusedintheproductionofmethanolUseofnaturalgasforheatchlorinationmethylenechloridefortheproductionofphotographicmaterialsforindustrialsolventAtpresent,China'sfirstnaturalgasprocessingchemicalproductsoutputisabouttimesintheearly'sNaturalgasandchemicalindustrywiththeprospectoftheworld'senergyneedsincrease,theNorthSea,theMiddleEast,NorthAfrica,SouthAmericaandtheSovietUnion'sgasandoilassociatedgasresourcesisspeedingupdevelopmentandutilizationofthesteadygrowthofworldoutputofnaturalgas,naturalgasandchemicalindustrytoflourishandtoprovidesufficientrawmaterialsEnergyUndersuchconditions,thedevelopmentofnaturalgasandchemicalindustryhasthefollowingcharacteristics:Fromthestartofthebulkofnaturalgaschemicalproducts,suchasnitrogen,methanolandtheirprocessedproducts(formaldehyde,aceticacid,etc)withfastdevelopmentIntheolefinproductionintheUnitedStatesexpandedtheuseofrawmaterialsandnaturalgas,theMiddleEastandSouthAmericancountriesplantodevelopnaturalgastoolefinsindustry,therebyenhancingtheolefinproductionofnaturalgasintheworldtheproportionofrawmaterialsToenergyfocusedresearchanddevelopmentworkinveryactiveThenewtechnologyhasemerged,particularlysynthesisgasofcarbonbasedchemicalsamoreprominent天然气化工化学工业分支之一。以天然气为原料生产化工产品的工业。天然气通过净化分离和裂解、蒸汽转化、氧化、氯化、硫化、硝化、脱氢等反应可制成合成氨、甲醇及其加工产品(甲醛、醋酸等)、乙烯、乙炔、二氯甲烷、四氯化碳、二硫化碳、硝基甲烷等。天然气化工天然气化工以天然气为原料生产化学产品的工业是燃料化工的组成部分。由于天然气与石油同属埋藏地下的烃类资源有时且为共生矿藏其加工工艺及产品相互有密切的关系故也可将天然气化工归属于石油化工。天然气化工一般包括天然气的净化分离、化学加工(所含甲烷、乙烷、丙烷等烷烃的加工利用)。天然气化工天然气加工过程可分为净化分离和化学加工。净化分离包括从地下采出的天然气在气井现场经脱水、脱砂与分离凝析油后根据气体组成情况进行进一步的净化分离加工。富含硫化物的天然气必须经过脱硫处理以达到输送要求副产品的硫磺作为硫资源用以生产硫酸、二硫化碳等一系列硫化物脱硫后天然气经过深冷分离(见天然气深冷分离)可得到液化天然气(见甲烷)若天然气富含稀有气体氦可同时得到氦气(见彩图)若天然气是富含乙烷以上烷烃的湿气,则可同时得到天然气凝析液,后者常采用精馏的方法以回收乙烷、丙烷、丁烷并且还有一部分凝析油。化学加工包括在高温下进行的天然气热裂解主要生产乙炔和炭黑天然气蒸汽转化或天然气的部分氧化可制得合成气天然气经过氯化、硫化、硝化、氨化氧化、氧化可制得甲烷的各种衍生物湿性天然气中的乙烷、丙烷、丁烷和天然气凝析液等经蒸汽裂解或热裂解可生产乙烯、丙烯和丁二烯丁烷脱氢或氧化可生产丁二烯或醋酸、甲基乙基酮、顺丁烯二酸酐等(见图)。天然气化工世界天然气化工世界上约有个国家不同程度地发展了天然气化工。分布状况天然气化工比较发达的国家有美国、苏联、加拿大等。美国发展天然气化工最早产品品种和产量目前仍居首位。消耗于化学工业的天然气占该国化工行业所消耗原料和燃料总量的一半以上。世纪年代中期苏联调整了化学工业政策加速发展天然气化工生产。在西伯利亚天然气产区新建生产装置大规模应用于合成氨、甲醇和乙烯、二硫化碳。目前其天然气化工产品产量仅次于美国。加拿大有丰富的天然气资源用于合成氨、尿素、甲醇和乙烯的生产。主要产品方向年世界主要国家的天然气化工产品产量超过Mt。年产Mt以上的产品有合成氨、尿素、甲醇、甲醛和乙烯。在世界合成氨产量中约%以天然气为原料。世界氨厂建设重点正由过去欧美等国转向天然气资源丰富地区。石脑油或燃料油为原料的氨厂将逐步向天然气或煤为原料过渡(见合成氨工业)。甲醇为世界大宗有机化工产品之一世界甲醇生产中%以天然气为原料。甲醇应用方向除保持传统用途外正在开发替代能源和化工新产品的用途。天然气为原料的乙烯装置生产能力约占世界乙烯生产能力的%其乙烯收率比以石脑油等轻质石油馏分为原料的约高一倍。随着天然气产量的增加和乙烷、丙烷回收率的提高所占比例正在逐步增加。天然气化工中国天然气化工始于世纪年代初现已初具规模主要分布于四川、黑龙江、辽宁、山东、台湾省等地。中国天然气主要用于生产氮肥其次是生产甲醇、甲醛、乙炔、二氯甲烷、四氯化碳、二硫化碳、硝基甲烷、氢氰酸和炭黑以及提取氦气。年代以来已兴建多座天然气和油田伴生气为原料的大型合成氨厂以及一批中、小型合成氨厂使全国合成氨生产原料结构中天然气所占的比例约达到%同时还兴建了天然气制乙炔工厂以制造维尼纶和醋酸乙烯酯乙炔尾气用于生产甲醇。采用天然气热氯化法生产二氯甲烷以供感光材料工业作溶剂。目前中国的天然气一次化学加工产品总产量约为年代初期的倍。天然气化工前景随着世界对能源需要的增长北海、中东、北非、南美和苏联的天然气和石油伴生气资源正在加速开发利用世界天然气产量稳定增长为天然气化工蓬勃发展提供充足的原料和能源。在这种条件下天然气化工的发展具有下述特点:从天然气出发的大宗化工产品如氮肥、甲醇及其加工产品(甲醛、醋酸等)发展速度较快在烯烃的生产中美国扩大了天然气原料的使用量中东和南美国家将计划大力发展天然气制烯烃工业从而提高世界烯烃生产中天然气原料所占比例以节能为中心的研究开发工作十分活跃新工艺相继出现特别是以合成气为基础的碳一化学更为突出。

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