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Word Order, Structure and Relativization.pdf

Word Order, Structure and Relat…

上传者: yuyan 2011-11-03 评分1 评论0 下载244 收藏0 阅读量736 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Word Order, Structure and Relativizationpdf》,可适用于幼儿教育领域,主题内容包含WordOrder,StructureandRelativization*YENHUIAUDREYLIUniversityofSouthernCal符等。

WordOrder,StructureandRelativization*YENHUIAUDREYLIUniversityofSouthernCaliforniaIntroductionNounsinlanguageslikeEnglishappeartodiffergreatlyfromthoseinlanguageslikeChineseProminentdifferencesbetweenthemincludethefactthatnounsinEnglishgenerallydonotoccurinthe"bare"formbutnounsinChinesecanMoreover,abarenouninChinesecanbeinterpretedasdefinite,indefiniteorgenericthesedifferentinterpretationsofanEnglishnominalphraserelyontheoccurrenceofthedefinitearticlethe,indefinitearticleaorsomeotherdeviceTakeadefiniteexpressionforinstanceChineseishappywithabarenounN,suchasshu'book'whereasEnglishrequiresthedefinitearticletheNthebook(s)AveryinterestingquestionarisesfromsuchadifferenceisthestructureofnominalphrasesintheselanguagesAnarticleinEnglish,forinstance,playsakeyroleinthestructuralrepresentation:anominalphraseisrepresentedasaDeterminerPhrase(DP),headedbyaDeterminer(D)(seeAbney)ThedefinitearticlethecanbeintheDposition(seeLongobardi,Chierchia,amongothers)Inotherwords,thebookcanhavethestructurein(),headedbythe:()DPDNPthebookWhat,then,isthestructureofadefiniteexpressionsuchasshuinChineseIsitlike()withaDhead(whereNmightmoveto)Or,doesithaveasimplerstructure,suchas()*ManythankstoTomErnst,JimHuang,YafeiLi,BingfuLu,SzeWingTangandZoeWufortheirhelpwiththisworkChineseinthisworkreferstoMandarinChineseMassnounsinEnglishcanoccurinthebareformDemonstratives,possessivesetcwhichalsomakeanominalphrasedefinitecanbeanalyzedinthesameway,whichwedisregardhereInthiswork,wedonotconcernourselveswiththefunctionalprojectionsbetweenDandNseeCarstens(),Ritter(,),Valois(),forinstance,fordiscussionsonsomeofsuchprojectionsSeeTang(),Li(,),ChengandSybesma(toappear)amongothersforthefunctionalprojectionswithinnominalphrasesinChinese()NP|shuTherearetheoreticalandempiricalconcernsinansweringthesequestionsTheoretically,ifshuisinterpretedinthesamewayasthebook,shouldtheyhavethesamestructureBoththepositiveandnegativeanswerstothisquestionhavebeenexploredOntheonehand,theassumptionisthatanNisanNandaDisaDsemanticallythatis,anNisapropertydenotingexpression(predicatetype)andaDisanindividualdenotingexpression(argumenttype)TheyremainconstantAbarenouninlanguageslikeChinesethereforeneedstohaveamorecomplexstructurethanasimpleN(P)whenitisanargument(seeLi,,)Inotherwords,adefinitebarenounshuinanargumentpositionshouldbeprojectedasaDPinsteadofaNPOntheotherhand,theassumptionisthattypeshiftingcantakeplaceinsomelanguages(seeChierchia)Abarenouninterpretedasdefiniteinanargumentposition,forinstance,hasundergonetypeshiftingandtakesontheargumentrole,ratherthanthepredicateroleSincetypeshiftinghastakenplace,()canbearepresentationforanominalexpressioninanargumentpositioninChineseTheoretically,then,thechoicebetween()and()reliesontheadoptionorrejectionoftypeshiftingasanoptioninsuchcasesTheempiricalquestionisthereforemoreinterestingIsthereempiricalevidencehelpingustodetermineifaDPstructureisneededinlanguageslikeChineseDoestheavailabilityofaDPprojection,inadditiontoanNP,provideopportunitiestoderivemoreempiricalgeneralizationsthanananalysisthatdoeswithoutaDPprojectionLi(,,)arguesfavorablyforapositiveanswer,basedonthefactsconcerningthewordorderandconstituentstructureswithinnominalexpressions,thedistributionofnominalphraseswithinasentence,andthedistributionofthepluralmarkermeninMandarinChineseIndeed,manyinterestingfactsarederivedbythepresenceofDandanNtoDmovementprocessOntheotherhand,FukuiandTakano(),basedonatheoryofuniversalphrasestructureproposedbyTakano()andFukuiandTakano()andaprohibitionagainstrightadjunctionstructures(Kayne),arguethatthewordorderbetweenarelativeclauseandtheheaditmodifies(therelativehead)indifferenttypesoflanguagescanbederivedfromacontrastinnominalstructuresTheyarguethatthereareJapanesetypeandEnglishtypelanguagesIntheEnglishtype,aDPisprojectedandNtoDraisingmusttakeplaceSucharaisingprocesswouldplacearelativeclause,whichisbasegeneratedasleftadjunctiontoN,aftertherelativeheadNBycontrast,thetypeoflanguageslikeJapanese,whichusesbarenounsasdefinite,indefiniteandgenericexpressions,doesnothaveaDprojectionBecauseofthelackofaDprojection,aNtoDraisingprocesscannottakeplaceArelativeclausethereforemaintainstobeleftadjoinedtoNand,accordingly,surfacesontheleftoftheheadNSuchaparametricdifferencebetweenthesetwotypesoflanguages,accordingtoFukuiandTakano,isnotonlymanifestedinthecontrastinorderingbetweenarelativeclauseanditsheadbutalsoreflectedinhowrelativeclausesareformedandlicensedinthesetwodifferenttypesoflanguagesIfFukuiandTakanoarecorrect,theiranalysiswouldprovidestrongempiricalsupportfortheabsenceofaDPprojectionandNtoDraisinginlanguageslikeJapaneseItwouldalsoposeinterestingchallengestoLi'sclaimthatChinesedoesprojectaDPandthatNtoDmovementdoestakeplaceinthislanguageAfterall,ChineseandJapanesehaveidenticalwordorderwithrespecttoarelativeclauseandtherelativeheadMoreover,ChineseappearstohavesimilarpropertiesconcerningrelativizationasJapanese,inadditiontothefactthatbothlanguagesallowabarenouninanargumentpositionKayne(),followingVergnaud(),arguesthatEnglishrelativizationisapromotionprocesswhichraisestherelativizednominaltotheDposition,therelativeclausebeingacomplementofDInbrief,ChineseseemstobelongtotheJapanesetypeoflanguages,ratherthantheEnglishtype,atleastwithrespecttotheorderingofarelativeclauseanditsheadandtheforminterpretationofbarenounsThisraisesthequestionofwhetherthereexistsempiricalevidenceagainsttheprojectionofaDPandthepresenceofNtoDraisinginChinese,contrarytowhatLihasclaimedInthiswork,IwillshowthatthevariousempiricalgeneralizationsclaimedtobederivablefromtheparametricdifferencesinthestructureofnominalsbetweentheJapaneseandEnglishtypesoflanguagesdiscussedinFukuiandTakanocannotbecorrectconsideringtheChineserelativizationstructuresTheconclusionhastobedrawnthatFukuiandTakano'sallegedcorrelationbetweenNtoDraisingandtheorderingbetweenarelativeclauseanditsheadcannotbeupheldNoneofthepropertiesofrelativizationthatareclaimedtoberelatedtowordorderandNtoDraisingaretrueinChineseThereis,thus,noevidenceagainsttheexistenceofaDPprojectionandNtoDraisinginChineseWordorderandthestructureofrelativeclausesAmajorclaimofFukuiandTakano'sworkisthattheorderingbetweenarelativeclauseandtheheadmodifiedbytherelativeclauseistheresultofdifferentstructureandderivationAdoptingKayne'sproposalthatonlyleftadjunctionisallowedinthegrammar,FukuiandTakanoclaimthatwhenNisraisedtoD,arelativeclause,beingleftadjoinedtoN,wouldsurfaceinapositionfollowingtherelativeheadThisisillustratedbytheEnglishexamplein()andthestructurein():()apicturewhichJohnsawyesterday()DPaD'pictureD'NDCPN=tpicturewhichOntheotherhand,ifNdoesnotundergoraising,arelativeclausestaysleftadjoinedtoNItsurfacesatapositionprecedingtheheadnoun,accordingtothespelloutruleproposedbyFukuiandTakano()ThisisillustratedbytheJapaneseexamplein(),withthestructurein():()aJohngakinoomitasyasinJohnNomyesterdaysawpicture'theapicturethatJohnsawyesterday'bJohngakinooattagakuseiJohnNomyesterdaymetstudent'theastudentwho(m)Johnmetyesterday'FukuiandTakano()assumewithTakanothatacomplementisgeneratedontheleftofahead()NCPN=syasinThegeneralizationthusemerges:thewordorderrelativeclauserelativeheadindicatesNisnotraisedtoDandthereverseorderrelativeheadrelativeclauseindicatesNisraisedtoDTheformerisillustratedbyJapaneseandthelatterbyEnglishFukuiandTakanofurthernotethatthereisavarietyofdifferencesbetweentheEnglishtypeandtheJapanesetypelanguageswhichcan"falloutinasimpleandelegantfashion,basedsolelyonthesingleparametricdifferencebetweenthelanguages:EnglishexhibitsNtoDraising,whileJapanesedoesnot(simplybecausethelatterlanguagelacksthecategoryD)"(abstract)ThedifferencesdiscussedarebrieflysketchedinthefollowingsubsectionsRelativepronounAccordingtotheauthors,thepresenceorabsenceofarelativepronoun(suchaswhichin())canbederivedfromthestructuralcontrastbetween()and()Assumingthatarelativepronounmustbeboundbytherelativehead,theyclaimthatarelativepronouninastructurelike()inEnglishislegitimateInthisstructure,therelativehead(theraisedN)ccommandstherelativepronounwhichTherelativepronounwhichisproperlyboundandthereforeEnglishallowsarelativepronouninarelativeclauseBycontrast,therelativeheadN(eitherthelowerNorthetwosegmentedcategoryN,N)in()doesnotccommandCPbecauseNhastwosegments,ifthedefinitionofccommandinChomsky()andKayne()isadoptedwhichincorporatesthenotionofsegmentsandexclusionWhentherelativeheaddoesnotccommandtherelativeclauseCP,itdoesnotccommandarelativepronounintheCPFor()tobewellformed,therelativeclausecannotcontainarelativepronounotherwiseitwouldnotbeccommandedandproperlyboundbytherelativeheadConsequently,JapanesedoesnothavearelativepronouninitsrelativeclauseThecontrastbetweenthestructuresin()and()capturesthecontrastbetweentheexistenceofarelativepronouninEnglishandthelackofoneinJapaneseOperatormovementThelackofarelativepronoun,accordingtoFukuiandTakano,indicatesthataJapaneserelativeclauseisnot"operatororiented"ItisnotlicensedasmodifieroftherelativeheadthroughthemediationofarelativepronounfunctioningasanoperatorcreatinganopenpositionwithintherelativeclauseInstead,itislicensedbyan"aboutness"relationbetweentherelativeclauseandtherelativeheadTheyclaimthatsuchanaboutnessconditionisnotpeculiartothelicensingoftheFukuiandTakano'sproposalrequiresNtoDmovementtoapplyinallcasesinEnglishThiscontrastswith,forinstance,theanalysisofChierchia()orLongobardi()whichdoesnotraiseNtoDwhenthedefinitearticletheoccursInsuchananalysis,theoccupiestheDpositionandNstaysintheNposition,Nbeingapropertydenoting,predicatetypeofexpressionsFukuiandTakanoplacetheintheSpecofDpositionandrequiresNtomovetoDThedefinitionadoptedinFukuiandTakanoisthis:(i)XccommandsYiffXexcludesYandeveryelementthatdominatesXdominatesY(ii)XexcludesYiffnosegmentofXdominatesYThetwosegmentedcategoryN,NistherelativeheadBecauseitdoesnotexcludeCPwiththeupperN,asegmentofN,N,dominatingCPEvenifthelowerNistherelativehead,itdoesnotccommandCPeither,giventhattheupperN,whichisasegmentofthecategoryN,N,dominatesCP,therebyfailingtosatisfytheexclusionconditionin(ii)JapaneserelativeclauseItcanalsobeseeninthelicensingofcertaintopicconstructionsinJapaneseandEnglish:()sakanawataigaiifishTopredsnapperNomgood'Asforfish,aredsnapperisthebest'()Asforsports,IlikebaseballbestAttributingtoKuno()andMurasugi(),theyarguethatthisaboutnessconditionisalsotrueofJapaneserelativeclausesThus,inthefollowingexample,therelativeclausecanbeinterpretedasbeingaboutapicture()JohngakinoomitasyasinJohnNomyesterdaysawpicture'theapictureJohnsawyesterday'Beinginanaboutnessrelationwiththerelativehead,therelativeclauseisproperlylicensedFurthermore,becausethereisnooperatormovementinJapaneserelativizationandanaboutnessconditionissufficienttolicensearelativeclause,itfollowsthatgaplessrelativeclausesarepossibleinthislanguage,suchas(a)andrelativizationisnotsubjecttotheislandconditions()asyuusyokugataihennabuturigakuemploymentNomdifficultisphysics'physics(that)findingajobisdifficult'bprokiteiruyoohukugayogoreteirusinsiiswearingsuitNomisdirtygentleman'theagentlemanwhothesuitthatiswearingisdirty'RelativecomplementizerAnothercontrastthatFukuiandTakanoclaimtofollowfromthesaidstructuralandmovementdifferencesisthatarelativeclauseinJapanese,unlikeanEnglishone,hasaTPstructure,ratherthanaCPstructureJapaneserelativeclausesdonotneedCP:becauseofthelackofNtoDraising,JapaneserelativeclausescannotbeoperatororientedThefactthatanoperatorisnotneededmakestheSpecofCPunnecessaryFollowingDiesing()'ssuggestionthatafunctionalcategoryispresentinthestructureonlywhenitisnecessary,FukuiandTakanoclaimthatCPisnotnecessaryinaJapaneserelativeclauseandisnotprojectedThelackofaCPprojectionmeansthelackofaCwhichhostsacomplementizerThiscapturesthefactthatJapanesedoesnothavethecounterpartofthecomplementizerthatintheEnglishrelativeclauseapicturethatJohnsawyesterdayTheargumentisnoteasytofollowhereEventhoughanoperatorintheSpecofCPisnotneeded,itdoesnotmeanthattheheadisnotneededandthereforeitdoesnotmeanthatCPisnotneededConsidertheEnglishexample(i):(i)ThatheishereisimportantInthissentence,thereisnorequirementofthepresenceofanoperatorinSpecofCPHowever,thecomplementizerthatmustbepresentThefactthataSpecofCPisnotneededdoesnotmeanthattheheadCisalsonotneededInternallyheadedrelativeclauseFinally,FukuiandTakanonotethatonlylanguagesoftheJapanesetypeallowinternallyheadedrelativeclauseFollowingCole()'sclaimthataninternallyheadedrelativeclausehasaheadthatisapronominalcorreferentialwiththeinternalhead,theynotethattheEnglishstructure()violatesBindingPrincipleCbecausetheheadproccommandstheinternalheadBycontrast,aprointherelativeheadpositiondoesnotccommandtheinternalheadin()Consequently,onlyJapaneseallowsinternallyheadedrelativeclausesBrieflysummingup,thecontrastbetweentheEnglishstructure()andtheJapanesestructure(),asmanifestedinthedifferentorderingbetweenarelativeclauseandarelativehead,derivesthedifferentpropertiesoftheEnglishandJapaneserelativeclauseswithrespecttothepossibilityofarelativepronoun,operatormovement,acomplementizerandaninternallyheadedrelativeclauseThelackofanoperatormovementisrelatedtotheavailabilityofanabountessconditionlicensingarelativeclausewhichdoesnotobeyislandconditionsThelackofoperatormovementandtheavailabilityoflicensingbyanaboutnessconditionalsomakeagaplessrelativeclausepossibleWhentherelevantChinesefactsareconsidered,however,thecorrelatedpropertiesjustmentioneddonotfalloutaspredictedThewordorderfactssuggestthatChineseshouldbelikeJapaneseOntheotherhand,mostoftheotherrelatedpropertiessuggestthatChineseshouldbemorelikeEnglishThemixtureoftheclusteringofpropertiesraisesdoubtonthecorrectnessofthetypologicalclaimswehavejustseenCorrelatedpropertiesAfirstlookattheChineserelativeclausesmaysuggestthattheyarejustlikeJapaneserelativeclausesLikeJapanesethatonlyallowsarelativeclausetoprecedetherelativehead,ChinesealsorequiresarelativeclausetoprecedetherelativeheadInotherwords,ChineseshouldbelongtotheJapanesetypeoflanguagesandhavethestructurein()IfChinesehasthestructurein(),shouldwe,then,expectChineserelativeclausestohavethepropertiesinUnfortunately,ifweexaminethefactsconcerningChineserelativeclausesmorecarefully,wefindthatalmostallthepredictionsarenottrueRelativizationprocessesBeforeshowinghowthepredictionsinarenotbornoutwithrespecttotheChineserelativeclauses,webeginwiththediscussiononhowrelativeclausesareformedinChineseMovementThereisevidencethatrelativizationinChineseneedtobederivedfrommovementoftherelativeheaddirectly(seeVergnaud,,Kayne)Forinstance,partofanidiomaticexpressioncanbecomearelativehead:()atakaitidedaoidouhenchenggong(kaidao'openknifeheopenDeknifeallverysuccessful=operate')'Alltheoperationsheperformedweresuccessful'btachitidecuibibierenduo(chicu'eatvinegarheeatDevinegarcompareothersmore=bejealous)'Heismorejealousthantheothers'ctayoutidemoimeirentingdedong(youmo'(transliterationof)humor')hehuDemornobodylistenableunderstand'Nobodycanunderstandhishumor'Longdistancemovementispossibleandthemovementissensitivetoislandconditions:()atarenweiwoyinggaikaitidedaoidouhennanhethinkIshouldopenDeknifeallverydifficult'TheoperationsthathethinksIshouldperformarealldifficult'a'*takaiehenzhongyaodedaosubjectislandheopenveryimportantDeknife'theoperationthatitisimportantthatheperforms'btarenweiwokeyichitidecuihaibuzhizhexie

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