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首页 认知与设计:理解UI设计准则(英文版)

认知与设计:理解UI设计准则(英文版).pdf

认知与设计:理解UI设计准则(英文版)

sun_boxiang
2011-10-27 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《认知与设计:理解UI设计准则(英文版)pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

DesigningwiththeMindinMindSimpleGuidetoUnderstandingUserInterfaceDesignRulesDesigningwiththeMindinMindSimpleGuidetoUnderstandingUserInterfaceDesignRulesJeffJohnsonAMSTERDAM•BOSTON•HEIDELBERG•LONDONNEWYORK•OXFORD•PARIS•SANDIEGOSANFRANCISCO•SINGAPORE•SYDNEY•TOKYOMorganKaufmannPublishersisanimprintofElsevierMorganKaufmannPublishersisanimprintofElsevierCorporateDrive,Suite,Burlington,MA,USAThisbookisprintedonacidfreepaper©ElsevierIncAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,oranyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherDetailsonhowtoseekpermission,furtherinformationaboutthePublisher’spermissionspoliciesandourarrangementswithorganizationssuchastheCopyrightClearanceCenterandtheCopyrightLicensingAgency,canbefoundatourwebsite:wwwelseviercompermissionsThisbookandtheindividualcontributionscontainedinitareprotectedundercopyrightbythePublisher(otherthanasmaybenotedherein)NoticesKnowledgeandbestpracticeinthisfieldareconstantlychangingAsnewresearchandexperiencebroadenourunderstanding,changesinresearchmethods,professionalpractices,ormedicaltreatmentmaybecomenecessaryPractitionersandresearchersmustalwaysrelyontheirownexperienceandknowledgeinevaluatingandusinganyinformation,methods,compounds,orexperimentsdescribedhereinInusingsuchinformationormethodstheyshouldbemindfuloftheirownsafetyandthesafetyofothers,includingpartiesforwhomtheyhaveaprofessionalresponsibilityTothefullestextentofthelaw,neitherthePublishernortheauthors,contributors,oreditors,assumeanyliabilityforanyinjuryandordamagetopersonsorpropertyasamatterofproductsliability,negligenceorotherwise,orfromanyuseoroperationofanymethods,products,instructions,orideascontainedinthematerialhereinLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataJohnson,Jeff,PhDDesigningwiththemindinmind:simpleguidetounderstandinguserinterfacedesignrulesJeffJohnsonpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)Graphicaluserinterfaces(Computersystems)ITitleQAUJ'dcBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:ForinformationonallMorganKaufmannpublications,visitourWebsiteatwwwmkpcomorwwwelsevierdirectcomTypesetbyMPSLimited,aMacmillanCompany,Chennai,IndiawwwmacmillansolutionscomPrintedinChinaviiAcknowledgmentsIcouldnothavewrittenthisbookwithoutalotofhelpandsupportFirsttomentionarethestudentsoftheHumanComputerInteractioncourseItaughtasanErskineFellowattheUniversityofCanterburyinNewZealandinthewintersemesterofItwasforthemthatIdevelopedalectureprovidingabriefbackgroundinperceptualandcognitivepsychologyjustenoughtoenablethemtounderstandandapplyuserinterfacedesignguidelinesThatlectureexpandedintoaprofessionaldevelopmentcourse,thenintothisbookSecondarethereviewersofthefirstdraft:SusanFowler,RobinJeffries,TimMcCoy,andJonMeadsTheymademanyhelpfulcommentsandsuggestionsthatallowedmetogreatlyimprovethebookThirdarethreecognitivescienceresearcherswhoprovidedusefulcontent,directedmetovaluablereadings,orallowedmetobounceideasoffofthem:ProfEdwardAdelson(MITDeptofBrainandCognitiveSciences),ProfDanOsherson(PrincetonUniversityDeptofPsychology),andDrDanBullock(BostonUniversityDeptofCognitiveandNeuralSystems)Thebookalsowashelpedimmeasurablybythecare,oversight,logisticalsupport,andnurturingprovidedbythestaffatElsevier,especiallyMaryJames,DavidBevans,andAndreCuelloValuableadditionalcopyeditingwasprovidedbyCatedeHeerMostimportantly,IthankmywifeandfriendKarenAndeforherloveandsupportwhileIwasresearchingandwritingthisbook,allthemoreremarkablebecauseitcoincidedwiththeperiodwhenshewascompletingabookofherown:FaceToFace:ChildrenoftheAIDSCrisisinAfrica,aphotographybookdocumentingtheplightofchildrenorphanedbyAIDSinsubSaharanAfrica(FaceToFaceAfricacom)ixForewordThedesignofinteractivecomputersystemsisnotonlyanart,but,atleastaspirationally,ascienceWell,notascience,actually,butratherakindofjointcomputercognitiveengineering,thatis,sciencebasedtechniquestocreateinteractivesystemssatisfyingspecifiedrequirementsLikecars,buildings,andclothes,interactivecomputingartifactscanemotionallydelight,exhibitstyleandfashion,andhavesocialsignificanceThereismuchroomforartandindustrialdesigninmakingthingsthatpop,flash,andinteractButtheresultingartifactsalsohavetoworkcorrectlyandtoflowwithhumanactivityAbeautifulbuildingwhosesoaringwindowsroastitsinhabitantsinthesummerorwhosetrussesbuckleinastormisafailureDesignersneedmethodstoputlatitude,season,fenestration,volume,andcirculationtogethertopredictheatingloadsbeforebuildingthebuildingTheyalsoneedastockpileoftechnologycomponentsolutions,likethermopaneglass,blinds,overhangs,andfanstochooseamongaspartofthestandardengineeringofasolutionEngineeringdoesnotreplaceartinadesign,itmakesitpossibleEngineeringishardenoughforarchitectureitisharderstillforinteractiveartifacts,forthesimplereasonthatitiseasiertogetascienceofbuildingsthanoneofpeopleProvidingsuchasupportingscienceandengineeringhasbeenafoundingaspirationofthefieldofhumancomputerinteractionHowtodoitThemostbasicmethodisby“usabilitytesting”watchusersdoingtasks,discovertheirdifficulties,andfixthesethroughredesignUsabilitytestingisuseful,necessary,andinefficientTheresultsdon’tcumulateverywellintoadisciplineanythinglikeengineering,anditisn’tveryinsightfulaboutwhythingsbreakIt’sthecognitiveequivalentofroastingtheuserstofindtheeffectofthelargewindowsButusabilitytestingcanfindmanyofasystem’sflawsItisafeasiblemethod,becauseinteractivesystemsareoftenmucheasiertochangethanrebuildingabuildingBetterwouldbetoavoidmanyoftheerrorsinthefirstplace,andonemethodisthroughdesignrulesInsteadofrediscoveringoverandoverthroughusabilitytestingthatinterfacesdependingonredandgreenarebadforcolorblindusers,justmakeitadesignruletousecolorredundantlywithothercuesDesignrules,however,turnouttohavetheirownproblemsInpractice,designrulesmaybeambiguousorrequiresubtleinterpretationofcontextorcontradictotherguidelinesAndthatbringsustothecurrentbookTheideaofthepresentbookistounitedesignruleswiththesupportingcognitiveandperceptualsciencethatisattheircoreThisformathasseveralmerits:thepsychologicalscienceismadeconcreteandeasytoabsorbbyconnectingtoactualdesigns,andthedesignrulesaremadeeasiertoadjustforcontext,sincetheyarerelatedtotheirdeeperrationaleJeffJohnsonistheperfectauthortoattemptsuchabookHiswholecareerhascombinedworkonboththeinterfacedesignsideandthepsychologicalsciencexForewordsideIfirstmethimwhenhewasontheuserinterfaceteamoftheXeroxStarseriesofproductsthefirstcommercialgraphicaluserinterfaceSoonthedesignside,hewasessentiallyinatthebeginningofGUIsOnthepsychologyside,hediddegreesatYaleandStanfordPuttingdesignandpsychologytogether,heworkedoncommercialinteractivesystems,taughtattheuniversity,andworkedasaconsultantHistrademarkisusingconcretedesignexamplestoillustrateabstractprinciplesInfact,heisfamousfordrivinghispointshomememorablybyexhibiting“blooper”examplesofbaddesignsandsohedoesinthisbookThereisathirdmethodofusingsciencetohelpengineerasystemthatgoesbeyonddesignrulesdesignmodelsJeff’sbookshowsexamplesofhowtousethismethod,tooHeshowshowtomodelthetaskcontextintermsofobjectandactionsandhowtounderstandrealtimeinteractionconstraintsInsum,thisisabookthatadvancesthegoalofasupportingengineeringmethodforinteractivesystemdesignAtthesametime,itisaprimertounderstandthewhyofthelargerhumanactionprinciplesatworkasortofcognitivesciencefordesignersinahurryAboveall,thisisabookofprofoundinsightintothehumanmindforpracticalpeoplewhowanttogetsomethingdoneStuartCardxiIntroductionUSERINTERFACEDESIGNRULES:WHEREDOTHEYCOMEFROMANDHOWCANTHEYBEUSEDEFFECTIVELYForaslongaspeoplehavebeendesigninginteractivecomputersystems,somehaveattemptedtopromotegooddesignbypublishinguserinterfacedesignguidelines(alsocalleddesignrules)Earlyonesincluded:lCheriton()proposeduserinterfacedesignguidelinesforearlyinteractive(timeshared)computersystemslNorman(a,b)presenteddesignrulesforsoftwareuserinterfacesbasedonhumancognition,includingcognitiveerrorslSmithandMosier()wroteperhapsthemostcomprehensivesetofuserinterfacedesignguidelineslShneiderman()included“EightGoldenRulesofInterfaceDesign”inthefirsteditionofhisbookDesigningtheUserInterfaceandinalllatereditionslBrown()wroteabookofdesignguidelines,appropriatelytitledHumanComputerInterfaceDesignGuidelineslNielsenandMolich()offeredasetofdesignrulesforuseinheuristicevaluationofuserinterfaceslMarcus()presentedguidelinesforgraphicdesigninonlinedocumentsanduserinterfacesInthetwentyfirstcentury,additionaluserinterfacedesignguidelineshavebeenofferedbyStoneetal(),Koyani,Bailey,andNall(),Johnson(),andShneidermanandPlaisant()Microsoft,AppleComputer,andOraclepublishguidelinesfordesigningsoftwarefortheirplatforms(AppleComputer,MicrosoftCorporation,OracleCorporationSunMicrosystems,)HowvaluableareuserinterfacedesignguidelinesThatdependsonwhoappliesthemtodesignproblemsUSEREXPERIENCEDESIGNANDEVALUATIONREQUIRESUNDERSTANDINGANDEXPERIENCEFollowinguserinterfacedesignguidelinesisnotasstraightforwardasfollowingcookingrecipesDesignrulesoftendescribegoalsratherthanactionsTheyarepurposefullyxiiIntroductionverygeneraltomakethembroadlyapplicable,butthatmeansthattheirexactmeaningandtheirapplicabilitytospecificdesignsituationsisopentointerpretationComplicatingmattersfurther,morethanonerulewilloftenseemapplicabletoagivendesignsituationInsuchcases,theapplicabledesignrulesoftenconflict,ie,theysuggestdifferentdesignsThisrequiresdesignerstodeterminewhichcompetingdesignruleismoreapplicabletothegivensituationandshouldtakeprecedenceDesignproblemsevenwithoutcompetingdesignguidelinesoftenhavemultipleconflictinggoalseg:lbrightscreenandlongbatterylifellightweightandsturdylmultifunctionalandeasytolearnlpowerfulandsimplelWYSIWIG(whatyouseeiswhatyouget)andusablebyblindpeopleSatisfyingallthedesigngoalsforacomputerbasedproductorserviceusuallyrequirestradeoffslotsandlotsoftradeoffsFindingtherightbalancepointbetweencompetingdesignrulesrequiresfurthertradeoffsGivenallofthesecomplications,userinterfacedesignrulesandguidelinesmustbeappliedthoughtfully,notmindlessly,bypeoplewhoareskilledintheartofUIdesignandorevaluationUserinterfacedesignrulesandguidelinesaremorelikelawsthanlikeroterecipesJustasasetoflawsisbestappliedandinterpretedbylawyersandjudgeswhoarewellversedinthelaws,asetofuserinterfacedesignguidelinesisbestappliedandinterpretedbypeoplewhounderstandthebasisfortheguidelinesandhavelearnedfromexperienceinapplyingthemUnfortunately,withafewexceptions(eg,Norman,a),userinterfacedesignguidelinesareprovidedassimplelistsofdesignedictswithlittleornorationaleorbackgroundFurthermore,althoughmanyearlymembersoftheuserinterfacedesignandusabilityprofessionhadbackgroundsincognitivepsychology,mostnewcomerstothefielddonotThatmakesitdifficultforthemtoapplyuserinterfacedesignguidelinessensiblyProvidingthatrationaleandbackgroundeducationisthefocusofthisbookCOMPARINGUSERINTERFACEDESIGNGUIDELINESTableIplacesthetwobestknownuserinterfaceguidelinelistssidebysidetoshowthetypesofrulestheycontainandhowtheycomparetoeachother(seetheAppendixforadditionalguidelineslists)Forexample,bothlistsstartwitharulecallingforconsistencyindesignBothlistsincludearuleaboutpreventingerrorsTheNielsenMolichrule“Helpusersrecognize,diagnose,andrecoverfromerrors”correspondscloselytotheShneidermanPlaisantruleto“Permiteasyreversalofactions”“Usercontrolandfreedom”correspondsto“Makeusersfeeltheyareincontrol”Thereisareasonforthissimilarity,anditisn’tjustthatlaterauthorswereinfluencedbyearlieronesxiiiWheredodesignguidelinescomefromWHEREDODESIGNGUIDELINESCOMEFROMForpresentpurposes,thedetaileddesignrulesineachsetofguidelines,suchasthoseinTableI,arelessimportantthanwhattheyhaveincommon:theirbasisandoriginWheredidthesedesignrulescomefromWeretheirauthorslikeclothingfashiondesignerssimplytryingtoimposetheirownpersonaldesigntastesonthecomputerandsoftwareindustriesIfthatwereso,thedifferentsetsofdesignruleswouldbeverydifferentfromeachotherasthevariousauthorssoughttodifferentiatethemselvesfromtheothersInfact,allofthesesetsofuserinterfacedesignguidelinesarequitesimilarifweignoredifferencesinwording,emphasis,andthestateofcomputertechnologywheneachsetwaswrittenWhyTheansweristhatallofthedesignrulesarebasedonhumanpsychology:howpeopleperceive,learn,reason,remember,andconvertintentionsintoactionManyauthorsofdesignguidelineshadatleastsomebackgroundinpsychologythattheyappliedtocomputersystemdesignForexample,DonNormanwasaprofessor,researcher,andprolificauthorinthefieldofcognitivepsychologylongbeforehebeganwritingabouthumancomputerinteractionNorman’searlyhumancomputerdesignguidelineswerebasedonresearchhisownandothers’onhumancognitionHewasespeciallyinterestedincognitiveerrorsthatpeopleoftenmakeandhowcomputersystemscanbedesignedtolessenoreliminatetheimpactofthoseerrorsSimilarly,otherauthorsofuserinterfacedesignguidelineseg,Brown,Shneiderman,Nielsen,andMolichusedknowledgeofperceptualandcognitivepsychologytotrytoimprovethedesignofusableandusefulinteractivesystemsBottomline:userinterfacedesignguidelinesarebasedonhumanpsychologyByreadingthisbook,youwilllearnthemostimportantaspectsofthepsychologyunderlyinguserinterfaceandusabilitydesignguidelinesTableITheTwoBestKnownListsofUserInterfaceDesignGuidelinesShneiderman()ShneidermanandPlaisant()NielsenandMolich()lStriveforconsistencylCatertouniversalusabilitylOfferinformativefeedbacklDesigntaskflowstoyieldclosurelPreventerrorslPermiteasyreversalofactionslMakeusersfeeltheyareincontrollMinimizeshorttermmemoryloadlConsistencyandstandardslVisibilityofsystemstatuslMatchbetweensystemandrealworldlUsercontrolandfreedomlErrorpreventionlRecognitionratherthanrecalllFlexibilityandefficiencyofuselAestheticandminimalistdesignlHelpusersrecognize,diagnose,andrecoverfromerrorslProvideonlinedocumentationandhelpxivIntroductionINTENDEDAUDIENCEOFTHISBOOKThisbookisintendedmainlyforsoftwaredevelopmentprofessionalswhohavetoapplyuserinterfaceandinteractiondesignguidelinesThisofcourseincludesinteractiondesigners,userinterfacedesigners,anduserexperiencedesigners,graphicdesigners,andhardwareproductdesignersItalsoincludesusabilitytestersandevaluators,whooftenrefertodesignheuristicswhenreviewingsoftwareoranalyzingobservedusageproblemsAsecondaudienceforthisbookissoftwaredevelopmentmanagerswhowantenoughofabackgroundinthepsychologicalbasisforuserinterfacedesignrulestounderstandandevaluatetheworkofthepeopletheymanageDesigningwiththeMindinMind©ElsevierIncAllrightsreservedCHAPTERWePerceiveWhatWeExpectOurperceptionoftheworldaroundusisnotatruedepictionofwhatisactuallythereWeperceive,toalargeextent,whatweexpecttoperceiveOurexpectationsandthereforeourperceptionsarebiasedbythreefactors:lthepast:ourexperiencelthepresent:thecurrentcontextlthefuture:ourgoalsPERCEPTIONBIASEDBYEXPERIENCEImaginethatyouownalargeinsurancecompanyYouaremeetingwitharealestatemanager,discussingplansforanewcampusofcompanybuildingsThecampusconsistsofarowoffivebuildings,thelasttwowithTshapedcourtyardsprovidinglightforthecafeteriaandfitnesscenterIftherealestatemanagershowedyouthemapshowninFigure,youwouldseefiveblackshapesrepresentingthebuildingsFIguREBuildingmaporwordWhatyouseedependsonwhatyouweretoldtoseeCHAPTERWePerceiveWhatWeExpectNowimaginethatinsteadofarealestatemanager,youaremeetingwithanadvertisingmanagerYouarediscussinganewbillboardadtobeplacedincertainmarketsaroundthecountryTheadvertisingmanagershowsyouthesameimage,butinthisscenariotheimageisasketchofthead,consistingofasinglewordInthisscenario,youseeaword,clearlyandunambiguouslyWhenyourperceptualsystemhasbeenprimedtoseebuildingshapes,youseebuildingshapes,andthewhiteareasbetweenthebuildingsbarelyregisterinyourperceptionWhenyourperceptualsystemhasbeenprimedtoseetext,youseetext,andtheblackareasbetweenthelettersbarelyregisterArelativelyfamousexampleofhowprimingthemindcanaffectperceptionisasketch,supposedlybyRCJames,thatinitiallylookstomostpeoplelikearandomsplatteringofink(seeFig)Beforereadingfurther,lookatthesketchFIguREImageshowingtheeffectofmentalprimingofthevisualsystemWhatdoyouseePublishedinMarrD()VisionWHFreeman,NewYork,NY,p,FigureOnlyafteryouaretoldthatitisaDalmatiandogsniffingthegroundnearatreecanyourvisualsystemorga

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认知与设计:理解UI设计准则(英文版)

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