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TheGovernmentofSelfandOthersAlsointhisseries:SOCIETYMUSTBEDEFENDED(NorthAmerica&Canada)ABNORMAL(NorthAmerica&Canada)HERMENEUTICSOFTHESUBJECT(NorthAmerica&Canada)PSYCHIATRICPOWERSECURITY,TERRITORY,POPULATIONTHEBIRTHOFBIOPOLITICSForthcominginthisseries:THEWILLTOKNOWPENALTHEORIESANDINSTITUTIONSTHEPUNITIVESOCIETYONTHEGOVERNMENTOFTHELIVINGSUBJECTIVITYANDTRUTHTHECOURAGEOFTRUTHMICHELFOUCAULTTheGovernmentofSelfandOthersLECTURESATTHECOLLÈGEDEFRANCE1982–1983EditedbyFrédéricGrosGeneralEditors:FrançoisEwaldandAlessandroFontanaEnglishSeriesEditor:ArnoldI.DavidsonTRANSLATEDBYGRAHAMBURCHELLThisbookissupportedbytheFrenchMinistryofForeignAffairs,aspartoftheBurgessprogrammerunbytheCulturalDepartmentoftheFrenchEmbassyinLondon.(www.frenchbooknews.com)THEGOVERNMENTOFSELFANDOTHERSÉditionsduSeuil/Gallimard2008,EditionestablishedunderthedirectionofFrançoisEwaldandAlessandroFontana,byFrédéricGros.TranslationGrahamBurchell2010.Allrightsreserved.Noreproduction,copyortransmissionofthispublicationmaybemadewithoutwrittenpermission.Noportionofthispublicationmaybereproduced,copiedortransmittedsavewithwrittenpermissionorinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct1988,orunderthetermsofanylicencepermittinglimitedcopyingissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgency,SaffronHouse,6-10KirbyStreet,LondonEC1N8TS.Anypersonwhodoesanyunauthorisedactinrelationtothispublicationmaybeliabletocriminalprosecutionandcivilclaimsfordamages.TheauthorhasassertedhisrighttobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct1988.FirstpublishedinFrancebyÉditionsdeSeuil/GallimardunderthetitleLeGouvernementdesoietdesautres:CoursauCollègedeFrance,1982–1983.Englishtranslationpublishedin2010byPALGRAVEMACMILLANPalgraveMacmillanintheUKisanimprintofMacmillanPublishersLimited,registeredinEngland,companynumber785998,ofHoundmills,Basingstoke,HampshireRG216XS.PalgraveMacmillanintheUSisadivisionofStMartin’sPressLLC,175FifthAvenue,NewYork,NY10010.PalgraveMacmillanistheglobalacademicimprintoftheabovecompaniesandhascompaniesandrepresentativesthroughouttheworld.PalgraveandMacmillanareregisteredtrademarksintheUnitedStates,theUnitedKingdom,EuropeandothercountriesISBN978–1–4039–8666–5hardbackThisbookisprintedonpapersuitableforrecyclingandmadefromfullymanagedandsustainedforestsources.Logging,pulpingandmanufacturingprocessesareexpectedtoconformtotheenvironmentalregulationsofthecountryoforigin.AcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary.AcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongress.1098765432119181716151413121110PrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyCPIAntonyRowe,ChippenhamandEastbourneCONTENTSForeword:FrançoisEwaldandAlessandroFontanaxiTranslator’sNotexviione5January1983:FirstHour1Remarksonmethod.StudyofKant’stext:WhatisEnlightenment?Conditionsofpublication:journals.TheencounterbetweenChristianAufklärungandJewishHaskala:freedomofconscience.Philosophyandpresentreality.ThequestionoftheRevolution.Twocriticalfiliations.two5January1983:SecondHour25Theideaoftutelage(minorité):neithernaturalpowerlessnessnorauthoritariandeprivationofrights.Wayoutfromtheconditionoftutelageandcriticalactivity.TheshadowofthethreeCritiques.Thedifficultyofemancipation:lazinessandcowardice;thepredictedfailureofliberators.Motivationsoftheconditionoftutelage:superimpositionofobedienceandabsenceofreasoning;confusionbetweentheprivateandpublicuseofreason.TheproblematicturnattheendofKant’stext.three12January1983:FirstHour41Remindersofmethod.Definitionofthesubjecttobestudiedthisyear.Parre–siaandcultureofself.Galen’sOnthePassionsandErrorsoftheSoul.Parre–sia:difficultyindefiningthenotion;bibliographicalreferencepoints.Anenduring,plural,andambiguousnotion.PlatofacedwiththetyrantofSyracuse:anexemplarysceneofparre–sia.TheechovicontentsofOedipus.Parre–siaversusdemonstration,teaching,anddiscussion.Theelementofrisk.four12January1983:SecondHour61Irreducibilityoftheparrhesiastictotheperformativeutterance:openingupofanunspecifiedrisk/publicexpressionofapersonalconviction/bringingafreecourageintoplay.Pragmaticsanddramaticsofdiscourse.Classicaluseofthenotionofparre–sia:democracy(Polybius)andcitizenship(Euripides).five19January1983:FirstHour75IoninthemythologyandhistoryofAthens.PoliticalcontextofEuripides’tragedy:theNiciaspeace.HistoryofIon’sbirth.Alethurgicschemaofthetragedy.Theimplicationofthethreetruth-tellings:oracle,confession(l’aveu),andpoliticaldiscourse.StructuralcomparisonofIonandOedipustheKing.Theadventuresoftruth-tellinginIon:thedoublehalf-lie.six19January1983:SecondHour97Ion:Anobody,sonofnobody.Threecategoriesofcitizen.ConsequencesofpoliticalintrusionbyIon:privatehatredsandpub-lictyranny.Insearchofamother.Parre–siairreducibletotheactualexerciseofpowerandtothecitizen’sstatus.Theagonisticgameoftruth-telling:freeandrisky.Historicalcontext:theCleon/Niciasdebate.Creusa’sanger.seven26January1983:FirstHour113ContinuationandendofthecomparisonbetweenIonandOedipus:thetruthdoesnotarisefromaninvestigationbutfromtheclashofpassions.Theruleofillusionsandpassions.Thecryofconfessionandaccusation.G.Dumézil’sanalysesofApollo.Dumézil’scategoriesappliedtoIon.Tragicmodulationofthethemeofthevoice.Tragicmodulationofthethemeofgold.eight26January1983:SecondHour131Tragicmodulationofthethemeoffertility.Parre–siaasimprecation:publicdenunciationbytheweakoftheinjusticeoftheContentsviipowerful.Creusa’ssecondconfession(aveu):thevoiceofconfession(confession).Finalepisodes:frommurderplantoAthena’sappearance.nine2February1983:FirstHour149ReminderofthePolybiustext.ReturntoIon:divineandhumanveridictions.Thethreeformsofparre–sia:statutory-political;judicial;moral.Politicalparre–sia:itsconnectionwithdemocracy;itsbasisinanagonisticstructure.ReturntothePolybiustext:theise-goria/parre–siarelationship.Politeiaanddunasteia:thinkingofpoliticsasexperience.Parre–siainEuripides:ThePhoenicianWomen;Hippolytus;TheBacchae;Orestes.TheTrialofOrestes.ten2February1983:SecondHour173Therectangleofparre–sia:formalcondition,defactocondition,truthcondition,andmoralcondition.Exampleofthecorrectfunctioningofdemocraticparre–siainThucydides:threediscoursesofPericles.Badparre–siainIsocrates.eleven9February1983:FirstHour187Parre–sia:everydayusage;politicalusage.Reminderofthreeexemplaryscenes:Thucydides;Isocrates;Plutarch.Linesofevolutionofparre–sia.Thefourgreatproblemsofancientpoliticalphilosophy:theidealcity;therespectivemeritsofdemoc-racyandautocracy;addressingthePrince’ssoul;thephilosophy/rhetoricrelationship.StudyofthreetextsbyPlato.twelve9February1983:SecondHour209Plato’sLetters:thecontext.StudyofLetterV:thepho–ne–ofconstitutions;reasonsfornon-involvement.StudyofLetterVII.Dion’shistory.Plato’spoliticalautobiography.ThejourneytoSicily.WhyPlatoaccepts:kairos;philia;ergon.thirteen16February1983:FirstHour223Philosophicalergon.ComparisonwiththeAlcibiades.Therealityofphilosophy:thecourageousaddresstopower.Firstviiicontentsconditionofreality:listening,thefirstcircle.Thephilosophicaloeuvre:achoice;away;anapplication.Therealityofphiloso-phyasworkofselfonself(secondcircle).fourteen16February1983:SecondHour245ThefailureofDionysius.ThePlatonicrejectionofwriting.Mathe–mataversussunousia.Philosophyaspracticeofthesoul.ThephilosophicaldigressionofLetterVII:thefiveelementsofknowledge.Thethirdcircle:thecircleofknowledge.Thephilosopherandthelegislator.FinalremarksoncontemporaryinterpretationsofPlato.fifteen23February1983:FirstHour259TheenigmaticblandnessofPlato’spoliticaladvice.TheadvicetoDionysius.Thediagnosis,practiceofpersuasion,proposalofaregime.AdvicetoDion’sfriends.StudyofLetterVIII.Parre–siaunderpinspoliticaladvice.sixteen23February1983:SecondHour285Philosophyandpolitics:necessaryrelationshipbutimpossiblecoincidence.CynicalandPlatonicgamewithregardtopolitics.Thenewhistoricalconjuncture:thinkinganewpoliticalunitbeyondthecity-state.FromthepublicsquaretothePrince’ssoul.ThePlatonicthemeofthephilosopher-king.seventeen2March1983:FirstHour299Remindersaboutpoliticalparre–sia.Pointsintheevolutionofpoliticalparre–sia.Themajorquestionsofancientphilosophy.StudyofatextbyLucian.Ontologyofdiscoursesofveridiction.SocraticspeechintheApology.Theparadoxofthepoliticalnon-involvementofSocrates.eighteen2March1983:SecondHour325EndofstudyofSocrates’Apology:parre–sia/rhetoricopposition.StudyofthePhaedrus:generalplanofthedialogue.Theconditionsofgoodlogos.TruthContentsixaspermanentfunctionofdiscourse.Dialecticandpsychagogy.Philosophicalparre–sia.nineteen9March1983:FirstHour339Thehistoricalturnaroundofparre–sia:fromthepoliticalgametothephilosophicalgame.Philosophyaspracticeofparre–sia:theexampleofAristippus.Thephilosophicallifeasmanifestationofthetruth.Thepermanentaddresstopower.Theinterpellationofeach.PortraitoftheCynicinEpictetus.PericlesandSocrates.Modernphilosophyandcourageofthetruth.twenty9March1983:SecondHour357StudyoftheGorgias.Theobligationofconfession(aveu)inPlato:thecontextofliquidationofrhetoric.ThethreequalitiesofCallicles:episteme–;parre–sia;eunoia.Agonisticgameagainstegalitariansystem.Socraticspeech:basanosandhomologia.CourseContext377IndexofNames393IndexofConceptsandNotions397ThispageintentionallyleftblankFOREWORDMICHELFOUCAULTTAUGHTATtheCollègedeFrancefromJanuary1971untilhisdeathinJune1984(withtheexceptionof1977whenhetookasabbaticalyear).Thetitleofhischairwas“TheHistoryofSystemsofThought.”OntheproposalofJulesVuillemin,thechairwascreatedon30November1969bythegeneralassemblyoftheprofessorsoftheCollègedeFranceandreplacedthatof“TheHistoryofPhilosophicalThought”heldbyJeanHyppoliteuntilhisdeath.ThesameassemblyelectedMichelFoucaulttothenewchairon12April1970.1Hewas43yearsold.MichelFoucault’sinaugurallecturewasdeliveredon2December1970.2TeachingattheCollègedeFranceisgovernedbyparticularrules.Professorsmustprovide26hoursofteachingayear(withthepossibilityofamaximumofhalfthistotalbeinggivenintheformofseminars3).Eachyeartheymustpresenttheiroriginalresearchandthisobligesthemtochangethecontentoftheirteachingforeachcourse.Coursesandseminarsarecompletelyopen;noenrolmentorqualifica-tionisrequiredandtheprofessorsdonotawardanyqualifications.4IntheterminologyoftheCollègedeFrance,theprofessorsdonothavestudentsbutonlyauditors.MichelFoucault’scourseswereheldeveryWednesdayfromJanuarytoMarch.Thehugeaudiencemadeupofstudents,teachers,research-ersandthecurious,includingmanywhocamefromoutsideFrance,requiredtwoamphitheatersoftheCollègedeFrance.Foucaultoftencomplainedaboutthedistancebetweenhimselfandhis“public”andofhowfewexchangesthecoursemadepossible.5Hewouldhavelikedxiiforewordaseminarinwhichrealcollectiveworkcouldtakeplaceandmadeanumberofattemptstobringthisabout.Inthefinalyearshedevotedalongperiodtoansweringhisauditors’questionsattheendofeachcourse.ThisishowGérardPetitjean,ajournalistfromLeNouvelObservateur,describedtheatmosphereatFoucault’slecturesin1975:WhenFoucaultenterstheamphitheater,briskanddynamiclikesomeonewhoplungesintothewater,hestepsoverbodiestoreachhischair,pushesawaythecassetterecorderssohecanputdownhispapers,removeshisjacket,lightsalampandsetsoffatfullspeed.Hisvoiceisstrongandeffective,amplifiedbytheloudspeakersthataretheonlyconcessiontomodernisminahallthatisbarelylitbylightspreadfromstuccobowls.Thehallhasthreehundredplacesandtherearefivehundredpeoplepackedtogether,fillingthesmallestfreespace...Thereisnooratoricaleffect.Itisclearandterriblyeffective.Thereisabsolutelynoconcessiontoimprovisation.Foucaulthastwelvehourseachyeartoexplaininapubliccoursethedirectiontakenbyhisresearchintheyearjustended.Soeverythingisconcentratedandhefillsthemarginslikecorrespondentswhohavetoomuchtosayforthespaceavailabletothem.At19.15Foucaultstops.Thestudentsrushtowardshisdesk;nottospeaktohim,buttostoptheircas-setterecorders.Therearenoquestions.Inthepushingandshov-ingFoucaultisalone.Foucaultremarks:“ItshouldbepossibletodiscusswhatIhaveputforward.Sometimes,whenithasnotbeenagoodlecture,itwouldneedverylittle,justonequestion,toputeverythingstraight.However,thisquestionnevercomes.ThegroupeffectinFrancemakesanygenuinediscussionimpossible.Andasthereisnofeedback,thecourseistheatrical-ized.Myrelationshipwiththepeoplethereislikethatofanactororanacrobat.AndwhenIhavefinishedspeaking,asensationoftotalsolitude...”6Foucaultapproachedhisteachingasaresearcher:explorationsforafuturebookaswellastheopeningupoffieldsofproblematizationwereformulatedasaninvitationtopossiblefutureresearchers.ThisForewordxiiiiswhythecoursesattheCollègedeFrancedonotduplicatethepub-lishedbooks.Theyarenotsketchesforthebookseventhoughbothbooksandcoursessharecertainthemes.Theyhavetheirownstatus.TheyarisefromaspecificdiscursiveregimewithinthesetofFoucault’s“philosophicalactivities.”Inparticulartheysetouttheprogramforagenealogyofknowledge/powerrelations,whicharethetermsinwhichhethinksofhisworkfromthebeginningofthe1970s,asopposedtotheprogramofanarcheologyofdiscursiveformationsthatpreviouslyorientatedhiswork.7Thecoursealsoperformedaroleincontemporaryreality.Thosewhofollowedhiscourseswerenotonlyheldinthrallbythenarrativethatunfoldedweekbyweekandseducedbytherigorousexposition,theyalsofoundaperspectiveoncontemporaryreality.MichelFoucault’sartconsistedinusinghistorytocutdiagonallythroughcontemporaryreality.HecouldspeakofNietzscheorAristotle,ofexpertpsychiatricopinionortheChristianpastoral,butthosewhoattendedhislecturesalwaystookfromwhathesaidaperspectiveonthepresentandcon-temporaryevents.Foucault’sspecificstrengthinhiscourseswasthesubtleinterplaybetweenlearnederudition,personalcommitment,andworkontheevent.Withtheirdevelopmentandrefinementinthe1970s,Foucault’sdeskwasquicklyinvadedbycassetterecorders.Thecourses—andsomeseminars—havethusbeenpreserved.ThiseditionisbasedonthewordsdeliveredinpublicbyFoucault.Itgivesatranscriptionofthesewordsthatisasliteralaspossible.8Wewouldhavelikedtopresentitassuch.However,thetransitionfromanoraltoawrittenpresentationcallsforeditorialintervention:attheveryleastitrequirestheintroductionofpunctuationanddivisionintoparagraphs.Ourprinciplehasbeenalwaystoremainascloseaspos-sibletothecourseactuallydelivered.Summariesandrepetitionshavebeenremovedwheneveritseemedtobeabsolutelynecessary.Interruptedsentenceshavebeenrestoredandfaultyconstructionscorrected.Suspensionpointsindicatethattherecordingisinaudible.Whenasentenceisobscurethereisaxivforewordconjecturalintegrationoranadditionbetweensquarebrackets.AnasteriskdirectingthereadertothebottomofthepageindicatesasignificantdivergencebetweenthenotesusedbyFoucaultandthewordsactuallyuttered.Quotationshavebeencheckedandreferencestothetextsusedareindicated.Thecriticalapparatusislimitedtotheelucidationofobscurepoints,theexplanationofsomeallusionsandtheclarificationofcriticalpoints.Tomakethelectureseasiertoread,eachlectureisprecededbyabriefsummarythatindicatesitsprinci-palarticulations.ThetextofthecourseisfollowedbythesummarypublishedbytheAnnuaireduCollègedeFrance.FoucaultusuallywrotetheseinJune,sometimeaftertheendofthecourse.Itwasanopportunityforhimtopickoutretrospectivelytheintentionandobjectivesofthecourse.Itconsti-tutesthebestintroductiontothecourse.*Eachvolumeendswitha“context”forwhichthecourseeditorsareresponsible.Itseekstoprovidethereaderwithelementsofthebiographical,ideological,andpoliticalcontext,situatingthecoursewithinthepublishedworkandprovidingindicationsconcerningitsplacewithinthecorpususedinordertofacilitateunderstandingandtoavoidmisinterpretationsthatmightarisefromaneglectofthecir-cumstancesinwhicheachcoursewasdevelopedanddelivered.TheGovernmentofSelfandOthers,thecoursedeliveredin1983,iseditedbyFrédéricGros.AnewaspectofMichelFoucault’s“œuvre”ispublishedwiththiseditionoftheCollègedeFrancecourses.Strictlyspeakingitisnotamatterofunpublishedwork,sincethiseditionreproduceswordsutteredpubliclybyFoucault,excludingtheoftenhighlydevelopedwrittenmaterialheusedtosupporthislec-tures.DanielDefertp

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  • wangyushanin 2012-04-13 20:20:37

    pdf做的不错,真心感谢

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