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中断和异常.doc

中断和异常.doc

上传者: gujunxiguerer 2011-10-24 评分1 评论0 下载32 收藏0 阅读量759 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《中断和异常doc》,可适用于专题技术领域,主题内容包含注:红色表明翻译得不一定正确注:红色表明翻译得不一定正确号中断非法操作码异常(#UD)两处号中断双重故障异常(#DF)几处号中断无效TSS异常(#T符等。

注:红色表明翻译得不一定正确注:红色表明翻译得不一定正确号中断非法操作码异常(#UD)两处号中断双重故障异常(#DF)几处号中断无效TSS异常(#TS)几处号中断段不存在(#NP)几处号中断栈故障异常(#SS)几处中断项目录:号中断除法出错异常(#DE)号中断调试异常(#DB)号中断NMI中断号中断断点异常(#BP)号中断溢出异常(#OF)号中断BOUND越界异常(#BR)号中断非法操作码异常(#UD)号中断设备不可用异常(#NM)号中断双重故障异常(#DF)号中断协处理器段越界中断无效TSS异常(#TS)中断段不存在(#NP)中断栈故障异常(#SS)中断通用保护异常(#GP)中断页故障异常(#PF)中断xFPU浮点错误(#MF)中断对齐检测异常(#AC)中断机器检测异常(#MC)中断SIMD浮点异常(#XM)用户定义中断CHAPTERINTERRUPTANDEXCEPTIONHANDLINGThischapterdescribestheinterruptandexceptionhandlingmechanismwhenoper​atinginprotectedmodeonanIntelorIAprocessorMostoftheinformationprovidedherealsoappliestointerruptandexceptionmechanismsusedinrealaddress,virtualmode,andbitmodeChapter,“Emulation,”describesinformationspecifictointerruptandexcep​tionmechanismsinrealaddressandvirtualmodeSection,“ExceptionandInterruptHandlinginbitMode,”describesinformationspecifictointerruptandexceptionmechanismsinIAemodeandbitsubmode第五章中断和异常处理本章描述Intel或IA处理器在保护模式下的中断和异常处理机制。这里大部分内容也适用于实模式、虚拟模式、位模式的中断和异常机制。第章“模拟”具体描述实模式和虚拟模式的中断和异常处理机制。第节“位异常和中断处理”具体描述IAe模式和bit子模式中的中断和异常处理机制。INTERRUPTANDEXCEPTIONOVERVIEWInterruptsandexceptionsareeventsthatindicatethataconditionexistssomewhereinthesystem,theprocessor,orwithinthecurrentlyexecutingprogramortaskthatrequirestheattentionofaprocessorTheytypicallyresultinaforcedtransferofexecutionfromthecurrentlyrunningprogramortasktoaspecialsoftwareroutineortaskcalledaninterrupthandleroranexceptionhandlerTheactiontakenbyaprocessorinresponsetoaninterruptorexceptionisreferredtoasservicingorhandlingtheinterruptorexception​ ​ 中断和异常概述中断和异常事件表明系统、处理器或当前执行的程序或任务某处存在一个需要处理器关注的条件。他们通常会导致从一个正在运行的程序或任务强制转移到一个特殊的软件例程中断处理程序或异常处理程序。处理器响应一个中断和异常的动作是服务或处理这个中断和异常。Interruptsoccuratrandomtimesduringtheexecutionofaprogram,inresponsetosignalsfromhardwareSystemhardwareusesinterruptstohandleeventsexternaltotheprocessor,suchasrequeststoserviceperipheraldevicesSoftwarecanalsogenerateinterruptsbyexecutingtheINTninstruction中断可能发生在一个程序执行期间的任意随机时间去响应硬件信号。系统硬件采用中断来处理外部事件例如外围设备请求。软件通过执行INTn指令也能引起中断。Exceptionsoccurwhentheprocessordetectsanerrorconditionwhileexecutinganinstruction,suchasdivisionbyzeroTheprocessordetectsavarietyoferrorcondi​tionsincludingprotectionviolations,pagefaults,andinternalmachinefaultsThemachinecheckarchitectureofthePentium,IntelXeon,Pfamily,andPentiumprocessorsalsopermitsamachinecheckexceptiontobegeneratedwheninternalhardwareerrorsandbuserrorsaredetected异常是处理器在执行指令期间检测到不正常的或非法的条件所引起的例如除数等于。处理器检测出的错误包括保护异常、页错误和内部机器错误。Pentium,IntelXeon,P家族和Pentium处理器的机器检测架构也允许在检测到内部硬件错误和总线错误时产生硬件检测异常。Whenaninterruptisreceivedoranexceptionisdetected,thecurrentlyrunningprocedureortaskissuspendedwhiletheprocessorexecutesaninterruptorexcep​tionhandlerWhenexecutionofthehandleriscomplete,theprocessorresumesexecutionoftheinterruptedprocedureortaskTheresumptionoftheinterruptedprocedureortaskhappenswithoutlossofprogramcontinuity,unlessrecoveryfromanexceptionwasnotpossibleoraninterruptcausedthecurrentlyrunningprogramtobeterminatedThischapterdescribestheprocessor’sinterruptandexceptionhandlingmechanism,whenoperatinginprotectedmodeAdescriptionoftheexceptionsandtheconditionsthatcausethemtobegeneratedisgivenattheendofthischapter当接收到一个中断信号或检测出异常时当前运行的程序或任务将被挂起而处理器则执行中断或异常处理程序。执行完处理程序后处理器恢复执行被中断的程序或任务。被中断的程序或任务恢复执行而不会失去连续性除非无法从异常恢复或中断导致当前运行的程序终止。本章描述处理器运行于保护模式下的中断和异常处理机制。本章最后还给出了异常和产生异常的条件的描述。EXCEPTIONANDINTERRUPTVECTORSToaidinhandlingexceptionsandinterrupts,eacharchitecturallydefinedexceptionandeachinterruptconditionrequiringspecialhandlingbytheprocessorisassignedauniqueidentificationnumber,calledavectorTheprocessorusesthevectorassignedtoanexceptionorinterruptasanindexintotheinterruptdescriptortable(IDT)Thetableprovidestheentrypointtoanexceptionorinterrupthandler(seeSection,“InterruptDescriptorTable(IDT)”)​ ​ 异常和中断向量为方便处理异常和中断架构上定义的每个需要处理器特殊处理的异常和和中断条件都分配了一个唯一的标识码叫做向量。处理器用分配给异常和中断的向量作为中断描述表(IDT)的索引。IDT提供异常和中断处理程序的入口点(见节“中断描述符表(IDT)”)。TheallowablerangeforvectornumbersistoVectorsintherangethrougharereservedbytheIntelandIAarchitecturesforarchitecturedefinedexceptionsandinterruptsNotallofthevectorsinthisrangehaveacurrentlydefinedfunctionTheunassignedvectorsinthisrangearereservedDonotusethereservedvectorsVectorsintherangetoaredesignatedasuserdefinedinterruptsandarenotreservedbytheIntelandIAarchitectureTheseinterruptsaregenerallyassignedtoexternalIOdevicestoenablethosedevicestosendinterruptstotheprocessorthroughoneoftheexternalhardwareinterruptmechanisms(seeSection,“SourcesofInterrupts”)向量号的范围是。从到是被Intel和IA架构用于架构定义异常和中断。但不是这个范围的向量号现在都被定义。到之间的向量号是给用户定义中断的没有被架构保留。这些中断被分配给外部IO设备使那些设备能通过外部硬件中断机制向处理器发送中断信号。(见节“中断源“)TableshowsvectorassignmentsforarchitecturallydefinedexceptionsandfortheNMIinterruptThistablegivestheexceptiontype(seeSection,“ExceptionClassifications”)andindicateswhetheranerrorcodeissavedonthestackfortheexceptionThesourceofeachpredefinedexceptionandtheNMIinterruptisalsogiven表有分配给架构定义的异常和NMI中断的向量。此表给出异常类型(见“异常分类”)并且指出了堆栈是否存有出错代码传递给异常处理程序。预先定义的异常和NMI中断源也给出了。SOURCESOFINTERRUPTSTheprocessorreceivesinterruptsfromtwosources:•External(hardwaregenerated)interrupts•Softwaregeneratedinterrupts​ 中断源处理器接收的中断有两个来源:•外部(硬件产生的)中断•软件产生的中断ExternalInterruptsExternalinterruptsarereceivedthroughpinsontheprocessororthroughthelocalAPICTheprimaryinterruptpinsonPentium,IntelXeon,Pfamily,andPentiumprocessorsaretheLINT:pins,whichareconnectedtothelocalAPIC(seeChapter,“AdvancedProgrammableInterruptController(APIC)”)WhenthelocalAPICisenabled,theLINT:pinscanbeprogrammedthroughtheAPIC’slocalvectortable(LVT)tobeassociatedwithanyoftheprocessor’sexceptionorinterruptvectors外部中断外部中断由处理器的引脚接收或由局部APIC接收。Pentium,IntelXeon,P家族和Pentium处理器的主要中断引脚是连接到局部APIC(见第章“高级可编程中断控制器(APIC)”)的LINT:引脚。局部APIC激活时可以通过APIC的局部向量表(LVT)对LINT:引脚编程使它与处理器的任何异常和中断向量关联。WhenthelocalAPICisglobalhardwaredisabled,thesepinsareconfiguredasINTRandNMIpins,respectivelyAssertingtheINTRpinsignalstheprocessorthatanexternalinterrupthasoccurredTheprocessorreadsfromthesystembustheinterruptvectornumberprovidedbyanexternalinterruptcontroller,suchasanA(seeSection,“ExceptionandInterruptVectors”)AssertingtheNMIpinsignalsanonmaskableinterrupt(NMI),whichisassignedtointerruptvector当局部APIC是全局禁用或硬件禁用时这些引脚被分别配置成INTR和NMI引脚。外部中断通过INTR引脚向处理器发送信号。处理器从系统总线读取由外部中断控制器产生的中断向量号如A(见节“异常和中断向量”)。NMI引脚发出不可屏蔽中断(NMI)​中断号为。TableProtectedModeExceptionsandInterruptsVectorNoMnemonicDescriptionTypeErrorCodeSource#DEDivideErrorFaultNoDIVandIDIVinstructions#DBRESERVEDFaultTrapNoForInteluseonlyNMIInterruptInterruptNoNonmaskableexternalinterrupt#BPBreakpointTrapNoINTinstruction#OFOverflowTrapNoINTOinstruction#BRBOUNDRangeExceededFaultNoBOUNDinstruction#UDInvalidOpcode(UndefinedOpcode)FaultNoUDinstructionorreservedopcode#NMDeviceNotAvailable(NoMathCoprocessor)FaultNoFloatingpointorWAITFWAITinstruction#DFDoubleFaultAbortYes(zero)Anyinstructionthatcangenerateanexception,anNMI,oranINTRCoprocessorSegmentOverrun(reserved)FaultNoFloatingpointinstruction#TSInvalidTSSFaultYesTaskswitchorTSSaccess#NPSegmentNotPresentFaultYesLoadingsegmentregistersoraccessingsystemsegments#SSStackSegmentFaultFaultYesStackoperationsandSSregisterloads#GPGeneralProtectionFaultYesAnymemoryreferenceandotherprotectionchecks#PFPageFaultFaultYesAnymemoryreference(IntelreservedDonotuse)No#MFxFPUFloatingPointError(MathFault)FaultNoxFPUfloatingpointorWAITFWAITinstruction#ACAlignmentCheckFaultYes(Zero)Anydatareferenceinmemory#MCMachineCheckAbortNoErrorcodes(ifany)andsourcearemodeldependent#XMSIMDFloatingPointExceptionFaultNoSSESSESSEfloatingpointinstructionsIntelreservedDonotuseUserDefined(Nonreserved)InterruptsInterruptExternalinterruptorINTninstructionNOTES:TheUDinstructionwasintroducedinthePentiumProprocessorProcessorsaftertheIntelprocessordonotgeneratethisexceptionThisexceptionwasintroducedintheIntelprocessorThisexceptionwasintroducedinthePentiumprocessorandenhancedinthePfamilyprocessorsThisexceptionwasintroducedinthePentiumIIIprocessorTheprocessor’slocalAPICisnormallyconnectedtoasystembasedIOAPICHere,externalinterruptsreceivedattheIOAPIC’spinscanbedirectedtothelocalAPICthroughthesystembus(Pentium,IntelCoreDuo,IntelCore,IntelAtom,andIntelXeonprocessors)ortheAPICserialbus(PfamilyandPentiumprocessors)TheIOAPICdeterminesthevectornumberoftheinterruptandsendsthisnumbertothelocalAPICWhenasystemcontainsmultipleprocessors,processorscanalsosendinterruptstooneanotherbymeansofthesystembus(Pentium,IntelCoreDuo,IntelCore,IntelAtom,andIntelXeonprocessors)ortheAPICserialbus(PfamilyandPentiumprocessors)TheLINT:pinsarenotavailableontheIntelprocessorandearlierPentiumprocessorsthatdonotcontainanonchiplocalAPICTheseprocessorshavededicatedNMIandINTRpinsWiththeseprocessors,externalinterruptsaretypicallygeneratedbyasystembasedinterruptcontroller(A),withtheinterruptsbeingsignaledthroughtheINTRpin处理器的局部APIC通常与系统基本IOAPIC连接。IOAPIC引脚接收到的外部中断能通过系统总线(Pentium,IntelCoreDuo,IntelCore,IntelAtom,和IntelXeon处理器)或APIC串行总线(P家族和Pentium处理器)传到局部APIC。IOAPIC决定中断向量号并将它传到局部APIC。当一个系统是多处理器时处理器也能依靠系统总线(Pentium,IntelCoreDuo,IntelCore,IntelAtom,和IntelXeon处理器)或APIC串行总线(P家族和Pentium处理器)互相传递中断信号。在Intel处理器和早期Pentium处理器上没有LINT:引脚因为它们芯片上没有局部APIC。但这些处理器上有专用的NMI和INTR引脚。这些处理器外部中断通常由系统基本中断控制器(A)产生并由INTR引脚传送。NotethatseveralotherpinsontheprocessorcancauseaprocessorinterrupttooccurHowever,theseinterruptsarenothandledbytheinterruptandexceptionmechanismdescribedinthischapterThesepinsincludetheRESET#,FLUSH#,STPCLK#,SMI#,RS#,andINIT#pinsWhethertheyareincludedonaparticularprocessorisimplementationdependentPinfunctionsaredescribedinthedatabooksfortheindividualprocessorsTheSMI#pinisdescribedinChapter,“SystemManagement”注意处理器上其它一些引脚也能导致处理器发生中断。但是这些中断并不是由本章所描述的中断和异常机制处理。这些引脚包括RESET#、FLUSH#、STPCLK#、SMI#、RS#、andINIT#引脚。一个特定处理器是否包含这些引脚与处理器的实现有关。引脚的功能在各自处理器的手册里有描述。SMI#引脚的内容在第章“系统管理”。MaskableHardwareInterruptsAnyexternalinterruptthatisdeliveredtotheprocessorbymeansoftheINTRpinorthroughthelocalAPICiscalledamaskablehardwareinterruptMaskablehardwareinterruptsthatcanbedeliveredthroughtheINTRpinincludeallIAarchitecturedefinedinterruptvectorsfromthroughthosethatcanbedeliveredthroughthelocalAPICincludeinterruptvectorsthrough可屏蔽硬件中断任何依靠INTR引脚或通过局部APIC传递到处理器的外部中断都被称为可屏蔽硬件中断。能通过INTR引脚传递的可屏蔽硬件中断包括所有IA架构定义的中断向量从到能用过局部APIC传递的包括的向量号只包括到。TheIFflagintheEFLAGSregisterpermitsallmaskablehardwareinterruptstobemaskedasagroup(seeSection,“MaskingMaskableHardwareInterrupts”)NotethatwheninterruptsthrougharedeliveredthroughthelocalAPIC,theAPICindicatesthereceiptofanillegalvectorEFLAGS寄存器的IF位能屏蔽所有可屏蔽硬件中断(见节“屏蔽可屏蔽硬件中断”)。注意当到号中断通过局部APIC传递时APIC会指出收到的非法向量。SoftwareGeneratedInterruptsTheINTninstructionpermitsinterruptstobegeneratedfromwithinsoftwarebysupplyinganinterruptvectornumberasanoperandForexample,theINTinstructionforcesanimplicitcalltotheinterrupthandlerforinterrupt​ ​ 软件中断使用INTn指令用中断向量号作为操作数就可以在程序里产生中断。例如指令INT可以调用号中断处理程序。AnyoftheinterruptvectorsfromtocanbeusedasaparameterinthisinstructionIftheprocessor’spredefinedNMIvectorisused,however,theresponseoftheprocessorwillnotbethesameasitwouldbefromanNMIinterruptgeneratedinthenormalmannerIfvectornumber(theNMIvector)isusedinthisinstruction,theNMIinterrupthandleriscalled,buttheprocessor’sNMIhandlinghardwareisnotactivatedInterruptsgeneratedinsoftwarewiththeINTninstructioncannotbemaskedbytheIFflagintheEFLAGSregister从到的任何中断向量号都可以作为这个指令的参数。但是如果用处理器预先定义的NMI向量那么处理器的响应将与正常方式产生NMI中断的响应不同。如果在这条指令里用号向量(NMI向量)那么NMI中断处理程序将被调用但是处理器的硬件NMI处理并未被激活。SOURCESOFEXCEPTIONSTheprocessorreceivesexceptionsfromthreesources:•Processordetectedprogramerrorexceptions•Softwaregeneratedexceptions•Machinecheckexceptions​ 异常源处理器接收的异常有三个来源:•处理器检测到的程序错误异常•软件产生的异常•机器检测异常ProgramErrorExceptionsTheprocessorgeneratesoneormoreexceptionswhenitdetectsprogramerrorsduringtheexecutioninanapplicationprogramortheoperatingsystemorexecutiveIntelandIAarchitecturesdefineavectornumberforeachprocessordetectableexceptionExceptionsareclassifiedasfaults,traps,andaborts(seeSection,“ExceptionClassifications”)程序错误异常在应用程序执行期间或操作系统运行期间当处理器检测到程序错误时就产生一个或多个异常。Intel和IA架构为每个处理器可检测到的异常定义了一个向量号。异常又可以分为故障、陷阱和终止(见“异常分类”)。SoftwareGeneratedExceptionsTheINTO,INT,andBOUNDinstructionspermitexceptionstobegeneratedinsoftwareTheseinstructionsallowchecksforexceptionconditionstobeperformedatpointsintheinstructionstreamForexample,INTcausesabreakpointexceptiontobegenerated​ 软件产生的异常INT,INT和BOUND指令允许在软件中产生异常。这些指令允许指令流执行时检测异常条件。例如INT将产生断点异常。TheINTninstructioncanbeusedtoemulateexceptionsinsoftwarebutthereisalimitationIfINTnprovidesavectorforoneofthearchitecturallydefinedexceptions,theprocessorgeneratesaninterrupttothecorrectvector(toaccesstheexceptionhandler)butdoesnotpushanerrorcodeonthestackThisistrueeveniftheassociatedhardwaregeneratedexceptionnormallyproducesanerrorcodeTheexceptionhandlerwillstillattempttopopanerrorcodefromthestackwhilehandlingtheexceptionBecausenoerrorcodewaspushed,thehandlerwillpopoffanddiscardtheEIPinstead(inplaceofthemissingerrorcode)ThissendsthereturntothewronglocationINTn指令在软件中模拟异常但有一个局限性。如果INTn所给的向量指向一个架构定义的异常处理器将产生一个向量所指的中断(用来访问异常处理程序)但没有将出错代码压入栈。即便相关硬件产生的异常通常只产生个出错代码。异常处理程序处理时还是会试图从栈中弹出它。而先前并没有向栈中压入所以处理程序将弹出EIP来当作出错代码(而不是丢失的出错代码)。这样真正的EIP就被丢弃了而返回地址将指向一个错误的地方。​ MachineCheckExceptionsThePfamilyandPentiumprocessorsprovidebothinternalandexternalmachinecheckmechanismsforcheckingtheoperationoftheinternalchiphardwareandbustransactionsThesemechanismsareimplementationdependentWhenamachinecheckerrorisdetected,theprocessorsignalsamachinecheckexception(vector)andreturnsanerrorcodeSeeChapter,“InterruptMachineCheckException(#MC)”andChapter,“MachineCheckArchitecture,”formoreinformationaboutthemachinecheckmechanism机器检测异常P家族和Pentium处理器提供了内部和外部的机器检测机制用来检测检测内部芯片硬件运作和总线处理。这些机制的执行是相互依赖的。当检测到一个机器检测错误时处理器发出一个机器检测异常(号向量)并返回一个出错代码。更多信息关于机器检测机制见第章“号中断机器检测异常(#MC)”和第章“机器检测架构”。EXCEPTIONCLASSIFICATIONSExceptionsareclassifiedasfaults,traps,orabortsdependingonthewaytheyarereportedandwhethertheinstructionthatcausedtheexceptioncanberestartedwithoutlossofprogramortaskcontinuity•FaultsAfaultisanexceptionthatcangenerallybecorrectedandthat,oncecorrected,allowstheprogramtoberestartedwithnolossofcontinuityWhenafaultisreported,theprocessorrestoresthemachinestatetothestatepriortothebeginningofexecutionofthefaultinginstructionThereturnaddress(savedcontentsoftheCSandEIPregisters)forthefaulthandlerpointstothefaultinginstruction,ratherthantotheinstructionfollowingthefaultinginstruction•TrapsAtrapisanexceptionthatisreportedimmediatelyfollowingtheexecutionofthetrappinginstructionTrapsallowexecutionofaprogramortasktobecontinuedwithoutlossofprogramcontinuityThereturnaddressforthetraphandlerpointstotheinstructiontobeexecutedafterthetrappinginstruction•AbortsAnabortisanexceptionthatdoesnotalwaysreportthepreciselocationoftheinstructioncausingtheexceptionanddoesnotallowarestartoftheprogramortaskthatcausedtheexceptionAbortsareusedtoreportsevereerrors,suchashardwareerrorsandinconsistentorillegalvaluesinsystemtables​ ​ 异常分类根据程序和任务在不失连续性的情况下导致异常的指令是否能重新执行可以把异常分为故障、陷阱和终止。•故障故障通常是能被修正的异常并且修正后允许程序继续执行而不失去连续性。当出现一个故障时处理器把机器状态恢复到故障指令执行前的状态。故障处理程序的返回地址(CS和EIP寄存器的内容)指向故障指令而不是故障指令的下一条指令。•陷阱陷阱是指令执行后才报告的异常。陷阱同样允许程序或任务继续执行而不失去连续性。陷阱处理程序的返回地址指向陷阱指令的下一条指令。•终止终止类型的异常不允许导致异常的程序或任务继续执行并且不总是报告产生异常的指令的精确地址。终止用来严重错误例如硬件错误不一致的或非法系统表值。NOTEOneexceptionsubsetnormallyreportedasafaultisnotrestartableSuchexceptionsresultinlossofsomeprocessorstateForexample,executingaPOPADinstructionwherethestackframecrossesovertheendofthestacksegmentcausesafaulttobereportedInthissituation,theexceptionhandlerseesthattheinstructionpointer(CS:EIP)hasbeenrestoredasifthePOPADinstructionhadnotbeenexecutedHowever,internalprocessorstate(thegeneralpurposeregisters)willhavebeenmodifiedSuchcasesareconsideredprogrammingerrorsAnapplicationcausingthisclassofexceptionsshouldbeterminatedbytheoperatingsystem注意:少数异常通常会作为一个不可恢复的故障报告。这样的异常会导致某些处理器状态丢失。例如执行POPAD指令时如果栈帧超过栈底则报告一个故障。在这种请况下异常处理程序会看到指令指针(CS:EIP)被恢复就好像POPAD指令没有执行一样。然而内部处理器状态(通用寄存器)将被修正。这种情况通常被认为是程序错误。一个应用程序导致这种异常将被操作系统终止。PROGRAMORTASKRESTARTToallowtherestartingofprogramortaskfollowingthehandlingofanexceptionoraninterrupt,allexceptions(exceptaborts)areguaranteedtoreportexceptionsonaninstructionboundaryAllinterruptsareguaranteedtobetakenonaninstructionboundary​ 程序或任务的继续执行为了让程序或任务在异常或中断处理后能继续执行所有异常(除了终止)都会保证在一条指令的分界处才报告异常。中断也是在这时才触发。Forfaultclassexceptions,thereturninstructionpointer(savedwhentheprocessorgeneratesanexception)pointstothefaultinginstructionSo,whenaprogramortaskisrestartedfollowingthehandlingofafault,thefaultinginstructionisrestarted(reexecuted)RestartingthefaultinginstructioniscommonlyusedtohandleexceptionsthataregeneratedwhenaccesstoanoperandisblockedThemostcommonexampleofthistypeoffaultisapagefaultexception(#PF)thatoccurswhenaprogramortaskreferencesanoperandlocatedonapagethatisnotinmemoryWhenapagefaultexceptionoccurs,theexceptionhandlercanloadthepageintomemoryandresumeexecutionoftheprogramortaskbyrestartingthefa

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中国制造,引领“世界第一”

近十年来,我国制造业持续快速发展,总体规模大幅提升,综合实力不断增强,不仅对国内经济和社会发展做出了重要贡献,而且成为支撑世界经济的重要力量。你绝对想不到,中国制造有这么多“世界第一”

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