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首页 古代文学宋的名词解释

古代文学宋的名词解释.doc

古代文学宋的名词解释

是迩不在乎还是硪太在意
2018-03-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《古代文学宋的名词解释doc》,可适用于领域

古代文学宋的名词解释大家自己修改一下啊名词解释、白体。“白体”诗人是宋初效法白居易作诗的一批诗人代表作家有李昉、徐铉xuàn和王禹偁chèn等人。他们是宋初朝廷过着优游生活的文臣因此其诗歌主要是模仿元白、刘禹锡等人互相唱和的近体诗内容多写流连光景的闲适生活风格浅切清雅。、晚唐体。“晚唐体”诗人主要有两个诗人群他们的一个共同倾向是宗法贾岛、姚合。一群是“九僧”即希昼、保暹xiān、文兆、行肇、简长、惟凤、惠崇、宇昭、怀古等九位僧人其中惠崇的成就比较突出。九僧作诗继承了贾岛、姚合反复推敲的苦吟精神内容大多为描绘清邃幽静的山林景色和枯寂淡泊的隐逸生活。另一个诗人群体是潘阆làng、魏野、林逋bū等隐逸之士其中林逋最为有名。这一群诗人的作风与九僧稍有不同他们一方面模仿贾岛的字斟句酌另一方面也学习白体诗平易流畅因此诗歌所表现的生活内容也比“九僧”诗稍为充实一些、西昆体西昆体:亦称昆体西昆派因杨亿编辑的《西昆酬唱集》而得名。此书是杨亿、刘筠yún、钱惟演等十七位馆阁文人在秘阁编书、制诰的余暇写作而成的应酬唱和的诗歌总集。其内容狭窄多为吟咏古代故事、反映男女爱情、表达内廷侍从优游闲适之情和咏物之作体裁上基本上都是近体诗。他们推崇李商隐主要学习其字句锤炼、典故应用追求形式技巧。因而是一个内容贫乏、追求形式美的诗歌流派。、江西诗派因北南宋之交的吕本中的《江西诗派宗派图》而得名。为北宋后期诗人黄庭坚开创的一个诗歌流派。江西诗派为中国诗歌史上第一个正式提出诗派名称有明确的理论主张并形成了一个诗风大体相近的作家群的诗歌流派。其理论主张为“脱胎换骨”、“点铁成金”、“无一字无来历”等因而专门在形式、upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandhtheITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice生活经历或抒发个人的情怀以及对历史题材的吟咏等。如《戏答元珍》:春风疑不到天涯二月山城未见花。残雪压枝犹有橘冻雷惊笋欲抽芽。夜闻归雁生乡思病入新年感物华。曾是洛阳花下客野芳虽晚不须嗟~此诗首联写山城荒僻冷落颔联承前细写山城荒凉之景写出残雪累累、寒雷殷殷中蕴孕的生机一片。后两联抒情。颈联写作者多病之身在时光变迁、万物更迭中产生的客子之悲尾联写自己早年作客洛阳稔熟洛阳牡丹今日山城野花虽晚但自己全不在意。欧阳修在诗中表达了不屈服之志道出了作者哲理性的人生思考。正是在这一点上欧阳修的这首诗体现了宋诗注重理趣的革新特征。、欧阳修诗歌的艺术。()议论化和散文化。欧诗受韩愈的影响较大主要体现在散文手法和议论入诗。欧阳修诗中的议论往往能与叙事、抒情融为一体他学习到了韩愈诗歌的流畅详尽又避免了韩愈枯躁艰涩的弊端。如《再和明妃曲》中说汉元帝“虽能杀画工于事竟何益”评价王昭君说“红颜胜人多薄命莫怨春风当自嗟”议论精警富有情韵。()流丽宛转的风格。欧诗也学李白主要得益于语言的清新流畅这和欧阳修诗歌特有的委婉平易的章法相结合便形成了流丽宛转的风格。总的来说欧诗的成就不如欧文但两者的风格倾向是一致的这种诗风显然是对西昆体诗风的矫正。苏轼的诗在北宋的文学变革中欧阳修是一个中枢式的人物那么苏轼则代表着这场文学变革的最高成就。他的文学创作中所表现出的洒脱无羁与无可奈何随缘自适与失意彷徨深刻地反映了知识分子在专制强化时代的内心苦闷。(一)苏诗的题材苏轼诗歌的题材主要集中于两个方面:社会与人生。、社会。苏轼终身从政重视文学的社会作用。社会内容的诗歌有两方面的表现:upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice()关心国计民生之作。他认为“论事以讽庶几有补于国”在这种创作思想的指导之下他曾写出一些反映民间疾苦、谴责官吏贪鄙、关心国家命运的作品。比如在《荔枝叹》中他控诉了唐玄宗、杨贵妃的罪恶并怀着“至今欲食林甫肉”的愤怒抨击了以人民血汗来“争新买宠”的当朝权贵。()担心国家安危之作。苏轼在军事上主张充实兵力巩固边防抵抗辽和西夏的侵扰并认为以金帛赂虏是最下之策。他的少数诗篇如《和子由苦寒见寄》、《祭常山回小猎》、《阳关曲》等表现诗人要求为国破敌的雄心。而在《获鬼章二十韵》里又主张以宽厚的态度对待被俘的西羌首领并戒边将的倚胜骄矜提出了“慎重关西将奇功勿再要”的忠告流露了他重视民族团结和关心国家命运的可贵思想。、人生。苏诗里对后人影响最大的是许多抒发个人情感和歌咏自然景物的诗篇。(二)、苏诗的艺术、善用比喻。他最善于运用新奇形象的比喻来描绘景物阐发哲理。尤其是长篇古诗大多博用比喻、联想无穷、语言流畅、气势奔放。如游金山寺:“微风万顷靴文细断霞半空鱼尾赤。”《荔枝叹》中“飞车跨山鹘横海风枝露叶如新采。”等。《和子由渑池怀旧》:“人生到处知何似,应似飞鸿踏雪泥”并接着比喻联想开来“泥上偶然留指爪鸿飞那复计东西。”、富于幽默。苏轼的诗歌带有很强的幽默色彩文学是东坡颐养性情娱乐心灵的一方土地。如苏东坡曾打趣过他的好友陈慥(zào)陈慥字季常自号龙丘居士就是方山子。他有惧内的特点。但又喜好宾客蓄养家妓。但他的妻子柳氏非常凶妒所以东坡曾戏为诗云:「龙丘居士亦可怜谈空说有夜不眠忽闻河东狮子吼柱杖落手心茫然。」这就是「河东狮吼」典故的由来。「河东狮吼」:喻妇人之凶悍妒忌者。、富有理趣。苏轼的诗有时能结合生活中所接触的情景表现他对事物的新颖见解。upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice《题西林壁》:横看成岭侧成峰远近高低各不同。不识庐山真面目只缘身在此山中。、以议论为诗以才学为诗。这在苏诗鉴赏评论文艺的作品中体现最为明显。如《惠崇春江晚景》:“竹外春蒌正”再如《王维吴道子画》、《孙莘老求墨妙亭诗》、《读孟郊诗》、《书王主簿所画折枝》等表现他以学问为诗、以议论为诗的特殊作风同时标志北宋时期社会文化所达到的新的高度。、苏诗各体皆工七言各体尤其擅长。苏轼的诗今存二千七百多首有着丰富多彩的风格或雄奇奔放或富于理趣或简淡自然。最善于运用新奇形象的比喻来描绘景物阐发哲理。尤其是长篇古诗大多博用比喻、联想无穷、语言流畅、气势奔放。他还善于以幽默旷远的笔调随时生发奇警新鲜的人生意趣令人耳目一新。这都表现出宋诗重理趣、好议论的特征。重要词人欧阳修词作为开一代风气的文坛领袖欧阳修的词也有所创新。()扩大了词的抒情功能沿着李后主所开辟的方向进一步用词来抒发感受。()改变了词的审美趣味使同朝着通俗化发展积极地学习民歌借鉴诗歌创作手法。()开始创作长调慢词创作了《千秋岁》、《摸鱼儿》等长调。()其词的风格是用典雅精致的语言、流贯的结构、含蓄的风格描述恋情中男女细腻的心理。《蝶恋花》:upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice庭院深深深几许,杨柳堆烟帘幕无重数。玉勒雕鞍游冶处楼高不见章台路。雨横风狂三月暮门掩黄昏无计留春住。泪眼问花花不语乱红飞过秋千去。欧阳修的词写得深婉幽曲有些词还带有一定的艳情意味而其诗文的创作却与词迥然相异判若两人这充分地体现出了欧阳修也是士大夫们的诗庄词媚观念。柳永词的新变柳永一生主要致力于词他是中国词史上第一个专业词人。在宋词史上柳永是个里程碑式的人物他的出现使词这一文学体式具有了新的生命力展现出了新的活力。柳永不仅从音乐体制上改变和发展了词的声腔体式而且从创作方向上改变了词的审美内涵和审美趣味即变“雅”为“俗”着意运用通俗化的语言表现世俗化的市民生活情调。、首先是表现了世俗女性大胆而泼辣的爱情意识。在其他文人词的同类题材作品中爱情缺失的深闺女性一般只是自怨自艾逆来顺受内心的愿望含而不露。而柳永词中的世俗女子则是大胆而主动地追求爱情无所顾忌地坦陈心中对平等自由的爱情的渴望。(对繁华都市生活和市井风情的描写这是柳永对宋词题材内容的新开拓。柳永一生浪迹于都市对北宋繁华富裕的都市生活和丰富多彩的市井风情均有着丰富的人生体验他曾经描写过当时汴京、洛阳、苏州、扬州、杭州等城市的繁荣景象和市民游乐之情景。(尤工于羁旅行役。柳永长期的浪迹江湖、晚年的宦海沉浮使他对飘泊天涯有着强烈而深刻的感受。他的感慨人生失意、抒写羁旅行役之思作品往往在山村水驿、川林upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice溪石、夕阳风雨的描绘中寄托自己凄凉心境。他的羁旅行役词或写临歧离情或写凭栏凝思将其“游宦成羁旅”、“谙尽宦游滋味”的深切感受曲折委婉地表达了出来。柳词的艺术创新柳永词在艺术上的创新首先是他大量地写作长调慢词。慢词是依据慢调填写的词。慢调是词曲的一种格调。因曲调舒缓故名。一(大量地创作长调慢词。晚唐五代直到宋初在词坊中占优势的体式仍是小令。到了柳永为了在词作中反映丰富的城市社会生活和复杂的思想情感他开始全力写作慢词从而促进了慢词词体的发展使慢词和小令得以平分词坛秋色为词的发展作出了巨大的贡献。二(长于铺叙白描。为了与其长调慢词的内容包孕的丰富性相适应柳永采用了铺叙手法。其词的显著艺术特征就是长于铺叙构思细密布局完整、层次分明。与铺叙相配合柳永词还大量使用白描手法写景状物不假借替代言情叙事不需烘托喧染而是直抒胸臆。三(善于吸收俚语俗语入词。柳永浪迹江湖大量地吸收当时通俗的语言入词促使词的通俗化而其词又不乏雅量高致之处故其词是雅俗并存通俗流畅又极富音乐性。柳永的词在于以新鲜、通俗的语言铺叙白描的手法大量地发展的长调慢词并运用这种新体歌唱了北宋的都市文明和市民生活抒发了自己羁旅行役的苦闷情怀。他扩大了词的容量丰富了词的表现力。苏轼词苏词认识上的突破(诗词并重苏轼继柳永之后对词体进行了全面的改革最终突破了词为“艳科”的传统格局提高了词的文学地位使词从音乐的附属品转变为一种独立的抒情诗upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice体从根本上改变了词史的发展方向。(词自是一家为了使词真正能和诗并驾齐驱苏轼还提出了词“自是一家”的主张。苏词内容上的突破(抒发性情怀抱表现人格个性苏东坡将传统的表现女性化的柔情和爱情的词扩展为表现男性化的豪情和性情之词使词像诗一样可以充分表现作者的性情怀抱和人格个性。(对人生的思考。苏轼在道佛两家思想的影响下曾在词中多次提到过“人生如梦”之类的话语。如“古今如梦何曾梦觉”笑劳一生梦”“万事到头都是梦”等等。人生如梦的浩叹源自于东坡的非凡的人生经历和冷静的思考。而在冷静的思考中东坡并没有沉沦而是在力求突破尘世纷扰力求自我超脱保持一种宠辱不惊、超然自适的人生态度。(广阔的社会生活的描写。苏词既注重向内心世界开拓也注重朝外在的世界发展。晚唐五代文人词所表现的生活场景极为狭小主要局限于封闭性的闺阁绣楼亭台院落之中。词至苏轼境界真正扩大苏轼在词中大力描绘了日常交际、悼亡、闲居读书及耕耘、游猎生活场景。(自然山水的描写:苏轼对自然山水的描写或以奔走流动的气势取胜或以清新秀美的画面见称。而有时他还把自然山水的观照和对历史、人生的反思结合起来在雄奇壮阔的自然美中融注进深沉的历史意和人生感慨。(对乡村的描写:对充满泥土气息的乡村的描写始于苏轼也就是说苏轼第一次将乡村题材引入到了词中。苏词艺术风格上的突破一(开创了豪放词风。苏轼在婉约之外大量地创作豪放词开创了豪放词风促进了词风的转变。苏轼豪放的艺术风格表现主要有三:upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice、将充沛激昂甚至悲壮苍凉的激情融入词中、在写人、咏景、状物时以慷慨豪迈的意象飞动峥嵘的气势阔大雄伟的场面取胜、是以奔放雄豪的音调著称。二(以诗为词。所谓以诗为词就是将诗的表现手法移植到词中。()题序。苏轼在词中大量采用标题和小序的形式使词的题序和词本文构成了一个不可分割的有机体。()用典。在词中像诗那样大量的使事用典也始于苏轼。词中用典既是一种替代性、浓缩性的叙事方式也是一种曲折深婉的抒情方式。三(突破了音律的束缚。苏轼“以诗为词”是要突破音乐对词体的制约和束缚把词由音乐的附属品变为一种独立的抒情诗体。苏轼写词只求阅读而不求演唱故注重抒情言志的自由虽然也遵守音律规范但不拘不于音律。四(苏词的语言创新。苏词语言风格为清新朴素他多方面吸收古人语言精华化用前人语言入词还运用口误、虚字入词丰富词的表现力。五(苏词风格的多样化。《水龙吟次韵章质夫杨花词》等均属于婉约之作。而苏词还有部分词作则体现出的是旷达词风如《定风波莫听穿林打叶声》即是。李清照(约)两宋之交活跃于文坛上的作家中李清照是异军突起在创作上取得了极其出色的成就。upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice题材内容李清照词的创作以南渡为界分为前后两期:(前期:前期的词大多数是写自己对爱情尤其是离别相思之情的感受属于词的传统题材。与代言体(男性作者以女性口吻来写)不同李清照写的是自己亲身感受与内心体验因此她的词就格外真挚细腻、委婉动人。她从女性的心理出发挑选女性怅惘悲愁时所容易联想到的事物以女性细腻的笔法加以组织因而别有风致《醉花阴》:薄雾浓云愁永昼瑞脑消金兽。佳节又重阳玉枕纱厨半夜凉初透。东篱把酒黄昏後有暗香盈袖。莫道不消魂帘卷西风人比(一作“似”)黄花瘦。这首词里用了叙事的方式表达出深深的思亲的愁苦。(后期李清照遭受了国破家亡的痛苦。其后期词多抒写自己寡居生活的孤苦和对国事的忧虑。一连串的变故李清照的性格变得忧郁。李清照的《永遇乐》(落日熔金)当是作者流寓临安时所作。这首词作于李清照寓居金华时。久经飘零独在异乡尽管春日双溪风光绮丽但在她眼中却只是一片暮春的悲哀。今非昔比物是人非触景生情越发地感到愁苦。李词的艺术:李清照的词在描写心理和情感的活动方面有其特别的长处。她不仅善于捕捉那些细小而生动的意象来表达难以言传的感受而且善于表现情感的微妙变化在起伏回环的语脉中层层剖露复杂的心境。如《武陵春》的下阕先说双溪春好拟泛舟接下来又说“只恐双溪舴艋舟载不动、许多愁”也是在一回一转中以委婉曲折的笔调写出了复杂的心情。在语言技巧上李清照更显示出很高的艺术造诣。其主要特点一是经过精心锤炼而以浅易自然的面貌出现。upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservice像《声声慢》的开头连用七对叠字不仅很讲究声音之美而且内涵丰富(寻觅是若有所失的举止神态冷清是对环境的感受凄戚是心理)又有连贯的意脉(由寻觅不得而感到冷清在冷清中涌起内心的凄戚)十四字可以说下得费尽苦心读起来却觉得相当自然并无生硬之感。二是雅语与俗语兼用使词中的语言既有典雅的文人趣味又有生活气息。在李清照的词学观念中词的语言既要符合乐府系统的习惯写得浅俗平易活泼动人又不能染上庸俗的市民气味。所以她常把典雅的语言用得自然把俚俗的语言用得雅致两者相融别有风致。像《一剪梅》“此情无计可消除才下眉头却上心头”是化用范仲淹《御街行》“都来此事眉间心上无计相回避”一句她用一下一上来说把原来静态的叙述改为动态的描绘语气变得生动了增添了不少韵味。王安石词王安石仅存词首但其间与范仲淹一样都颇具开创性。他的词具有这么几个方面的开创功绩。()抒写怀抱王安石已脱离晚唐五代以来词柔情软调的固定轨道其词主要是抒写性情怀抱表现个体的人生感受。()对历史和现实的反思王安石作有许多感怀历史、登临怀古的词作对词的题材有所开拓。()豪迈高远的词风王安石是一位大政治家他以天下为已任故而能在咏史、怀古的歌辞中表现出一种豪迈高远的词风。upgradeandexpansion,wholesystemconstructionofguidelinefollowedfollowingprinciples:Advanced:fullreferencebothathomeandabroadadvanced,andmatureoftechnology,andmethodandmeans,Projectdesign,technicalproductleader,matureproductsaspossibleonthemainequipmentselection,technicalleadandalignedwithnationalstandardsofgeneralpurpose,standardequipmentSystematization:strictlyfollowtheviewofsystemengineeringandconstruction,hasalwaysbeentopracticeengineeringintegrity,hierarchy,andadaptabilitytotheexternalenvironmentforconstructivepurposesMaximizethebusinessintegration,functionalintegrationandavoiddifferentproducts,differentstandardsandspecificationsofpiecingtogetherandcombinationofthesystemOpennessandstandardization:hardwaredeviceselectsthedomesticandforeignwellknownproducts,systemarchitectureandprotocolstandardsareinaccordancewiththeITUtinternationalindustrystandardsandISOstandardsofdesign,coresystemsanddevices,followinginternationalstandards,harmonizationofstandards,ensuresystemscalabilityandcontinuityofthesystemPracticality:ensurehighavailabilityofthesystemperformancewithhighreliabilityandflexibilitybothfirsttoensurestableandreliableoperationofthesystem,andusingredundancydesignofkeycomponentsofthekeypositionthentosimple,technologicallyadvanced,economicalandpracticalExtensibleandmaintainable:withintheexpectedlifecycleofsystemsorequipment,canbeupgradedandmodifiedtomeettheneedsoftheuseractionsandapplicationrequirementschangeAndensuresaftersalesservic
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