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首页 本文的创新之处.doc

本文的创新之处.doc

本文的创新之处.doc

上传者: 沈宇栋 2017-10-15 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《本文的创新之处doc》,可适用于综合领域,主题内容包含本文的创新之处本文的创新之处:、为银行业的监管和减少不良贷款提供了一个崭新思路为银监会的监管提供了一个参考意见。在本文的框架内我们证明了存在最优非对符等。

本文的创新之处本文的创新之处:、为银行业的监管和减少不良贷款提供了一个崭新思路为银监会的监管提供了一个参考意见。在本文的框架内我们证明了存在最优非对称税收的临界收入水平。同时考虑了银行的风险管理行为如何伴随税率的变化而改变。、模型化利率市场化过程分析了利率市场化对银行行为的影响考察了了相应的降低改革成本的外部配套措施。指出了存在一个“温和波动区间”使得银行业的调整成本不大。税收非对称性、银行监管与利率市场化北京大学光华管理学院徐爽摘要传统的关于利率风险的讨论普遍集中在控制利率风险的技术性手段比如:var管理凸性和久期的免疫管理等等。这些讨论只是在考察如何降低银行的利率风险却没有考虑到一些现实的约束条件以及没有从银行价值最大化的角度解释银行为什么要控制风险。我们知道银行之所以存在原因之一是:银行提供了各种到期日不同的贷款服务虽然到期日越长银行面临着越大的利率风险但是却可能带来更高的回报率这样对于银行来讲那些只为了减少风险而做出的决策不一定是最优的适当的风险承担可能更有利。这种对风险的追求可能导致很多不良贷款。本文基于一个模型在其中引入银行的收入税的非对称性收入税将影响银行决策者的决策过程。在这样的一个模型中我们考虑银行应该如何确定最优的贷款期限然后我们采用一个动态博弈的框架来讨论最优的银行监管政策最后我们分析利率市场化对银行管理的影响。我们发现关于对付银行的贷款风险问题非对称性的收入税发挥作用它使得银行开始关心并减少风险为银行业的监管和减少不良贷款提供了一个思路这为银监会的监管提供了一个参考意见。在本文的框架内我们证明了存在最优非对称税收的临界收入水平并分析了利率市场化对银行行为的影响以及相应的降低改革成本的外部配套措施。引言长期以来我国一直对利率实行严格管制利率水平的高低及结构变动均由中央银行统一确定影响银行收入与成本的主要因素是资产负债规模及结构因此商业银行在日常的经营活动中很少考虑利率变动对其资产、负债的市场价值及资本净值的影响。随着我国金融体制改革的日益深化及加入WTO后的要求利率市场化已成为大势所趋。另外当前国有商业银行不良贷款数额巨大,不仅成为国有商业银行经营中最大的风险隐患,更是全社会沉重的“不良包袱”,成为阻碍我国经济可持续发展的重大“顽症”之一。在这种利率市场化进程加快以及大规模不良贷款存在的宏观环境下利率风险管理成了银行迫切关心的问题同时对银行监lineofthebusthroughthelistofmadeamoredetailedprovisions,applymoreoperationalSevenisincreasedthearticle,inviolationoftherelevantprovisionsofthe,toparticipateinpublicfundstopayfordinner,highconsumptionofentertainment,fitnessactivitiesandpublicfundstobuygift,sendgiftstomaketheprovisionsofthedispositionOntheviolationofthecentralprovisionsofthespiritoftheeight,inadditionto><newregulationsinto"violationofhonestyandselfdiscipline"misconductoutside,isdifferentwiththeoriginal<Regulations>,revised<rule>clearlydefinednotonlytodispositionofthedirectlyresponsiblepersons,butalsodisposeofcollarGuideresponsibilities()increasedtradingrights,useofauthorityorpositioninfluenceasrelativesandclosetoprofitviolationofthetermsofthe<NewRegulations>absorption<cleanpoliticsseveralguidelines>therelevantprovisionsspirit,increasethe"negativelist,includingtradingrights,thefunctionsandpowersordutiesofinfluenceasrelativesandstaffaroundprofitIncreaseArticle"mutualuseofofficeorauthorityringforeachotherandtheirspouses,childrenandtheirspousesandotherrelatives,aroundpersonnelandotherspecificrelationshipbetweenthepeopletoseekbenefitsengageintradingrights,givenawarningorseriouswarningSanctionsifthecircumstancesarerelativelyserious,givingremovedfromorplacedonprobationwithinthepartypostifthecircumstancesareserious,shallbeexpelledfromthepartyIncreaseArticle"connivance,acquiescencetothespouse,childrenandspouseetcrelativesandstaffaroundtheeffectofPartymembersandcadrespersonalauthorityorpositionforpersonalgain,ifthecircumstancesarerelativelyminor,givenawarningoraseriouswarningifthecircumstancesarerelativelyserious,givingremovedfromorplacedonprobationwithinthepartypostifthecircumstancesareserious,thegivenExpelledfromthepartyPartymembersandcadresofthespouses,childrenandtheirspousesdoestheactualworkandgetsalaryoralthoughtheactualworkbuttoreceivesignificantlybeyondthesameranksalarystandard,Partymembersandcadresinformedfailstocorrect,inaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheprecedingparagraph"()aboutthegifts,giftsmisconductfromhandlingpracticesinrecentyears,engagedinofficialcadresreceivedgifts,giftsproblemsmoreprominentThishasseriouslyaffectedtheimageofPartymembersandcadres,damagedtherelationsbetweenthepartyandthemasses,andisahotbedofcorruption,isreallynecessaryforthiskindofbehaviortobedisciplined<rule>noonacceptinggifts,gifts,Cardconsumptionbehaviortoengageinsimple"onesizefitsall",butthedifferencebetweenthedifferentseparatelyOneisinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofArticle,acceptingmayaffecttheimpartialenforcementoftheofficialgifts,gifts,consumercardstodependingontheseriousnessofthecaseshallbegivendisciplinarysanctionsThatistosay,formayaffectthefairexecutionofbusinessgifts,gifts,consumercardsarenotallowedtoacceptisinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofArticle,acceptingwassignificantlyhigherthannormalceremonyisstillexchangesofgifts,gifts,consumercardtodisciplinaryactionThisisnewregulationsthatdailylifeispurelyreciprocity,acceptingthesamething,boys,fellowfriendsgifts,gifts,shoppingcards,althoughandfairexecutionofbusinesshasnothingtodo,alsowanttoasthecaseshallbedealtwith,thesituationisobviouslybeyondnormalreciprocity"Thesocalled"reciprocity",oneisemphasizesthereciprocalinprotocolInotherwordsisyoutomehow,Itoyouhow,notonlydoesnotgoThesecondistosignificantlyexceededthenormallocaleconomylevel,customsandhabits,economiccapacityofindividualgifts,giftvalueSpecificsanctionstoaccordingtotheprocessingofavarietyoffactorstoconsider,asappropriateThethirdistherootaccordingtotheprovisionsofArticle,"toEngagedinpublicservicepersonnelandtheirspousesandchildren,children'sspousesandotherrelativesandotherspecificrelationshippresentedMingXianchaonormalreciprocityofgifts,gifts,consumercard,ifthecircumstancesarerelativelyserious,givenawarninguntilprobation"Inaccordancewiththeaboveprovisions,giftgivingsignificantlybeyondthenormalreciprocity,giverconstitutethediscipline()onillegaltradingofstocksorofotherregulationsofsecuritiesinvestment<>ArticleisengagedinpunishmentregulationofcampandactivityinviolationoftherelevantprovisionsonAmongthem,will"buyingandsellingstocksorinothersecuritiesinvestment"columnasoneofdisciplinarycasesOutFirstneedtobeclear,><regulationsdidnotchangetheprovisionsoftheOrdinanceTheordinanceoftheprovisionsofthesecondparagraphofArticleprovisions"who,inviolationoftheprovisionsofthesaleofstocks"isoneoftheviolation,andatthebeginningofthefirstparagraphofthisarticle"violationofagainsttherelevantprovisionsofthe"textualrepresentationoftherepeatrevisionIn,justfromthelegislativetechniqueremovedthe"personal"inviolationoftheprovisions,contentandnottochangetheoriginalprovisionsNeedtoclearis,"buyorsellastockorofothersecuritiesinvestment"referstoviolationoftherelevantprovisionsreferstoinApril,thePartyCentralCommittee,theStateCouncilpromulgatedtheOntheworkofthepartyandgovernmentorgansstaff'spersonalinvestmentinsecuritiesifdryprovisions>AccordingtotheprovisionsofArticle,useofworktime,officefacilities,thesaleofstocksandsecuritiesinvestmentfundbelongstoillegalbehaviorThefourthquestion,abouttheviolationofthemassesofthedisciplinaryactions<newregulations>wouldviolatepublicdisciplinebehaviorofasinglesetofaclassofrestored"threerulesofdisciplineandeightnote"inthedisciplineofthemassesofexcellenttraditional<NewRegulations>Chapter"toviolatethemassesofdisciplinaryaction",mainlythedestructionoftheparty'sclosetieswiththemassesofmisconductmadeprovisionsondisciplinaryenrichandperfectthesuperstandard,beyondthescopeofXiangQun<Alltoraisefundandlabor,inforinvolvingthepublicaffairsdeliberately,chinakayao,insocialsecurity,policysupport,disasterrelieffundsandmaterialsandothermattersassignedanykindandaffectionatefriends,obviouslyunfairactsagainsttheinterestsofthemassesofthedisciplinarytermsincreasethetermsnotinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofthepublicpartyprovided,government,factoryandvillage(neighborhood)providedetcviolationofthepeople'srighttoknowthebehaviorofthedisciplineThefifthissue,ontheviolationofworkdisciplineviolationofworkdisciplineadded"negativelist,includingPartyorganizationscarryoutstrictlyMainresponsibilityforpoordisciplineterms()thenewpartyorganizationcomprehensivestrictlythemainresponsibilityofthepartydoesnotfulfilltheorperformpoordisciplinaryterms<NewRegulations>hasaleadpeopletopayattentiontothenewterms,thatis,inchapterten"ontheviolationofworkdisciplinebehaviorpunishment"increaseintheonehundredandfourteenth"partyfailtoperformcomprehensivestrictlythemainresponsibilityofthepartyortoperformcomprehensivestrictlythemainresponsibilityforadministeringtheineffective,resultinginseriousdamageorseriousadverseeffects,tothepersondirectlyresponsibleandtheresponsibilityofleadershipandgiveawarningorseriouswarningThesituationisserious,givingremovedfromtheirpartypostsoronprobationPunishment"HerethechangesForthefirsttime,themainresponsibilitywrite<rule>()newshallreportdoesnotreportorfalsereportingdisciplineshallincreasethebar"inthehigherlevelunitstochecktoinspecttheworkorreporttotheparentunit,workreportofshallreportthemattersdonotreportordonotreport,causeseriousdamageorseriousadverseeffectsof,tothepersondirectlyresponsibleandtheresponsibilityofleadership,togivewarningoraseriouswarningifthecircumstancesareserious,givingremovedfromtheirpartypostsorplacedonprobation"Forexample,duringthetourvisitstotheregion,theunitMemberstheobligationtotheinspectionteamstoreflectthetruesituation,toconcealnotreportedorintentionallytotheinspectionteamstoprovidefalseinformation,causingseriousdamageorseriousadverseeffectsof,thepersondirectlyresponsibleandtheresponsibilityofleadershipshouldbeinaccordancewiththeprovisionsof<rule>Articletogivetheappropriatepunishment()thenewnotgrantedinaccordancewiththeprovisionsofpunishment,notaccordingtotheprovisionsoftheimplementationofdisciplinarymeasuresviolationoftheprovisionsofArticle"Partyorganizationshaveoneofthefollowingcircumstances,thedirectleadershipresponsibilityProbation:membersweresentencedpunished,inaccordancewiththeprovisionsgivedisciplinaryactionorinviolationofstatelawRulesofbehaviorshouldbegivendisciplinarypunishmentanddisposeofdisciplinarypunishmentbydecisionorcomplaintreviewthedecisionmade,notinaccordancewiththeprovisionsoftheimplementationdecisionsonpunishmentoftheparty,position,rank,andthetreatmentofthemattersPartymemberssubjecttodisciplinaryaction,notinaccordancewiththecadremanagementauthorityandorganizationalrelationshipsofbydisposeofPartymemberstocarryouteducationandsupervisionofdailymanagement"Whatneedstobepointedoutis,"cliff"demotedwithcars,housing,secretaryproblem,implementationisnotadisciplineandpartypostsandrankstreatmentbytheorganizationdepartmentisresponsiblefortheimplementation,withcars,housingbythelogisticsdepartmentisresponsiblefortheimplementationof,JiCommissionresponsibleoversightresponsibilitiesThesixquestions,abouttheactsviolatingthedisciplineoflife"inviolationofdisciplineoflifebehaviorpunishment",mainlyto"fourwinds"problemsandaseriousviolationofsocialmorality,familyvirtueactsofmisconductmadeprovisionsondisciplinary,anincreaseofextravagantlife,contrarytothesocialpublicorderandgoodcustomsdisciplinarytermsWorthmentioningis,><RegulationsinArticleabout"adultery""mistress(Cardiff)formulationinthenew<rule>isremoved,toexpandthescopeofArticleprovisions"andothershairimpropersexualrelations,letfacedisciplinaryactionWidermorestrictFour,andearnestlydoagoodjobinthe<code>and<rule>implementsystemoflifeliesinexecution<code>and<Regulations>isPartyorganizationsatalllevelsofastrongconstraintandallPartymembersfollowLearningandimplementingthe<code>and<rule>ispartycommittees(party),commissionfordiscipline,disciplineinspectiongroup),themajorityofPartymembersandcadresofthecommonresponsibility,mustpartycaughttogether,thepartyoneexecution()Partycommittees(party)andplayandimplementcomprehensivestrictlythemainresponsibility,paysspecialattentiontothetwopartyregulationslearningcrosspenetrationOneistoAdheretothepartyconstitutionisfundamentaltofollow,andresolutelysafeguardtheauthorityofthePartyChapterThesecondistoadheretotheproblemoriented,tostrictlypoliticaldisciplineandpoliticalrulemomentsinthefirstplaceThethirdistoadheretothedisciplineandrulesquiteinfrontmustnotallowthebottomlinetobreakthedisciplineThefourthistoseriouslyorganizethestudyofpropagandaandeducation,inthecitypartymemberstocreateadisciplined,abouttherulesofthestrongatmosphere(II)CommissionforDisciplineInspectionatalllevels(DisciplineInspectionGroup)toanimportantbasisfortherevisedtwopartyregulationsas,adheretoeasilyblame,strengthensupervisionandenforcementAndearlymethodincombiningJi,increaseaccountabilityeffortsOneistotworegulationswithinthepartyimportantbasis,adheretothepartyconstitutionduties,withstrictdisciplinetomaintaintheconstitutionauthorityThesecondistoadheretohighstandardsandkeepthebottomline,adheretoJiYaninlawanddiscipline,thedisciplineandrulesquiteinfront,graspinggraspingsmall,easilyblame,comprehensiveuseofsupervisionanddisciplineof"fourkindsofform"inthedisciplineembodiesthestrictrequirementsandcareforthediscipline,tightenup,YanAccordingtodisciplineinaccordancewithregulationstocarryoutdisciplinaryreviewIncreasetheviolationspunishment,cluescaninitiateaninvestigationonthetrialofcasesAccordingtothedisciplineontheprovisionsoftheproportionofprocessingandcontrolmanagermaintainsdisciplineTofocusoninvestigatingnonconvergence,don'taccepthandseriousdisciplinaryviolationsatthesametime,paymoreattentiontothegeneralreviewofdisciplinebehavior,andgraduallyincreasethelighterpunishmentFouristoilluminatetwopartyregulations,combinedwiththelocaldistrictoftheDepartmentofpartyconductLianzhengtorelevantlawsandregulationssystemclean,timelyresearchproposestoestablish,change,wastereleaseopinion,avoidconflict,andthefastensystemofcage,andgraduallyformednotrot,notrot,notwanttorotsystemandworkingmechanism()theleadershipofthepartymembersandcadresshouldplayanexemplaryroleTherateofhigherconsciousnessofthefrontoftheOrdinancetoleadpracticeselfdisciplinenorms,leadingtomaintaindisciplineofseriousnessandauthorityOneistheaboverate,demonstrationandguidance,taketheleadinlearningandmasteringthe<code>and<>therequirementsandregulations,dothedeepunderstanding,learningtouseThesecondistoplayanexemplaryroleinabidingbydisciplinerate,taketheleadinpracticingselfdisciplinenorms,firmlyestablishbeforethedisciplineareequal,thesystemhasnoprivilege,disciplineisnoexception,andconsciouslydostandards,requiremorestrictmeasuresmorepracticalThirdistoconsciouslyacceptsupervision,conscientiouslyparticipateinthedemocraticlifeanddebriefinghonestyresponsibility,suchasRealtothepartyorganizationtoreportpersonalmatters,andtoacceptthesupervisionoftheworkandlifeofthenormal,habitsunderthesupervisionoftheexerciseofpower,tocarryouttheworkThefourthistosetanexampleforthestrictenforcementofdisciplineLeadingcadresshouldtaketheleadinthemaintenanceofdisciplineofseriousnessandauthority,todaretoseriously,daretostruggle,daretooffendpeople,formisconductnotlaissezfaire,butdonotindulge,nottoleratetoensurethepartyconstitutionofpartycompassespartyputinplace()themajorityofPartymembersandcadrestosethighstandardsandholdthebottomline,consciouslyabidebythe<code>and<rule>Oneistocontrolthe<standard>and<cases>,tightCloseconnectionwiththeirownthoughts,practicalworkandlife,effortstosolvetheproblems,toenhancethestudyandimplementoftheeffectivenessandpertinenceThesecondistoestablishahighstandardandholdthebottomline,consciouslyintheselfdisciplinepursuitofhighstandards,strictlyinthepartyawayfromtheredlinediscipline,discipline,abouttherulesandknowfear,distrust,theformationofthehonorsystem,complywiththesystem,safeguardsystemofgoodhabitsRegulationsanddisciplineregulationsof<<NewRevisionoftheCommunistPartyofChinacleanfingeredselfdisciplinecriterion>and<ChineseCommunistPartyDisciplinaryRegulations>isthePartyCentralCommitteeinthenewsituationtopromotethecomprehensivestrictlyrootofthelift,theregulationsofthepartyconstructionofkeepingpacewiththetimesWeshouldstudyandimplementtheStandards>and<>astheprimarypoliticaltask,adheretothepartyconstitutionduties,adheretothedisciplineof,JiYaninlaw,thefullimplementationofsupervisionanddisciplineaccountabilityresponsibilitiesforcoordinationandpromotion"fouroverall"strategiclayoutinXXDistrictvividpracticetoprovideastrongguaranteeSiJianWu,andeffectivelyenhancetheimplementationoftheimplementationofthe<code><>TheconsciousnessofGeneralSecretaryXipointedoutthatthepartyisinchargeoftheparty,tomanagethepartystrictly,itcancuregoodpartyCriterion>and<rule>keeppacewiththetimesisourpartytoformanewpotentialstrictlyrules,todeepenunderstandingoftherulinglaw,isacomprehensivestrictly,andstrengthenthesupervisionwithinthepartyimportantgrasperCriterion>closelylinkedtothethemeofselfdiscipline,selfdisciplineintensitymodulated,focusingonmorality,forthemajorityofPartymembersandcadressettosee,feelthehighstandard,showtheCommunistsnoblemoralsentimentDistrictOrdinance<<rule>theconstitutionofdisciplineintegrationintoapoliticaldiscipline,organizationanddiscipline,honestyanddiscipline,disciplineofthemasses,workdiscipline,discipline,emphasizediscipline,focusingonestablishedrules,todrawthepartyorganizationsandPartymembersdonottouchthebottomlinePartycommittees(party)toeffectivelystrengthenthestudyandpublicizetheimplementationofthe<code>and<rule>theorganizationandleadershipofcriterion>and<>afullrange,multiangle,deeppublicity,theformationofstudyandpublicizeandimplementtheboom,inordertoconsolidatethedevelopmentofgoodpoliticalenvironmenttocreateapositiveenvironmentandatmosphereThemajorityofPartymembersandcadrestostrictrequirements,the<rule>and<Ordinancecases>asaguidetoactionandbehaviorcriterion,adheretothemoralstandardsanddisciplineofthebottomline,tomaintainthedisciplineofworshipandawe,learning,compliance,andmaintainpartydisciplineandrulesofthemodelThedisciplineinspectionandsupervisionorgansandcadrestothe<code>and<>asthedeepeningofthe"three",andstrengthensupervisionanddisciplineofaccountabilityisimportanttofollowcorrectlygrasptheuseofsupervisionanddisciplineof"fourtypes",promotethecomprehensivestrictlyinnewrootsStrictdiscipline,adheretothedisciplineandrulesquiteinfrontoftheenterpriseintheimplementationofexpensivetoimplementtoexecuteThedisciplineinspectionandsupervisionorganstoimplementthe<code>and<Effortstoinvestigatecases>asanopportunity,adheretothepartyshouldmanagethepartystrictly,seriousperformanceoftheirdutiestopromotetworegulationsimplementationChangedisciplineconceptFromthesimple"investigationofillegal"toacomprehensive"stareatviolatediscipline"fromthebusinesscasetoprosecutethebigcasesandtimelysolvethesignsoftilttoFromtheorientationtothenormalsupervisionfromthetube"minority"toresistthe"most"GuidePartymembersandcadrestoseriouslyimplementthe<code>and<rule>,consciouslyabidebythepolitical,organizational,honestpeople,work,lifesixdisciplineUrgetheleadershipcadressenttoplayanexemplaryrole,taketheleadinstrictlyenforcedRelaxationandrestStrongwindisSuJi,closelylinkedtothe"fourwinds"pronetomultiple,themassesreflectthestrongimportantnodesand,gluedtothefourwinds"newform,newtrends,seriouslyinvestigateanddealwithviolationsofthecentraleightprovisionsofthespirit,toincreasethebulletinexposureintensity,theformationofChajiu"fourwinds"loudly,continuetoreleaseanddisciplinemustbestrictsignalAtthesametime,extendedsupervisiontentacles,throughthedevelopmentoftheruralandfisherypartyconductLianzhengconstructioninspection,issuedinatimelymanner,Chajiuoccurredingrassrootssideofcorruptionandunhealthy,andearnestlysafeguardtheinterestsofthemassesandsocialstabilityThecreativityanddisciplineGraspandmakegooduseofthesupervisionanddisciplineof"fourtypes",toensurethePromotingcluestolotsofdisciplineandthelawofthevacuumtube,stricttogetherNotonlytothe"less"and"veryfew"thoroughinvestigationseverelypunished,butalsothe"most"tomaintainzerotolerancetrendthroughlayersofconductivepressure,letthedisciplineabouttherulesforeachpartymembersandcadresconsciouslyfollowAtpresent,itisnecessarytoimplementthe"list"management,strictlyfollowthecluestothedisposaloffivestandards,maketheclassificationofdisposal,dynamiccleanupZadokPartycommitteesatalllevelstoimplementthemainresponsibility,comprehensiveuseofdisciplinaryactionandtissueprocessingandothermeanstoeffectivelycurbthecommonplace,usedtoseedonotblamethe"smallproblem",notbecauseof"practice"and"exception"ProminentDisciplinecharacteristics,theproblemsofviolationofdisciplineandrulesintothefocusofsupervisionanddisciplineanddisciplinaryreviewAtthesametime,increasecasedoublechecktheintensity,theseriousproblemsofdisciplineviolationsor"fourwinds"banbutnotabsolutely,notonlytobehelddirectlyresponsible,butalsoheldleadershipresponsibilitynotonlytopursuestudiesthemainresponsibilityofthePartycommittee,andtopursueCommissionforDisciplineInspectionandsupervisionresponsibilitiesandpromoteaccountabilitytobecomethenewnormTheimplementationofsupervisoryresponsibilityMaintain<code>and<rule>theseriousnessandauthorityofthedisciplineandrulesandtrulybecometheparty'srulerDisciplineassupervisionwithinthepartythespecializedagency,wemuststrengthentheresponsibilitytoact,adheretotheImpartialdisciplineaccountability,earnestlywillbestrictdiscipline,disciplinemustbepunished,andseverelypunishtheactsinviolationofrulesandregulation
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