购买

¥ 20.0

加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 Eugene A. Nida

Eugene A. Nida.ppt

Eugene A. Nida

精品课件库
2019-06-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Eugene A. Nidappt》,可适用于综合领域

UnitOneLinguisticApproachestoTranslationChapterOneEugeneANidaDynamicEquivalenceFormalEquivalenceEugeneANidaEugeneANidahasbeenacclaimedasapioneerofthelinguisticapproachtotranslationstudiesHisworkbecamethebasisuponwhichanewfieldofinvestigationinthethcentury―the“science”oftranslation―wasfoundedHismainresearchinterestliesin:BibletranslationdynamicequivalencePublicationsbyEugeneANidaNida,EugeneA"Basicelementsofdiscoursestructures"Nida,EugeneAAsynopsisofEnglishsyntaxNida,EugeneA"Selectivelistening"Shedd,LMandEANidaApedagogicalgrammaroftheQuechuatongueNida,EugeneA"Asystemforthedescriptionofsemanticelements"Nida,EugeneAOutlineofdescriptivesyntaxNida,EugeneALearningaforeignlanguage:ahandbookformissionariesNida,EugeneAandMoisésCRomero"ThepronominalseriesinMaya(Yucatec)"Nida,EugeneA"Approachingreadingthroughthenativelanguage"Nida,EugeneAMorphology:thedescriptiveanalysisofwordsNida,EugeneA"Theanalysisofgrammaticalconstituents"Nida,EugeneA"Theidentificationofmorphemes"Nida,EugeneA"Fieldtechniquesindescriptivelinguistics"Nida,EugeneABibletranslating:Ananalysisofprinciplesandprocedures,withspecialreferencetoaboriginallanguagesNida,EugeneASyntax:adescriptiveanalysisNida,EugeneA"Linguisticsandethnologyintranslationproblems"Nida,EugeneALinguisticinterludesNida,EugeneA"TheTarahumaralanguage"Researcheson“Equivalence”Firth:thesocalledtranslationequivalentsbetweentwolanguagesareneverreallyequivalentJakobson:equivalenceindifferenceisthecardinalproblemoflanguageandthepivotalconcernoflinguisticsCatford:distinguishestwotypesofequivalence,formalcorrespondenceandtextualequivalenceNida:dynamicequivalenceandformalequivalenceWernerKoller:classifiesequivalenceintodenotativeequivalence,connotativeequivalence,textnormativeequivalenceandpragmaticequivalenceCommentsonDynamicEquivalenceSnellHornby:equivalenceisunsuitableasabasicconceptintranslationtheoryPeterFawcett:translationequivalencecontinuestobeusedintheeverydaylanguageoftranslationbecausetheyrepresenttranslationrealityFawcett:therearemanythingsintranslationwhichcanonlybedescribedandexplainedbylinguisticsDynamicFormalEquivalenceDynamicequivalenceandformalequivalencearetwoapproachestotranslationDynamicequivalence(alsoknownasfunctionalequivalence)attemptstoconveythethoughtexpressedinasourcetext(ifnecessary,attheexpenseofliteralness,originalwordorder,thesourcetext'sgrammaticalvoice,etc),whileformalequivalenceattemptstorenderthetextwordforword(ifnecessary,attheexpenseofnaturalexpressioninthetargetlanguage)Thetwoapproachesrepresentemphasis,respectively,onreadabilityandonliteralfidelitytothesourcetextThereis,however,inrealitynosharpboundarybetweendynamicandformalequivalenceBroadly,thetworepresentaspectrumoftranslationapproachesFunctionalequivalenceisfurtherdividedintocategoriesontwolevels:TheminimallevelandthemaximallevelForNida,goodtranslationsalwaysliesomewherebetweenthetwolevelsThereadersofatranslatedtextshouldbeabletocomprehendittothepointthattheycanconceiveofhowtheoriginalreadersofthetextmusthaveunderstoodandappreciateditMinimallevelMaximallevelThereadersofatranslatedtextshouldbeabletounderstandandappreciateitinessentiallythesamemannerastheoriginalreadersdidIfthereaderinthereceptorlanguageunderstandsandappreciatesthetranslatedtextinessentiallythesamemannerandtothesamedegreeasthereaderinthesourcelanguagedid,suchatranslationcanbeevaluatedasadynamicequivalenttranslationWhenjudgingaproduct,oneshouldtesthowconsumersreacttotheproduct,forregardlessofhowtheoreticallygoodaproductmightbeorhowseeminglywellitisdisplayed,ifpeopledonotrespondfavorablytoit,thenitisnotgoingtobeacceptedNidaandTaberNidawasusingthistheorytojudgeaproductTheterms"dynamicequivalence"and"formalequivalence"areassociatedwiththetranslatorEugeneNida,andwereoriginallycoinedtodescribewaysoftranslatingtheBible,butthetwoapproachesareapplicabletoanytranslationDifferentvoiceGentzler’sview,Nida’stheoryisonlyusefulfortranslationsofpropaganda,advertisementorcertainreligiousmaterialsbutitcouldnotprovidethebasisforageneraltranslationtheoryIDifferenttypesoftranslationDifferencesintranslationscangenerallybeaccountedforbythreebasicintranslating:thenatureofthemessagethepurposeorpurposesoftheauthorand,byproxy,ofthetranslatorthetypeofaudienceFourpurposesTheparticularpurposesofthetranslatorarealsoimportantfactorsindictatingthetypeoftranslationTheprimarypurposeofthetranslatormaybeinformationastobothcontentandformAtranslator’spurposesmayinvolvemuchmorethaninformationAstillgreateradaptationislikelytooccurinatranslationwhichhasanimperativepurposeFourdecodingthecapacityofchildren,whosevocabularyandculturalexperiencearelimitedthedoublestandardcapacityofnewliterates,whocandecodeoralandwrittenmessageswithfacilitybutwhoseabilitytodecodewrittenmessagesislimitedthecapacityoftheaverageliterateadult,whocanhandlebothoralandwrittenmessageswithrelativeeasetheunusuallyhighcapacityofspecialists(doctors,theologians,philosophers,scientists,etc)IITwobasicorientationsintranslatingTherearefundamentallytwodifferenttypesofequivalence:onewhichmaybecalledformalandanotherwhichisprimarilydynamicFormalequivalencefocusesattentiononthemessageitself,inbothformandcontentThedynamicrelationshipbetweenreceptorandmessageshouldbesubstantiallythesameasthatwhichexistedbetweentheoriginalreceptorsandthemessageIIILinguisticandCulturalDistanceAtranslationmayinvolvenotonlydifferencesoflinguisticaffiliationbutalsohighlydiverseculturesAsamatteroffactiflanguagesaretoocloselyrelatedoneislikelytobebadlydeceivedbythesuperficialsimilarities,withtheresultthattranslationsdoneunderthesecircumstancesareoftenquitepoorTheculturalsimilaritiesusuallyprovideaseriesofparallelismsofcontentthatmakethetranslationproportionatelymuchlessdifficultthanwhenbothlanguageandculturesaredisparateInfact,differencesbetweenculturescausemanymoreseverecomplicationsforthetranslatorthandodifferencesinlanguagestructureIVDefinitionsofTranslatingDefinitionsofpropertranslationarealmostasnumerousandvariedasthepersonswhohaveundertakentodiscussthesubjectThisdiversityisinasensequiteunderstandablefortherearevastdifferencesinthematerialstranslated,inthepurposesofthepublication,andintheneedsoftheprospectiveaudienceMoreover,livelanguagesareconstantlychangingandstylisticpreferencesundergocontinualmodificationThusatranslationacceptableinoneperiodisoftenquiteunacceptableatalatertimeThoughsomedissentingvoicescanbefoundonvirtuallyallproposalsastowhattranslatingshouldconsistof,thereareseveralsignificantfeaturesoftranslatingonwhichmanyofthemostcompetentjudgesareincreasinglyinagreement▲makingsense▲conveyingthespiritandmanneroftheoriginal▲havinganaturalandeasyformofexpression▲producingasimilarresponseDefinitionsanddescriptionsoftranslatingarenotservedbydeterministicrulesrather,theydependonprobabilisticrulesOnecannot,therefore,statethataparticulartranslationisgoodorbadwithouttakingintoconsiderationamyriadoffactors,whichinturnmustbeweightedinanumberofdifferentways,withappreciablydifferentanswersOnecannotstatethataparticulartranslationisgoodorbadwithouttakingintoconsiderationamyriadoffactors,whichinturnmustbeweightedinanumberofdifferentways,withappreciablydifferentanswersHencetherewillalwaysbeavarietyofvalidanswerstothequestion,“isthisagoodtranslation?”VPrinciplesGoverningaTranslationOrientedTowardformalEquivalenceDefinitionofFEtranslationAFEtranslationisbasicallysourceorientedthatis,itisdesignedtorevealasmuchaspossibleoftheformandcontentoftheoriginalmessageFeaturesofanFEtranslationAnFEtranslationattemptstoreproduceseveralformalelements,including:▲grammaticalunits▲consistencyinwordusage▲meaningsintermsofthesourcecontext)reproductionofgrammaticalunitsThereproductionofgrammaticalunitsmayconsistin:▲translatingnounsbynouns,verbsbyverbs,etc▲keepingallphrasesandsentencesintact(ienotsplittingupandreadjustingtheunits)▲preservingallformalindicators,egmarksofpunctuation,paragraphbreaks,andpoeticindentation)reproductionofconsistencyinwordusageInattemptingtoreproduceconsistencyinwordusage,anFEtranslationusuallyaimsatsocalledconcordanceofterminologythatis,italwaysrendersaparticularterminthesourcelanguagedocumentbythecorrespondingterminthereceptordocumentTheresultmayberelativelymeaninglessstringsofwords,butonthecontrary,acertaindegreeofconcordancemaybehighlydesirableincertaintypesofFEtranslationasinthatofPlato’sdialoguesinEnglish)meaningsintermsofthesourcecontextInordertoreproducemeaningsintermsofthesourcecontext,anFEtranslationnormallyattemptsnottomakeadjustmentsinidioms,butrathertoreproducesuchexpressionsmoreorlessliterally,sothatthereadermaybeabletoperceivesomethingofthewayinwhichtheoriginaldocumentemployedlocalculturalelementstoconveymeaningsLiabilitiesofFEtranslationsInmanyinstances,however,onesimplycannotreproducecertainformalelementsofthesourcemessage(solution:marginalnotes)AconsistentFEtranslationwillobviouslycontainmuchthatisnotreadilyintelligibletotheaveragereader(solution:marginalnotes)SometypesofstrictlyFEtranslationsareoflimitedvalueothersareofgreatvalueButonthewhole,FEtranslationsareoftenperfectlyvalidtranslationsofcertaintypesofmessagesforcertaintypesofaudiencesVIPrinciplesGoverningTranslationsOrientedTowardDynamicEquivalenceDefinitionofDEtranslationInaDEtranslation,thefocusofattentionisdirectednotsomuchtowardthesourcemessage,astowardthereceptorresponseADEtranslationmaybedescribedasoneconcerningwhichabilingualandbiculturalpersoncanjustifiablysay,“Thatisjustthewaywewouldsayit”ItisnotmerelyanothermessagewhichismoreorlesssimilartothatofthesourceItisatranslation,andassuchmustclearlyreflectthemeaningandintentofthesourceInonesentence,aDEtranslationisdefined(ordescribed)as“theclosestnaturalequivalenttothesourcelanguagemessageThreeessentialtermsinthedefinitionaboutDEtranslation▲Equivalentpointstowardthesourcelanguagemessage▲Naturalpointstowardthereceptorlanguage▲ClosestbindsthetwoorientationstogetheronthebasisofthehighestdegreeofapproximationImplicationsoftheword“natural”SinceaDEtranslationisdirectedprimarilytowardequivalenceofresponseratherthanequivalenceofform,itisimportanttodefinemorefullytheimplicationsoftheword“natural”asappliedtosuchtranslations▲Anaturalrenderingmustfitthereceptorlanguageandcultureasawhole▲Anaturalrenderingmustfitthecontextoftheparticularmessage▲Anaturalrenderingmustfitthereceptorlanguageaudience)ConformanceofatranslationtothereceptorlanguageandcultureasawholeAccordingtoNida,“theconformanceofatranslationtothereceptorlanguageandcultureasawholeisanessentialingredientinanystylisticallyacceptablerenderingActuallythisqualityoflinguisticappropriatenessisusuallynoticeableonlywhenitisabsentInanaturaltranslation,therefore,thosefeatureswhichwouldmaritareconspicuousbytheirabsence”AccordingtoJHFrere,“thelanguageoftranslationought,wethink,…beapure,impalpableandinvisibleelement,themediumofthoughtandfeelingandnothingmoreitoughtnevertoattractattentiontoitself…Allimportationsfromforeignlanguages…are…tobeavoided”SuchanadjustmenttothereceptorlanguageandculturemustresultinatranslationthatbearsnoobvioustraceofforeignoriginAAnaturaltranslationinvolvestwoprincipalareaofadaptation,namely,grammarandlexiconaIngeneralthegrammaticalmodificationscanbemadethemorereadily,sincemanygrammaticalchangesaredictatedbytheobligatorystructuresofthereceptorlanguageThatistosay,oneisobligedtomakesuchadjustedasshiftingwordorder,usingverbsinplaceofnouns,andsubstitutingnounsforpronounsbThelexicalstructureofthesourcemessageislessreadilyadjustedtothesemanticrequirementsofthereceptorlanguage,forinsteadofobviousrulestobefollowed,therearenumerousalternativepossibilitiesTherearegenerallythreelexicallevelstobeconsidered:▲termsforwhichtherearereadilyavailableparallelsegriver,tree,stone,knife,etc▲termswhichidentifyculturallydifferentobjects,butwithsomewhatsimilarfunctionsegbookinEnglishvsbookinNewTestmenttimessuggestedsolution:becauseofpossibleconfusions,eitheruseanothertermwhichreflectstheformofthereferent,thoughnottheequivalentfunction,orwhichidentifiestheequivalentfunctionattheexpenseofformalidentity▲termswhichidentifyculturalspecialtiesegsynagogue,homer,ephah,cherubim,andjubilee,etcsuggestedsolution:notranslationthatattemptstobridgeawideculturalgapcanhopetoeliminateallracesoftheforeignsetting,fortheseexpressionsaredeeplyimbeddedintheverythoughtstructureofthemessageTheculturaldiscrepanciesofferlessdifficultythanmightbeimagined,especiallyiffootnotesareusedtopointoutthebasisfortheculturaldiversityforallpeoplerecognizethatotherpeoplesbehavedifferentlyfromthemselvesBNaturalnessofexpressioninthereceptorlanguageisessentiallyaproblemofcosuitabilitybutonseverallevels,ofwhichthemostimportantareasfollows:▲wordclasses▲grammaticalcategories▲semanticclasses▲discoursetypes▲culturalcontexts)AnaturalrenderingmustfitthecontextoftheparticularmessageTheproblemsarenotrestrictedtogrossgrammaticalandlexicalfeatures,butmayalsoinvolvesuchdetailedmattersasintonationandsentencerhythmAtrulynaturaltranslationisonewhichavoidsseriousanomalies(vulgarities,slang,colloquialism)whichstrikethereaderasbeingoutofplaceinthecontext▲Onomatopoeicexpressions▲Anachronisms▲Appropriateness)AnaturalrenderingmustfitthereceptorlanguageaudienceThisappropriatenessmustbejudgedonthebasisoftheleveloftheexperienceandthecapacityfordecodingifoneistoaimatanyrealdynamicequivalenceOntheotherhand,oneisnotalwayssurehowtheoriginalaudiencerespondedorweresupposedtorespondFormaladjustmentsnecessaryinDEtranslationAtranslationwhichaimsatdynamicequivalenceinevitablyinvolvesanumberofformaladjustments,foronecannothavehisformalcakeandeatitdynamicallytooSomethingmustgive!)specialliteraryformsThetranslationofpoetryobviouslyinvolvesmoreadjustmentsinliteraryformthandoesprose,forrhythmicformsdifferfarmoreradicallyinform,andhenceinestheticappealegGreekdactylichexameterintoiambicpentameterrhymedverseintofreeversepoetryinBibleintodignifiedprose)semanticallyexocentricexpressionsWhensemanticallyexocentricphrasesinthesourcelanguagearemeaninglessormisleadingiftranslatedliterallyintothereceptorlanguage,oneisobligedtomakesomeadjustmentsinaDEtranslationegexocentricexpressionintoendocentricexpressionasimileintoametaphor)intraorganismicmeaningsIntraorganismicmeaningssuffermostintheprocessoftranslating,fortheydependsolargelyuponthetotalculturalcontextofthelanguageinwhichtheyareused,andhencearenotreadilytransferabletootherlanguageculturecontextsegatheword“tapeinos”intheNewTestament“humble”or“lowly”inEnglishb“humiliated”,“degraded”,“mean”and“base”inGreek“anointed”,“Messiah”,and“Christ”inEnglish“Christos”inGreek

VIP尊享8折文档

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/40

Eugene A. Nida

¥20.0

会员价¥16.0

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利