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首页 09高考英语二轮复习语法系统讲解课件3

09高考英语二轮复习语法系统讲解课件3.ppt

09高考英语二轮复习语法系统讲解课件3

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2019-06-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《09高考英语二轮复习语法系统讲解课件3ppt》,可适用于综合领域

高考二轮复习语法系统讲解二、名词一、分类(Classification)A:专有名词(Propernouns)B:普通名词(Commonnouns)Countablenouns(可数名词)Uncountablenouns(不可数名词)IndividualNouns(个体名词)CollectiveNouns(集体名词)AbstractNouns(抽象名词)MaterialNouns(物质名词)二、数(Number)A:Singularnumber(单数)B:Pluralnumber(复数)()一般的词包括元音字母加y结尾的词直接在词尾加-s()以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词在词尾加-es()以辅音字母加y结尾的词变y为i再加-es()以f或fe结尾的词应变f或fe为v再加es规则名词单复数变化:不规则名词单复数变化:()单复数同形:sheep,deer,fish,means,species,species,works(工厂),aircraft,spacecraft,Chinese,Japanese,Swiss()改变字母:manmen,womanwomen,policemanpolicemen,saleswomansaleswomen,footfeet,toothteeth,goosegeese,MouseMice,abacusabaci(或abacuses)phenomenonphenomena另:penny(pence或pennies)()增加字母:childchildren,oxoxen()以o结尾的词:加s:photo,radio,piano,zoo,studio,bamboo,tobacco,kangroo加es:tomato,potato,hero,Negro,dingo另:zero(zeros或zeroes)()以f或fe结尾的词:直接加s:roof,proof,belief,chief,gulf,变f为v再加es:life,wife,knife,half,leaf,wolf,thief另外:handkerchief(handkerchiefs或handkerchieves)beef(beeves菜牛、beefs怨言牢骚)名词单复数的特殊情况:()集体名词只用作复数:police,cattle,people,poultry,theyouth()集体名词用作不可数名词:clothing,jewellery,furniture,luggage(baggage),machinery,wealth()集体名词视具体情况而定单复数:family,class,population,staff,crew,couple,public,group,team,party,club,company,government,committee,audience,enemy()只有复数形式的名词:clothes,trousers,jeans,twins,glasses,compasses,scissors,handcuffs,pincers,goods,thanks,wishes,wages,tears,troops,forces,resources()以s结尾但不表示复数:mathematics,physics,politics,statistics,news,woods(森林),works(工厂)()有没有s结尾意义不同:glass–glasses,cloth–clothes,work–works,sand–sands,snow–snows,water–waters,wood–woods,good–goods,time–times(时代),paper–papers(论文),green–greens(青菜),custom–customs(海关),spirit–spirits(酒精,情绪),light–lights(灯),experience–experiences(经历),arm–arms(武器),iron–irons(镣铐,熨斗),compass(指南针)–compasses(圆规),()姓氏后加s并带冠词表一家人或夫妇俩:theGreenstheChengs()合成名词的复数形式:①将合成名词中的主体名词变为复数:looker(s)on,passer(s)by,mother(s)inlaw②将最后一部分变为复数:grownup(s),gobetween(s)(中间人)goodfornothing(s)(无用之人)③含boy,girl,lady等的合成的名词:它们始终为单数其后的名词则用复数形式。如:boystudents,girlfriends,ladydrivers④含man或woman的合成名词:它们随其后名词单复数的变化而变化。如:amandoctor,twomendoctors()名词只能用复数形式的短语:doexercises(做操)takenotes(做笔记)taketurns(轮流)makerepairs(搞修理)changetrains(改换火车)makefriendswith(交朋友)shakehandswith(握手)asfollows(如下)inrags(衣衫褴褛)indozens(成打的)()名词单复数形式意义相同的短语:makefacesaface(做鬼脸)Havetalksatalkwithsb(与某人交谈)Playjokesajokeon(拿…开玩笑)Makecontributionsacontributionto(为…做贡献)()名词单复数意义不同的短语:Haveawordwithsb(与…某人说句话)Havewordswithsb(与…某人吵架)Makecloth(织布)Makeclothes(制衣)三、名词的格(Case)A:通格(Commoncase):主格(Subjectcase)宾格(Objectcase)B:所有格(Possessivecase)~’s属格:原则上只用于表示有生命的人或物的名词。如:theteacher’sbookthehorse’stail然而时间、距离、太阳、地球、月亮、江河、海洋、船只、国家、城市、团体机构等名词也可以用~’s属格。如:today’snewspaperthecity’stransportation①一般的名词包括不以s结尾的复数名词在词后加’s。如:thechildren’sbook②以s结尾的复数名词的所有格形式只在词后加~’。如:theteachers’office③以s结尾的专有名词的所有格既可加~’s也可加~’。如:Engels’(s)letter④两者或两者以上共有的所有格形式只在后者用所有格形式如:TomandMike’sroom若表示分别拥有时则要在每个名词后用所有格形式如:Tom’sandMike’sroomsof~属格:多用于无生命现象的名词也可用于有生命现象的名词当一个名词有较长的定语时就只能用of~短语来表示所有关系。如:thecoverofthebookatoyofLiPing’syoungerbrother.双重属格:既有~’s的属格又有of~的属格。通常~’s属格表示所有关系of属格表示部分与整体的关系。如:afriendofmyfather’sabookofTom’s表示“某人自己的”的属格:用ofone’sown表示不可用of+反身代词。例如:Thisisthehouseofmyown四、名词的性(Gender)Masculine(阳性):actor,waiter,master,prince,lad,heroFeminine(阴性):actress,waitress,mastress,princess,lass,heroineNeuter(中性):teacher,worker,monkey,sheep,tree,crop五、名词在句子中的作用(Function)精选练习题TheChinesepeopleAisagreatpeopleBareagreatpeopleCaregreatpeopleDaregreatpeoplesSomethingwaswrongwithcar,butluckilytheyknewhowtofixitAJim’sandTom’sBJimandTom’sCJim’sandTomDJimandTomHeisafriendofAKate’sfather’sBKate’sfatherCFather’sofKateDKatefather’sThenewsofVictoriesgotroundquicklyAisBareChavebeenDTherichnotalwayshappyAareBisChaveDhasYourtrousersdirty,youmustwashedAis,itBare,itCis,themDare,themHe,includinghisparents,thisnovelAlikeBlikesCarelikeDislikeTherearethreeinourclassAZhou’sBZhous’CZhousDZhous’sThebridgeisAtenmetres’BtenmetreCtenmetersDtenmetresMothermadeanewskirtwithtwometersofAclothesB,clothCdressDclothsIfthesetrousersaretoobig,buyasmallAoneBcopyCpairDsetHedroppedtheandbrokeitAcupofcoffeeBcoffee’scupCcupcoffeeDcoffeecupLet’shaveabreakAtenminute’sBtenminutesCtenminutes’DtenminutesshouldbestrictwithATeachers,astudentBTheteachers,studentsCTeachers,studentsDTeachers,astudentTheyplayedintheforanhour,andwhentheyreturned,theyfoundtheirgoodsstolenAsand,wereBsand,wasCsands,wereDsands,was总之名词是人、动物、事物、地方、状态、品质或动作的名称。它可以表示具体的东西也可表示抽象的东西。下面斜体字都是名词:Johnismyfriend.Mychildrenlovetheirteachers.(人)Thedogisrunningafterarat.(动物)Thisschoolisgood.BroadwayisastreetinNewYorkCity.(地方)Mypencilislost.Thewindowofthishouseispretty.(东西)Povertyisabigproblem.Everyoneseekshappiness.(状态)Hisbraveryiswellknown。Ienjoythebeautyofthismoun-tain。(品质)HisarrivalwasonSunday.Hisjudgmentisnotcorrect.(动作)

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09高考英语二轮复习语法系统讲解课件3

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