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首页 Law and Literature

Law and Literature.pdf

Law and Literature

剑胆琴心
2017-05-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Law and Literaturepdf》,可适用于领域

LawandLiteratureLawandLiteratureTHIRDEDITIONRichardAPosnerHarvardUniversityPressCambridge,MassachusettsLondon,EnglandCopyrightcopy,,bythePresidentandFellowsofHarvardCollegeAllrightsreservedPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaExcerptsfromldquoEaster,rdquoldquoTheSecondComing,rdquoldquoTheWildSwansatCoole,rdquoandldquoLedaandtheSwanrdquobyWilliamButlerYeatsarereprintedwiththepermissionofSimonSchusterfromTheCollectedWorksofWBYeats,Volume:ThePoems,RevisedandeditedbyRichardJFinneran,copyright,andbyMacmillanPublishingCompany,renewedandbyBerthaGeorgieYeatsandbyGeorgieYeatsandbypermissionofAPWattLtdonbehalfofMichaelYeatsExcerptsfromldquoTheWasteLandrdquoandldquoLittleGiddingrdquobyTSEliotarereprintedfromTSEliot,CollectedPoemsndash,copyrightbyHarcourtBraceCompany,copyrightcopy,byTSEliot,andFourQuartets,copyrightbyTSEliotandrenewedbyEsmeValerieEliot,bypermissionofFaberandFaberLtdandHarcourtBraceCompanyTheexcerptfromTheSweeniadbyVictorPurcellisreprintedbypermissionofRoutledgeLtdLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataPosner,RichardALawandliteratureRichardAPosnermdashrdedpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(alkpaper)LawinliteratureLawandliteratureLegalstoriesmdashHistoryandcriticismITitlePNLPmdashdcForCharleneContentsPrefacexiCriticalIntroductionPartILiteraryTextsasLegalTextsReflectionsofLawinLiteratureTheoreticalConsiderationsTheAmericanLegalNovelTheLawinPopularCultureCamusandStendhalFarcicalTrialsLawrsquosBeginnings:RevengeasLegalPrototypeandLiteraryGenreTheLogicofRevengeRevengeLiteratureTheIliadandHamletAntinomiesofLegalTheoryJurisprudentialDramafromSophoclestoShelleyHasLawGenderTheLimitsofLiteraryJurisprudenceKafkaDickensWallaceStevensLiteraryIndictmentsofLegalInjusticeLawandRessentimentRomanticValuesinLiteratureandLawBillyBudd,TheBrothersKaramazov,andLawrsquosLimitsviiilContentsTwoLegalPerspectivesonKafkaOnReadingKafkaPoliticallyInDefenseofClassicalLiberalismTheGrandInquisitorandOtherSocialTheoristsPenalTheoryinParadiseLostThePunishmentofSatanandHisFollowersThePunishmentofManThePunishmentoftheAnimalsPartIILegalTextsasLiteraryTextsInterpretingContracts,Statutes,andConstitutionsInterpretationTheorizedWhatCanLawLearnfromLiteraryCriticismChainNovelsandBlackInkInterpretationasTranslationJudicialOpinionsasLiteratureMeaning,Style,andRhetoricAestheticIntegrityandtheldquoPurerdquoversustheldquoImpurerdquoStyleTwoCulturesPartIIIHowElseMightLiteratureHelpLawLiteratureasaSourceofBackgroundKnowledgeforLawArchofTriumphFromHuxleytoTheMatrixImprovingTrialandAppellateAdvocacySherlockHolmestotheRescueLegalNarratologyFictionalDepictionsofLawyersTheFuneralOrationsinJuliusCaesarButCanLiteratureHumanizeLawAestheticversusMoralisticLiteraryCriticismThenWhyReadLiteratureContentslixPartIVTheRegulationofLiteraturebyLawProtectingNonwritersPornographicFictionDefamationbyFictionProtecting(Other)WritersWhatIsanldquoAuthorrdquoCopyright,Plagiarism,andCreativityParodyConclusionLawandLiterature:AManifestoIndexxiPrefaceLawandliteraturearerelatedtoeachotherininterestingwaysInnumerableliteraryworks,manyofgreatdistinction,takelawforatheme,andfeatureatrial(Eumenides,TheMerchantofVenice,BillyBudd,TheTrial,TheStranger),abuseofjudicialauthority(MeasureforMeasure),conflictingjurisprudentialtheories(Antigone,KingLear),thepracticeoflaw(BleakHouse),crimeandpunishment(ParadiseLost,OliverTwist),therelationoflawtovengeance(Oresteia,Hamlet),evenspecificfieldsoflaw,suchascontract(MarlowersquosDoctorFaustus),inheritance(FelixHolt,TheWomaninWhite),andintellectualproperty(WilliamGaddisrsquosAFrolicofHisOwn)Theseexamplescouldbemultipliedmanyfold(AnyonewhodoubtsthisclaimshouldglanceatIrvingBrowne,LawandLawyersinLiterature)Moreover,lawisarhetoricaldiscipline,andthejudicialopinionsofsomeofthegreatestjudges,suchasOliverWendellHolmes,haveliterarymeritandrepayliteraryanalysisOpinionsandbriefsarelikestoriestheyhaveanarrativestructureAliterarysensibilitymayenablejudgestowritebetteropinionsandlawyerstopresenttheircasesmoreeffectivelyAndtheliterarycriticrsquoscloseattentiontotexthasparallelsinthejudgersquosandthelawyerrsquoscloseattentiontotheirauthoritativetextsmdashcontracts,statutes,andconstitutionsThelawevenregulatesliterature,undersuchrubricsascopyrightinfringement,xiilPrefacedefamation,andobscenitySomelawprofessors,moreover,havetriedtomakelegalscholarshipitselfliterarybyincorporatingnarrative,memoir,anecdote,andfictionintotheirscholarship,andothershaveclaimedthatthestudyofliteratureingeneralmdashliteraturenotlimitedtoworksthattakelawforasubjectmdashcanhumanizethepracticeoflawandtheoutlookofjudgesAllthisandmoreisthesubjectofthisbookThefirsteditionwaspublishedinandthesecond,anextensiverevisionofthefirst,inTheyearssincethesecondeditionwaspublishedhaveseenconsiderable,indeedaccelerating,activityinwhathasbeendubbedtheldquolawandliteraturerdquofieldoflegalscholarshipTheAALSDirectoryofLawTeachersndashlistslawteachersinlawandliterature,arespectablenumberconsideringthatinthehottestofinterdisciplinarylegalfields,lawandeconomics,thenumberlistedisonly,thoughthedifferenceconcealstheextenttowhicheconomicanalysis,butnotliteraryanalysis,hasbeenincorporatedintolawcoursestaughtbyprofessorswhodonotidentifythemselvesintheDirectoryasteachersoflawandeconomicsApositivesignforlawandliteratureisthehighpercentagemdashpercentmdashoflawandliteratureprofessorswho,accordingtotheDirectory,havebeenactiveinthefieldforfiveorfeweryears,suggestingthatthefieldisattractingyoungacademics(Thecorrespondingpercentageforlawandeconomicsispercent)Thegrowthinthenumberoflawandliteratureteacherscannotreadilybegauged,however,becauselawandliteraturewasnotlistedasafielduntilthendashDirectory,andbecausethefieldisnotlimitedtolawschoolsandlawprofessorsButabibliographyofbooksandarticlesinlawandliteraturepublishedbetweenandrevealssignificantgrowth:anaverageofonlyworksperyearfromthrough,risingtoforthroughandforthrough(TheseaveragesarecomputedfromLawandHumanitiesInstitute,ldquoLawandLiteratureScholarship:AChronologicalBibliography,rdquohttp:docslawgwuedufacwebdsoloveLHIBibliographyhtmvisitedFeb,AnotherusefulonlinesourceforstudiesoflawandliteratureisldquoLawHumanitiesBlog:ABlogaboutLaw,Literature,andtheHumanities,rdquohttp:lawlitblogspotcomvisitedJune,)Alsosincethesecondedition,thelawandliteraturemovementPrefacelxiiihasspreadtoEurope:theScandinaviancountriesin,Francein,Englandin,ItalyandPortugalinSeeNordicNetworkforLawandLiterature,http:littrettuibnoindexphpID=Nyheterlang=EngLrsquoInstitutdesHautesEtudessurlaJustice,wwwihejorgindexphprub=ihejconseiladminRaisonsPolitiques,Oct,wwwcairninforevueraisonspolitiqueshtmMaisonFrancaisedrsquoOxford,wwwmfoacukresearchmodernitieslawliteratureShakespeareandtheLawConference,UniversityofWarwick,wwwshakespearelaworgAIDEL,http:equitylawliteratureeuaidelitalianassociationoflawandliteratureColloquiumonLiteratureandLaw,UniversityofLisbon,wwwcomparatistaseduptenactividadesdestaquecoloquiosobreliteraturaedireitohtmlSeealsoEuropeanNetworkforLawandLiterature,wwweurnllorgLawandLiteratureAssociationofAustralia,wwwlawunimelbeduaueventsmediatinglawllaahtml(AllofthesewebsiteswerevisitedonAugust,)Anumberofnotableworks,mostbynonlawyers,havebeenpublishedsincethesecondeditionofthisbookTheyincludeLiteratureandLegalProblemSolving:LawandLiteratureasEthicalDiscourse(PaulJHealded)Heald,AGuidetoLawandLiteratureforTeachers,Students,andResearchers()HarrietMurav,RussiarsquosLegalFictions()TrialandError:AnOxfordAnthologyofLegalStories(FredRShapiroandJaneGarryeds)PhilipCKissam,ldquoDisturbingImages:LiteratureinaJurisprudenceCourse,rdquoLegalStudiesForum()IanWard,ShakespeareandtheLegalImagination()LawandLiterature(MichaelFreemanandAndrewDELewiseds)PeterBrooks,TroublingConfessions:SpeakingGuiltinLawandLiterature()ChristineAliceCorcos,AnInternationalGuidetoLawandLiteratureStudies()(vols)SpecialDoubleIssue:JoyceandtheLaw,JamesJoyceQuarterly()DanielJKornstein,ldquoHeKnewMore:BalzacandtheLaw,rdquoPaceLawReview()EmmanuelYewah,ldquoTheDepictionofLawinAfricanLiteraryTexts,rdquoMiamiInternationalandComparativeLawReview()JonathanHGrossman,TheArtofAlibi:EnglishLawCourtsandtheNovel()LisaRodensky,TheCrimeinMind:CriminalResponsibilityandtheVictorianNovel()LuciaASilecchia,ldquoThingsAreSeldomWhatTheySeem:JudgesandxivlPrefaceLawyersintheTalesofMarkTwain,rdquoConnecticutLawReview()AGHarmon,EternalBonds,TrueContracts:LawandNatureinShakespearersquosProblemPlays()LiteratureandLaw(MichaelJMeyered)LeonardJLong,ldquoLawrsquosCharacterinEliotrsquosFelixHolt,theRadical,rdquoLawandLiterature()RobertoGonzaacutelezEchevarriacutea,LoveandtheLawinCervantes()LawandPopularCulture(MichaelFreemaned)WendyNicoleDuong,ldquoLawIsLawandArtIsArtandShalltheTwoEverMeetLawandLiterature:TheComparativeCreativeProcesses,rdquoSouthernCaliforniaInterdisciplinaryJournal()BradinCormack,APowertoDoJustice:Jurisdiction,EnglishLiterature,andtheRiseofCommonLaw,ndash()TheLawinShakespeare(ConstanceJordanandKarenCunninghameds)LornaHutson,TheInventionofSuspicion:LawandMimesisinShakespeareandRenaissanceDrama()andCarlaSpivack,ldquoTheWomanWillBeOut:ANewLookattheLawinHamlet,rdquoYaleJournalofLawandtheHumanities()ChristineCorcosrsquostwovolumebibliographyoflawandliteraturemdash,pagesinlengthmdashisalarminglycomprehensiveIhavecontinuedwritingaboutandteachinglawandliterature,andIhavedrawnonthiswritinginthisedition,specificallyldquoOrwellversusHuxley:Economics,Technology,Privacy,andSatire,rdquoPhilosophyandLiterature()ldquoLetThemTalk,rdquoNewRepublic,Aug,,pldquoWhatHasModernLiteraryTheorytoOfferLawrdquoStanfordLawReview()ldquoTheLawoftheBeholder,rdquoNewRepublic,Oct,,pTheEconomicStructureofIntellectualPropertyLaw,chs,()(coauthoredwithWilliamMLandes)ldquoTheEndIsNear,rdquoNewRepublic,Sept,,pPublicIntellectuals:AStudyofDecline,ch(paperbacked)(ldquoTheLiteraryCriticasPublicIntellectualrdquo)ldquoCSI:BakerStreet,rdquoNewRepublic,Oct,,pldquoClassicRevisited:PenalTheoryinParadiseLost,rdquoMichiganLawReview()(coauthoredwithJillisaBrittan)TheLittleBookofPlagiarism()andareviewofKieranDolin,ACriticalIntroductiontoLawandLiterature()(forthcominginModernPhilology)IhavealsotaughtseminarsonlawandliteraturewiththephilosopherMarthaNussbaum(myintellectualsparringpartnermdashseechapter),andlatelyalsowiththeShakespeareanscholarRichardStrierPrefacelxvTherehasbeenacontinuingflowofscholarshipaddressedtothespecificworksofliteraturethatIdiscuss(anotableexampleisADNuttall,ShakespearetheThinker)mdashscholarshipthatwhilenotfocusedonlegalthemesisgermanetothemOfnotealsoarenewtranslationsofKafkathataregreatlysuperiortowhatwasavailablewhenIdidthepreviouseditionsTheabundanceofnewworkhasenabledmetomakethisthirdeditionanevenmoreextensiverevisionofthesecondthanthesecondwasofthefirstAmongchangesfromthesecondedition,theintroductionhasbeenexpandedinanefforttodelineatethefieldofstudymorepreciselyToPartI,Ihaveaddedasectiononthedepictionoflawinpopularculture,includingfilmachapteronParadiseLostdiscussionsoftrialscenesintheGospelaccordingtoStJohn,AliceinWonderland,andSaintJoananddiscussionsofadditionalnovels,includingJoyceCarolOatesrsquoslawnovel,DowithMeWhatYouWillPartIIcontainsconsiderablenewmaterialaswell,andPartIIIhasbeencompletelyreworkedInthesecondeditionitwaslimitedlargelytoadiscussionofeffortsatusingliteraturethatdoesnothavealegaltheme,alongwithnarrativetechniquesborrowedfromliterature,toimprovelawrsquosmoraltoneThediscussionofthoseissuesremainsandindeedhasbeenexpanded,butitisnowprecededbychapters(chaptersand)onhowliterarymodelsandtechniquesmightbeusedtoimprovetheperformanceofjudgesandlawyersIhavedividedthelastchapterinthebookintotwochapters(constitutinganewPartIV)inrecognitionofincreasedfermentincopyrightlawandincreasedconcernwithliteraryplagiarismAndIhaveaddedaconclusionthatsketchesafutureforthelawandliteraturefieldTherearedeletionsaswell,forexampleofthediscussionsinthesecondeditionofliteratureandtheHolocaustandofjudicialbiography,topicsremotefromthecentralconcernsofthelawandliteraturefieldAndtherehasbeenaconsiderabletighteningandupdatingoftheentiretext,muchstylisticrevision,andarevaluingofsomeoftheworksdiscussedThebookinitspresentformisnotquiteatreatise,butitistheclosestthatthelawandliteraturemovementhascometoproducingoneTheonlycomprehensivebooklengthtreatmentofthefield,itrangesacrossallthetopicsthathaveengagedtheinterestoflawandliteraturescholars,chartsfuturedirectionsforscholarship,andoffersafreshperspectiveandxvilPrefaceavarietyofanalysesofspecificworksinbothliteratureandlaw,ranginginliteraturefromHomertoJohnGrishamandinlawfromthejudicialopinionsofOliverWendellHolmestothelawsregulatingliteraryparodiesanddefamationbyfictionMyhopeisthatthisneweditionwillhelpapromisingfieldofinterdisciplinaryteaching(bothundergraduateandlawschool)andscholarshiptocontinuemovingforward,butalsothatitsreadershipwillnotbelimitedtolegalandliteraryscholarsandstudentsLawsopermeatesAmericanlifethatallofusshouldtakeaninterestinitLawandliteratureprovidesawayintolawthatshouldbecongenialtononlawyers,aswellasawayintoliteraturethatshouldbecongenialtolawyersModernliterarytheorytendstoobscurity,torepellentproseandapretenseofprofundityeverythinginthisbookispresentedverysimply,inanefforttomakemorejudges,lawyers,andlawstudentscomfortablewiththeliterarycultureandwhatitcancontributetothepracticeandimprovementoflawIthankAliciaBeyer,LauraBishop,BrianDarsow,JustinEllis,NevinGewertz,AllisonHandy,TaraKadioglu,MarkSayson,ShineTu,andMichaelYanovskyforresearchassistanceCharlesFriedandmyeditorattheHarvardUniversityPress,MichaelAronson,forsuggestionsandRebeccaHaw,CharlenePosner,andRichardSternforcommentsonthemanuscriptChapterisbasedonanarticlecoauthoredwithJillisaBrittan,andshehasalsogivenmehelpfulsuggestionswithregardtothisneweditionLawandLiteratureCriticalIntroductionLawandliteraturerdquobringstogethertwooverlappingbodiesofthought,thelegalandtheliterary,thathavemuchincommon,includinganemphasisonrhetoricManyworksofliteraturedealwithlaw(anditsorigins,whichincluderevenge)Lawitselfisformulatedandannouncedinwritings,suchasstatutes,theConstitution,andjudicialopinions,thatsometimesexhibitadensity,complexity,andopenendednesscomparabletowhatonefindsinliteraryworksItisafieldwithawideremit,asIshallillustratewithEMForster,whowasnotalawyer,andwithhisnovelHowardsEnd(),whichisnotaldquolegalrdquonoveleventotheextenttowhichAPassagetoIndia,whichhasanotabletrialscene(seechapter),isHowardsEndpivotsonthecontrastinstyleandvaluesbetweenapairofGermanbornbutAnglicizedsistersnamedSchlegelmdashcultured,sensitive,highmindedepigonesofGermanRomanticismmdashandtheWilcoxes,aboringlyEnglishfamilywhosemenpersonifyphilistine,commercialvaluesMargaretSchlegelhadmarriedHenryWilcoxafterthedeathofhisfirstwifeandnowherunmarriedsister,Helen,hasbecomepregnantbyapatheticyoungworkingmannamedLeonardBastBastrsquoswife,asithappens,hadbeforehermarriagebeenHenryWilcoxrsquosmistresswhenhehadbeenmarriedtohisfirstwifebutlivinginadifferentpartoftheworldllawandliteraturebecauseofhisworkHenryhadfailedtomakeanyprovisionforthemistressafterleavingherHenryregardsthepregnancyofhisunmarriedsisterinlawasaterriblescandaltowhichonlytworesponsesarepossibleIftheseducerisunmarried,hemustbeforcedtomarryherifheismarried,heldquomustpayheavilyforhismisconduct,andbethrashedwithinaninchofhisliferdquo(p)HenryquestionshiswifeinanefforttodiscovertheseducerrsquosidentityMargaretdoesnrsquotwanttorevealit,soshechangesthesubjectSheaskswhetherHelenmaystayattheirhouse(HowardsEnd),asHelenwantsverymuchtodoonthislastnightbeforeshegoesofftoMunichtohavethebabyinseclusionHenryisappalled,butrespondsmildlyenoughbyquestioningHelenrsquosreasonsforwantingtostayatHowardsEndHegetsnowheremdashMargaretinsiststhatallthatmattersisthatHelenwantstostaySohechangestack:ldquoIfshewantstosleeponenight,shemaywanttosleeptwoWeshallnevergetheroutofthehouse,perhapsrdquo(p)AlawyerrsquosearsshouldprickupThisisafamiliarlawyerrsquosgambitmdashtheldquoslipperysloperdquoIfyouacceptclaima,youmustconsiderwhetherthatcommitsyoutoacceptingb,cnbecausethereisnoprincipleddistinctionbetweentheclaimsandthereforenologicalstoppingpointandsoyoumustconsidertheconsequencesoftheentiresetofclaimsTosupposethatthisprincipleobliteratesthedistinctionbetweenavisitofonenightandavisitofindefinitelength(whichinanyeventHelendoesnotintendbecausesheisabouttogoabroadtohaveherbaby)isabsurdandwemaybegintowonderwhetherHenryWilcoxisnrsquotaninflexible,ruleobsessed,inshortlegalisticreasonerandwhetherhisldquoslipperysloperdquoargumentisnrsquot,inpointofobtuserigidity,onaparwithhisinsistencethattheonlypossibleresponsetoHelenrsquospregnancyiseitherashotgunmarriageoracriminalassaultontheseducerHislegalisticmindsetshowsupinanothercontextaswellThefirstMrsWilcox,whohadbeenthelegalownerofHowardsEnd,hadwantedtoleavethehousetoMargaretbuthadexpressedherintentioninanotethatfailedtocomplywiththeformalitiesrequiredforawillHenry,standingonhislegalrights,hadtornupthenote,perpetratinganinjusticeinthenameoflegaljustice(Thetensionbetweenrealjusticeandlegaljusticeisarecurrentthemeintheliterarytreatmentoflaw)PagereferencesaretotheVintageBooksedition()CriticalIntroductionlTheimpressionofHenryrsquosobtusenessisreinforcedwhenhefailstocatchthemeaningofMargaretrsquosremark:ldquoWillyouforgivehermdashasyouhopetobeforgiven,andasyouactuallyhavebeenforgivenrdquo(p)ThereferenceistoHenryrsquosrelationshipwiththewomanwhoisnowLeonardBastrsquoswifeButtheremarkhasafurthersignificance:itisanappealtomercyoveragainststrictlegaljusticeHenryrejectstheappeal,saying,ldquoIknowhowonethingleadstoanotherrdquoWhenhefailstoreacttoherfurtherremark,ldquoMayImentionMrsBastrdquoMargaretbecomesenragedldquoMargaretrushedathimandseizedbothhishandsShewastransfiguredlsquoNotanymoreofthis!rsquoshecriedlsquoYoushallseetheconnectionifitkillsyou,Henry!YouhavehadamistressmdashIforgaveyouMysisterhasalovermdashyoudriveherfromthehouseOnlysaytoyourself:ldquoWhatHelenhasdone,Irsquovedonerdquorsquordquo(p)EventhissallyhasnoeffectCommittedtothefundamentalpreceptoflegaljusticethatlikecasesmustbetreatedalike,HenryrespondsthatldquothetwocasesaredifferentrdquoButnotbeingaclearthinker,heisunabletoidentifythedifferenceSoagainhechangestackHeaccusesMargaretoftryingtoblackmailhim,thusplacingherwordsinaclassofillegalconducttooffsetagainstthewrongfulnessofhisownconductThechargeofblackmailisfalseMargarethasneitherexpresslynorbyimplicationthreatenedHenrythatunlessheletsHelenstaythenightatHowardsEndshewillexposehisoldrelationshipwithMrsBast(AndexposetowhomWhowouldcare)Henryisaverypoorlegalreasoner,buttheinterestingthingisthatinanovelisticsettingremotefromlawwecatchanechooflegalreasoningForsterassociatesthelegalstyleofthinkingwiththefailuretoconnectheartandmind(ldquoOnlyconnectrdquoistheepigraphofHowardsEndandineffectForsterrsquosmotto)ThehumantragedyisthatpeoplebecomeenmeshedinstructuresofthoughtthatpreventthemfromleadingemotionallysatisfyinglivesandtreatingotherpeopledecentlyVictoriansexualmoralityhadbycondemninghomosexuality

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