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首页 英汉句法结构对比

英汉句法结构对比.ppt

英汉句法结构对比

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2019-06-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英汉句法结构对比ppt》,可适用于综合领域

英汉思维的差异抽象思维与形象思维直线思维与曲线思维复杂与简约主体突出与主客体交错树状与竹状替代与重复形合与意合静态与动态主语与主题树状与竹状英语句子是树状结构主干如树干各种成分一个一个挂靠上去枝繁叶茂而汉语句子是竹状结构按时间或逻辑顺序层层铺开一节节连下去。因此翻译时要注意树状与竹状结构间的转化.Wehavelearned…ThisisthecatThisisthecatthatkilledtheratThisisthecatthatkilledtheratthatatethecakeThisisthecatthatkilledtheratthatatethecakethatwasputinthehouseThisisthecatthatkilledtheratthatatethecakethatwasputinthehousethatJackbuilt这就是那只猫。这就是那只捉住了老鼠的猫。老鼠偷吃了蛋糕。老鼠偷吃了放在屋里的蛋糕。屋子是杰克盖的。Example IThemoonissofarfromtheearththatevenifhugetreesweregrowingonthemountainsandelephantswerewalkingabout,wecouldnotseethemthroughthemostpowerfultelescopeswhichhavebeeninvented月球离地球非常遥远即使那边山上长着大树有大象在跑来跑去我们用已经发明的最高倍率的望远镜也看不到它们.ExampleIIUponhisdeathin,JeffersonwasburiedunderastonewhichdescribedhimashehadwishedtoberememberedastheauthoroftheDeclarationonIndependenceandthefatheroftheUniversityofVirginia年杰斐逊逝世按他生前遗愿,在他墓地的石碑上刻着:独立宣言的作者,弗吉利亚大学创建人之墓替代与重复这是英语和汉语的一个重要差异:英语重替代(即多用代词包括人称代词、指示代词、不定代词和关系代词还有表示替代的词so,do)汉语重重复重复现象比比皆是。Examplesreview我们的民族是一个伟大的民族。Oursisagreatnationournationisgreatone革命是解放生产力改革也是解放生产力。Revolutionmeanstheemancipationoftheproductiveforce,andsodoesreform你答应了帮他就应当帮助他。YoushouldhelphimsinceyoupromisedtodosoMore任何人不得将个人利益置于国家利益和社会利益之上。Nobodyshallplacehisowninterestsabovethoseofthestateandthesociety南北问题尖锐地摆在我们的面前解决发展问题与解决和平问题同等迫切重要。TheNorthSouthrelationshavebecomeanacuteissueToseekdevelopmentandpeaceareequallyurgentandimportanttasksGoon…中国一贯主张裁军反对一切军备竞赛既反对常规军备竞赛更反对核军备竞赛既反对地面上的军备竞赛也反对在太空进行的军备竞赛。Chinaconsistentlystandsfordisarmamentandisopposedtoallkindsofarmsrace,whetheritisconventionalornuclear,onthegroundorinouterspaceSomefurtherthoughts四字格汉语中有大量的四字词组。四字格的特点是:内容言简意赅形式整齐划一语音顺口悦耳表达效果形象生动.egButtherehadbeentoomuchpublicityaboutmycase但我的事现在已经搞得满城风雨,人人皆知了。Ihadbeencompletelyhonestinmyreplies,withholdingnothing我的回答完全是坦坦荡荡,直言无隐。Eachonemustdohisutmostorthelaborofallisvain每个人都必须竭尽全力否则就会徒劳无益(前功尽弃)。Icongratulatemyselfonmynarrowescape我庆幸自己死里逃生。我厂生产的地毯图案新颖、色调雅致、美丽大方、富丽堂皇。 Thecarpetsmadeinourfactoryarebeautifulandmagnificentfortheirnoveldesignsandelegantcolors形合与意合英语句子中各成分的相互结合多用适当的连接词语而中文句子则多依靠语义的贯通语境的映衬少用连接词。即英文重形合中文重意和。所以在翻译中要注意增减连接词。Examplesreview我买了本书一共元钱。IboughtsevenbookswhichcostmeYuanIfwintercomes,canspringbefarbehind冬天来了春天还会远么?IwenttodancewithagirlwhohasaSouthernaccent我同一位操南方口音的姑娘跳舞。小孩子受了惊吓就会哭。Littlechildrenwillcrywhentheyarefrightened他不愿意我们干吗强迫他干?WhyshouldweforcehimtodoitifheisunwillingMore原文:近闻夫人健康如常颇感欣慰。译文:ItisasupremecomforttomewhenIaminformedthatyouareashealthyasever原文:亡羊补牢犹未为晚。译文:ItisnottoolatetomendthefoldevenaftersomesheephavebeenlostEspecially关联词Evenifyougothere,therewon’tbeanyresult原译:即使你去了也不会有什么结果。改译:你去了也不会有什么结果。改译:你去也白去。Thewindwassostrongthathefounditdifficulttokeeponhisfeet原译:风如此之大以致他发现站住脚很困难。改译:风太大了他感到很难站稳。静态与动态英语叙述呈静态,汉语叙述呈动态。汉语倾向于多用动词而英语则倾向于多用名词、介词短语、形容词等等。所以在英译汉时要注意从静态到动态的转化而汉译英时则相反。英语介词译成汉语动词Hewalkedaroundthehousewithagun他拿着枪绕着屋子走。Heisamanabovevulgarinterests他是一个脱离了低级趣味的人。AmanfromotherplanetsAmachineforcuttingpaperWentoutthroughtherain英语adjadv译成汉语动词Therocketingpriceofhousinghastremendouslydampenedtheenthusiasmofpotentialhousebuyer房价飙升严重挫伤了潜在购房者的积极性。Whatfilmwillbeonthisevening今晚放什么电影?辨别错误虚假对应中国人有在正月十五晚上吃元宵、赏灯的习俗ChinesehavethecustomthattheyeatsweetdumplingsmadeofglutinousriceflourandappreciatefestivelanternsatthenightofJanuary错误之处:冠词、搭配、动词、介词、不忠于原文。改译:TheChinesehavethecustomofeatingyuanxiao(sweetdumplingsmadeofglutinousricefour)andwatchingfestivelanternsonthefifteentheveningofthefirstlunarmonth其他译法:ThereisaChinesetraditionofeating…Accordingtocustom,peopleinChinaeat…Inchina,it’sthecustom(forpeople)toeat…他的不合作态度使这个项目进展十分缓慢。原译:Theprojectmakeslessprogressbecauseofhisincooperation错误之处:时态形容词比较级名词改译:Theprojectismakingveryslowprogressduetohislackofcooperation改译:Theprojectisproceedingratherslowlybecauseofhisuncooperativeness其他译法:HisuncooperativeattitudeaccountedfortheslowprogressoftheprojectHisuncooperativeattituderesultedintheproject’sslowprogresskeyswhoeverwantstojointhespringoutingshouldsignupandpaytheexpensesbeforeFridayThoseofyouwhowanttogoonthespringoutingarerequiredtosignupandhandinthepaymentbeforeFridayIfanyofyouwantstotakepartinthespringouting,pleasesignupandpayforitbeforeFridayIthinktheclothesintheshopwouldstillbetooexpensiveevenifwecouldgetapercentdiscountInmyopinion,theclothesintheshoparestilltoohighpricedeveniftheyarediscountedbypercentThepriceoftheclothesintheshopisstillmorethanIwouldpayeveniftheyarepercentoffJudgingbythecurrentpresentsituation,constructioncostofthisprojectwillexceedthebudgetbythirtypercentAsitstands,constructionoftheprojectwilloverrunitsbudgetbythirtypercentifyoushouldwanttocancelthetrip,pleasenotifyusinwritingatleastonemonthinadvanceIfbyanychanceyouwanttocancelthetrip,pleasegiveusatleastonemonth’swrittennoticeI’mafraiditisunlikelyforhimtoagreetosucharequestItseemsunlikelyforhimtograntsucharequestThereseemstobelittlechancethathewillgiveintosuchademandThereisastrongpossibilitythathewillturndownarequestlikethisAttheannualmeetingoftheboardofdirectors,hecalledattentiontoalargelyignoredoverlookedproblemHerheatsankatthenews,butshemanagedaflickerofasmileThenewsmadeherheartsink,butshestillmanagedtoforceasmileHerheartsankwhensheheardthenews,butshestillgaveathinsmileShefeltambivalentabouttheinvitationandcouldn’tdecidewhethertoacceptordeclineOnreceivingtheinvitation,shefounditdifficulttodecidewhethertoacceptitornotShehesitatedonreceivingtheinvitation,notknowingwhethertoacceptitornot

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