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首页 阅读理解解题技巧之词义猜测

阅读理解解题技巧之词义猜测.ppt

阅读理解解题技巧之词义猜测

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2019-06-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《阅读理解解题技巧之词义猜测ppt》,可适用于综合领域

Ifyoucomeacrossthenewwordsorphraseswhenreading,WhatwillyoudoWhatdifficultydoyouhaveinreadingIgnore(忽略)themandcontinuereadingLookthemupinthedictionaryGuessthemeaningFirst,I’dliketoknowhowlongyouhavelearntEnglishWhatdoyouthinkofEnglishlearningWhatisthemostdifficultpartinEnglishlearningWhatmakesreadingcomprehensionsohardforyouWhatdoyouusuallydowiththenewwordswhilereading,Ifthewordshavelittleeffectonourunderstandingofthepassage,wecanignorethemandcontinuereadingButifthesamewordsappearinthepassageseveraltimes,weshouldgettoknowthesewords,lookingthemupinthedictionaryisagoodideaButifwearetakingsomekindoftest,wehavetoguessthemeaningHowtoguessthemeaningsofwordsorphrasesinreadingcomprehension?WaystoGuesstheWords一Definition(定义法)二Context(上下文)三Wordformation(构词法)四Examples(例子)五Commonsense(常识)Howtoguessthenewwordscorrectly一、Definition定义法:一般通过定义、定语从句词组或同位语从句词组来确定词义或利用文章中用不同的话对同一概念的解释猜测词义。信号词:be,becalled,means,bedefinedasiswasthatisthat’stosaynamely等等从后面的解释中我们可以了解到brittle是“易碎的脆的”的意思Itwillbeveryhardbutverybrittlethatis,itwillbreakeasilySampleITheherdsman,wholooksaftersheep,earnsaboutyuanayear定语从句中looksaftersheep就表明了herdsman的词义为“牧羊人”。SampleII二Context对比关系Contrast同义、近义、反义关系synonym,similarity,antonym因果关系Causeandeffect能体现对比关系的词汇很多主要有but,yet,however,while,unlike,instead,ontheotherhand,onthecontrary,incontrastwith等。标点符号分号有时也可表示对比。对比关系Johnusuallywastesalotofmoneyonsuchuselessthings,hiswife,however,isveryabstemiousThoughTom’sfacehasbeenwashedquiteclean,hisneckstillremainsgrubby肮脏的,邋遢的有节制的,节约的SampleIDirtythrifty同义、近义、反义关系同义词替换的表达方法可以为我们推测词义提供明显的语境线索。一些常见的引出同义词的标志性词语有or,like,similar等。反义词利用文章中所出现的、与某生词或词组意思相反的内容猜测词义。信号词中有instead,but,not等:AmericanbusinessmenexpectemployeestobepunctualTheydonotexpectthattheworkerswillcomelate文中bepunctual的意思可理解为“notcomelate”即“准时不迟到”。MrSmithlovestotalk,andhiswifeissimilarlyloquacious显然similarly是个语境线索它暗示loquacious意为lovetotalk。SampleIIThickmuddynotclear信号词:如becauseassinceforsothusasaresult,so…that,such…thattherefore等表示前因后果因果关系egRubbercanbemadetostretchmorethanninetimesitsnormallengthbecauseitisveryelasticegAllhisattemptstounlockthedoorwasfutile,becauseshewasusingthewrongkey弹性的SampleIII徒劳的Withtheirshiningbrowneyes,waggingtails,andunconditionallove,dogscanprovidethenonjudgmentallistenersneededforabeginningreadertogainconfidence(NMET)unconditional:无条件的,绝对的adjconditionconditional情况条件n有条件的adjunconditional:prefix(前缀)baseword(词根)suffix(后缀)nonjudgmental:没有判断力的judgejudgmentjudgmental判断v判断nadjnonjudgmental:中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有:super(超)mini(极小的微小的)micro(极微小的)re(再反复)mis(误恶)im(不)un(不非)in(不非)non(不非)able(能…的)less(不无)wards(向)三Wordformation根据构词法:派生(前缀、后缀)、合成等superman(超人)nonnatural(非自然的)homeless(无家可归的)rebuild(重建)microwave(微波)informal(非正式的)mispronounce(发错音)nonsmoker(非烟民)eastwards(向东)CanyouguessthefollowingwordsWemustsafeguardtheworldpeaceAprotectBcareCpreventDtokeepsafewithgunsDon’tlistentohisnonsenseAhavingnomeaningBmeaninglesswordsChumorousspeechDnotmakingsense维护,保护,捍卫胡说,废话合成词四、Example例举法:利用文中的举例猜测词义。常见的举例的提示词有forinstance,forexample,suchas等。Todayyoungcouplesoftenspendlotsoftheirmoneyonappliances,forinstance,washingmachine,refrigeratorsandcolortelevisions家用电器egOnthefarmtheymainlyraisepoultry,suchaschickens,ducksandgeese,fortheireggsandmeat家禽SampleI:Whenyouthrowastoneintostillwaterofalake,youwillwatcharipplespreadinringsonthesurfaceofwater五Commonsense波纹细浪Inolddays,whengirlsfromrichfamiliesweremarriedtotheirhusbands,theyexpectedtobringwiththemselvesalargequantityofdowry嫁妆Practice练习CanyouguessthecorrectmeaningsofthefollowingwordsTherearesomeglaciersmovingdownthemountainvalleysAglacierisariveroficeA雪山B树枝C冰河D冰HeisaresolutemanOncehemadeuphismindtodosomething,hewon’tgiveituphalfwayAweakBfirmCkindDcleverMrBrownisnowworkingatPrincetonUniversityfarawayfromhomeForthisreasonhehastorentaroomneartheofficewhereheworksA租用B借出C购买D参观CBATwelveyearoldSallywasanactivegirlButhersisterwasquitesedateAprettyBcalmCprotectiveDenergeticThosenewcomerswerenotusedtothelifeinthesuburbswhichwassodifferentfromthatinsidethecityAtownBcapitalCcountrysideDhouseBeforeababylearnstowalk,ithastocrawlonthefloor.A.walkontwofeetB.FlyC.sitinachairD.moveonthehandsandkneesBCDQuestionFormTheword“…”referstomeanscouldbestbereplacedbyTheunderlinedwordsentencemeansFindinthepassageawordclosestinmeaningtotheunderlinedword“…”InstantlywewerebusilypreparingfortheworstThewholefamilyhadexperiencedsuchastormbeforeandeveryonerememberedthedamageithadcausedtostockandcrops.TherewasverylittlewecoulddoaboutthecorpsButweneededtoprotecttheanimalsincasetheriverfloodedagain.Myolderbrothercalledhissheepdogandbegandrivingoursmallflockofsheeptohighergroundaboveriver.Iftheriverfloodedtheyshouldbesafethere..Theunderlinedword"stock"inthethirdparagraphreferstoAmoneyownedbythefamilyB.goodsforsaleCsuppliesforfamilyuseD.farmanimals(江西卷)DInrecentyears,IPrightshavebeenthefocusofagreatdealofdiscussionbecauseofatechnologywhichlookssettoweakenthemaltogethertheInternetManyyearsago,ifyouwantedarecordingofasong,youwouldhavetopurchaseitfromamusicstoreifanovel,formabookstoreInthosedays,IPrightswereeasilyprotectedsinceitwasverydifficulttoobtainintellectualpropertywithoutpayingforitHowever,alotofIP,includingsongs,films,booksandartwork,canbedownloadedtodayfreeofchargeusingtheInternetThispracticehasnowtakentheworldbystorm,dramaticallyaffectingthewayinwhichweviewIPrights(江西卷)Accordingtoparagraph,whathas“takentheworldbystorm”AIntellectualpropertyrightsBTheInternetCFreedownloadingDThelargenumberofsongs,filmsandbooksDInrecentyears,IPrightshavebeenthefocusofagreatdealofdiscussionbecauseofatechnologywhichlookssettoweakenthemaltogethertheInternetManyyearsago,ifyouwantedarecordingofasong,youwouldhavetopurchaseitfromamusicstoreifanovel,formabookstoreInthosedays,IPrightswereeasilyprotectedsinceitwasverydifficulttoobtainintellectualpropertywithoutpayingforitHowever,alotofIP,includingsongs,films,booksandartwork,canbedownloadedtodayfreeofchargeusingtheInternetThispracticehasnowtakentheworldbystorm,dramaticallyaffectingthewayinwhichweviewIPrights(江西卷)WaystoGuesstheWords一Definition(定义法)二Context(上下文)三Wordformation(构词法)四Examples(例子)五Commonsense(常识)HowtoguessthenewwordscorrectlyFirst,I’dliketoknowhowlongyouhavelearntEnglishWhatdoyouthinkofEnglishlearningWhatisthemostdifficultpartinEnglishlearningWhatmakesreadingcomprehensionsohardforyouWhatdoyouusuallydowiththenewwordswhilereading,Ifthewordshavelittleeffectonourunderstandingofthepassage,wecanignorethemandcontinuereadingButifthesamewordsappearinthepassageseveraltimes,weshouldgettoknowthesewords,lookingthemupinthedictionaryisagoodideaButifwearetakingsomekindoftest,wehavetoguessthemeaningHowtoguessthenewwordscorrectlyDirtythriftyThickmuddynotclearHowtoguessthenewwordscorrectly

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阅读理解解题技巧之词义猜测

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