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首页 13.America’s 1920s

13.America’s 1920s.ppt

13.America’s 1920s

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2019-06-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《13.America’s 1920sppt》,可适用于综合领域

LectureThirteenAmerica’ssAlsocalledtheRoaringTwentiesortheJazzAgeThes,roughlytheperiodbetweentheendofWorldWarIandtheGreatStockMarketCrash(theGreatDepression)of,isoftenstereotypedastheRoaringTwentiesManyAmericansthinkofitastheeraoftheflapper(轻佻女郎),bathtubgin(私烧禁酒),raccooncoats(熊皮大衣),jazzbands,organizedcrime(RedScare,Ks),"talking"movies,etcAmericans,recoilingfromthehorrorsofWorldWarI,turnedtheirattentionawayfromthereformsoftheProgressiveEraandfocusedonthemselvesPresidentialcandidateWarrenHardingpromiseda"returntonormalcy"andPresidentCalvinCoolidgetoldthenationthatbusiness,notpeaceorsocialreform,wasAmerica's"business"But,asthenovelsofHemingway,Fitzgerald,andGertrudeSteinprove,itwasalsothetimeofdeepdisillusionment,theeraof"thelostgeneration"ContradictionssurfacedacrossthenationAfricanAmerican‘scelebratedAfricanAmericanculturewiththeart,literatureandmusicoftheHarlemRenaissancewhilemembershipintheKuKluxKlanincreaseddramaticallySpurredon(激励)byexcesspatriotismgeneratedbyWorldWarI,thefederalgovernmentledunconstitutionalraidsonitscriticsandthenewlyformedBureauofInvestigationincreasedsurveillance(监视)ofAmericanimmigrantsWomenwontherighttovoteinandenteredcollegesinrecordnumbersatthesametimethattheywereencouragedtoworkonlywithinthehomeandtowithdrawfrompoliticalactivitiesFarmers,whoseincomeshadrisendramaticallyattheendofWWI,sawtheirincomesdropjustasdramaticallybythemiddleofthedecadeHerbertHoover‘spresidentialcampaigncalledfor“achickenineverypotandacarineverygarage,”butwithineighteenmonthsofhiselection,millionsofruralAmericansandunskilledlaborerswereontheedgeofeconomicruinandthestockmarketwouldcrashConfusedbythesecontradictions,manyAmericansturnedbacktotheirfaithforanswers,givingrisetoanewfundamentalism(原教旨主义)andabreedofpreachersandfaithhealersIn,ajournalistnamedFrederickLewisAllenpublishedavolumeofinformalhistorythatdidmoretoshapethepopularimageofthesthananybookeverwrittenbyaprofessionalhistorianThebook,OnlyYesterday,depictedthesasacynical,hedonisticinterludebetweentheGreatWarandtheGreatDepressionadecadeofdissipationWorldWarIshatteredAmericans‘faithinreformandmoralcrusades(改革),leadingtheyoungergenerationtorebelagainsttraditionaltaboosThepopularimageofthes,asadecadeofprosperityandriotouslivingandofbootleggersandgangsters,flappersandhotjazz,isdeeplyimpressedintheAmericanpsycheButthisimageisalsoprofoundlymisleadingTheswasadecadeofdeepculturalconflictThepreCivilWardecadeshadfundamentalconflictsinAmericansocietythatinvolvedgeographicregionsDuringtheGildedAge,conflictscenteredonethnicityandsocialclassConversely,theconflictsoftheswereprimarilycultural,puttingamorecosmopolitan,modernist,urbancultureagainstamoreprovincial,traditionalist,ruralcultureThedecadewitnessedatitanicstrugglebetweenanoldandanewAmericaImmigration,race,alcohol,evolution,genderpolitics,andsexualmoralityallbecamemajorculturalbattlefieldsduringthesWetsbattleddrys,religiousmodernistsbattledreligiousfundamentalists,andurbanethnicsbattledtheKuKluxKlanTheswasadecadeofprofoundsocialchangesThemostobvioussignsofchangeweretheriseofaconsumerorientedeconomyandofmassentertainment,whichhelpedtobringabouta“revolutioninmoralsandmanners”Sexualmores(道德观念),genderroles,hairstyles,anddressallchangedprofoundlyduringthesManyAmericansregardedthesechangesasliberationfromthecountry'sVictorianpastButforothers,moralsseemedtobedecaying,andtheUnitedStatesseemedtobechanginginundesirablewaysTheresultwasathinlyveiled"culturalcivilwar"Fewdecadeshaveproducedasmanygreatworksofart,music,orliteratureasthesAtthedecade'sbeginning,AmericanculturestoodinEurope'sshadowBythedecade'send,Americanswereleadersinthestruggletoliberatetheartsfromoldercanonsoftaste,form,andstyleItwasduringthesthatEugeneO'Neill,thecountry'smosttalenteddramatist,wrotehisgreatestplays,andthatauthorsWilliamFaulkner,ErnestHemingway,FScottFitzgerald,andThomasWolfepublishedtheirfirstnovelsAmericanpoetsofthes,suchasHartCrane,EECummings,CounteeCullen,LangstonHughes,EdnaStVincentMillay,andWallaceStevens,experimentedwithnewstylesofpunctuation,rhyme,andformLikewise,artistslikeCharlesDemuth,GeorgiaO'Keeffe,andJosephStellachallengedthedominantrealisttraditioninAmericanartandpioneerednonrepresentationalandexpressionistartformsThesmarkedAmerica'sentryintotheworldofseriousmusicItwitnessedthefoundingofsymphonyorchestrasandthreeofthecountry'smostprominentmusicconservatoriesJulliard,Eastman,andCurtisInstitutionThisdecadealsoproducedAmerica'sfirstgreatclassicalcomposers,includingAaronCoplandandCharlesIves,andsawGeorgeGershwincreateanewmusicalformsbyintegratingjazzintosymphonicandorchestralmusicWorldWarIhadleftmanyAmericanintellectualsandartistsdisillusionedandalienatedNeitherWilsonianidealismnorProgressivereformismappealedtoAmerica'spostwarwritersandthinkerswhobelievedthatthecrusadetoendwarandtomaketheworldsafefordemocracyhadbeenasenselessmistake"Herewasanewgeneration…"wrotethenovelistFScottFitzgeraldininThisSideofParadise,"grownuptofindallGodsdead,allwarsfought,allfaithsinmanshaken…"Duringthes,manyofthenation‘sleadingwritersexposedtheshallownessandnarrowmindednessofAmericanlifeTheUnitedStateswasanationawash(被水淹没)inmaterialismanddevoidofspiritualvitality,a“wasteland,”wrotethepoetTSEliot,inhabitedby“hollowmen”Noauthorofferedamorescathing(无情的)attackonmiddleclassboorishness(粗鄙)andsmugness(做作)thanSinclairLewis,whoinbecamethefirstAmericantowintheNobelPrizeforLiteratureInMainStreet()andBabbitt(),hesatirizedthenarrowmindedcomplacency(自鸣得意)anddullnessofsmalltownAmerica,whileinElmerGantry()heexposedreligioushypocrisyandbigotry(偏执行为)ThewriterGertrudeSteindefinedanimportantgroupofAmericanintellectualswhenshetoldErnestHemingwayin,"Youareallalostgeneration"SteinwasreferringtotheexpatriatenovelistsandartistswhohadparticipatedintheGreatWar,onlytoemergefromtheconflictconvincedthatitwasanexerciseinfutilityIntheirnovels,FScottFitzgeraldandHemingwaypointedtowardaphilosophynowknownas"existentialism"whichmaintainsthatlifehasnotranscendentpurposeandthateachindividualmustsalvagepersonalmeaningfromthevoidHemingway‘sfictionlionized(崇拜)toughnessand“manlyvirtues”asacounterpointtothesoftnessofAmericanlifeInTheSunAlsoRises()andAFarewelltoArms(),heemphasizedmeaninglessdeathandtheimportanceoffacingstoically(坚韧)theabsurditiesoftheuniverseIntheconclusionofTheGreatGatsby(),Fitzgeraldgavepointedexpressiontoanexistentialistoutlook:"sowebeaton,boatsagainstthecurrent,bornebackceaselesslyintothepast"DefinitionsofLostGenerationGroupofUSwriterswhocameofageduringWorldWarIandestablishedtheirreputationsinthesmorebroadly,theentirepostWorldWarIAmericangenerationThetermwascoinedbyGertrudeSteininaremarktoErnestHemingwayThewritersconsideredthemselves"lost"becausetheirinheritedvaluescouldnotoperateinthepostwarworldandtheyfeltspirituallyalienatedfromacountrytheyconsideredhopelesslyprovincialandemotionallybarrenThetermembracesHemingway,FScottFitzgerald,JohnDosPassos,EECummings,ArchibaldMacLeish,andHartCrane,amongothersAtermfirstusedbyGertrudeSteintodescribethepostWorldWarIgenerationofAmericanwriters:menandwomenhauntbyasenseofbetrayalandemptinessbroughtaboutbythedestructivenessofthewarThetermiscommonlyappliedtoHartCrane,ErnestHemingway,FScottFitzgerald,andothersHarlemRenaissanceTheHarlemRenaissance,ortheNewNegroMovement,wasnamedafterthetermusedintheanthologyTheNewNegro,editedbyAlainLockeandpublishedinCenteredintheHarlemneighborhoodofNewYorkCity,themovementimpactedurbancentersthroughouttheUnitedStatesAcrosstheculturalspectrum(literature,drama,music,visualart,dance)andalsointherealmofsocialthought,artistsandintellectualsfoundnewwaystoexplorethehistoricalexperiencesofblackAmericansandthecontemporaryexperiencesofblacklifeintheurbanNorthChallengingwhitepaternalism(家长式统治)andracism,AfricanAmericanartistsandintellectualsrejectedimitatingthestylesofEuropeansandwhiteAmericans,andinsteadcelebratedblackdignityandcreativityAssertingtheirfreedomtoexpressthemselvesontheirownterms,theyexploredtheiridentitiesasblackAmericans,celebratingtheblackculturethathademergedoutofslavery,aswellasculturaltiestoAfricaTheHarlemRenaissancewassuccessfulinthatitbroughttheBlackexperienceclearlywithinthecorpusofAmericanculturalhistoryNotonlythroughanexplosionofculture,butonasociologicallevel,thelegacyoftheHarlemRenaissanceisthatitredefinedhowAmerica,andtheworld,viewedtheAfricanAmericanpopulationThemigrationofsouthernBlackstothenorthchangedtheimageoftheAfricanAmericanfromrural,undereducatedpeasantstooneofurban,cosmopolitansophisticationThisnewidentityledtoagreatersocialconsciousness,andAfricanAmericansbecameplayersontheworldstage,expandingintellectualandsocialcontactsinternationallyLangstonHughesJeanToomerWEBDuBoisLouisArmstrong

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