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首页 口译

口译.doc

口译

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2019-06-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《口译doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

InconsecutiveinterpretationtheinterpreterhastheadvantageofknowingthelineofargumentbeforeheinterpretsSpeechesgivenatinternationalconferences(excludingwrittenstatements)generallylastafewminutes,givingtheinterpretertimetoanalyzethemHeanalysesthenuancesandsubtletiesofthespeech,althoughthemessageisdeliveredataspeechaveragingwordsaminuteFewactivitiesrequiresuchconcentrationorcausesuchfatigue!Whenconferenceinterpretingfirstbegan,someyearsago,thespeakersofferedtostopaftereverysentenceandgivethefloortotheinterpreterThiswasamanifestationofthebeliefthatinterpretationconsistedofamerewordforwordtranslationandthespeakerfeltthat,byusingthismethod,theinterpretercouldcommittomemoryallofthewordsintheprecedingsentenceandthentranslatethemHowever,themeaningofanindividualsentenceisrarelyclearwhenitistakenoutofcontext,andtodayinterpretersrequestthatspeakerscarryonwiththeirdiscoursebecausetherestofthespeechwilloftenclarifyastatementwhichwasobscureandrevealtheassumptionsunderlyinganyonesentenceThetimelagwhichtheinterpreterenjoysinconsecutiveinterpretationiscruellylackinginsimultaneousinterpretationItmaythereforeseeminconsistenttoclaimthatsimultaneouslikewiseprovidesanopportunityforexplorationandcomprehensionofthemessageButletuslookmorecloselyatsimultaneousinterpretationbeforeexaminingthemethodsofanalysisusedininterpretationingeneralTheobserverisstruckbythefactthattheinterpretermanagestodotwothingsatonce:listenandspeakButthisisnotexactlythecaseInordertounderstandwhatsimultaneousinterpretationinvolves,letuslookmorecloselyatwhathappensWhenwespeakspontaneouslyourwordsdonotcomeoutinspurts:wedonotfirstthinkoutwhatwearegoingtosayandthenstopthinkingwhilewespeaknordowestopspeakinginordertomentallycomposewhatwearegoingtosaynextOnthecontrary,ourspeechiscontinuousTobespecific,itinvolvestwosuperimposedprocessesinacauseandeffectrelationship:mentalimpulsesandtheiroralexpressionSeenintime,however,thewordsareutteredattheprecisemomentthefollowingthoughtisconceivedattheprecisemomenttheproductoftheconceptualizingprocessisuttered,themindisalreadyfocusedonfurtherdevelopmentofthethoughtwhichistobeexpressedinthefollowingstatement。ThesimultaneousinterpreterdoesvirtuallythesamethingaswhenheisspeakingspontaneouslyHehearsthenextsentencewhileheisstatingtheprecedingidea,yethedoesnotlistentothenextsentencebuttothesentencewhichhehimselfisdeliveringHedoes,however,hearthemeaningofthesentencebeingdeliveredbythespeakeranditisthismeaningwhichheretainsinordertodeliverthesentencehimselfimmediatelyafterwardsThus,justaswhenhespeaksspontaneously,thewordshehearswhileinterpretingarethosewhichheutters,butthethoughtswhichhismindfocusesonarethosewhichwillproducehisnextwordsThedifferenceisthat,here,thethoughthewilluttercomesfromanoutsidesourceThisisjustaverycommonoccurrencecarriedtoextremesWemightgoasfarastosaythattherearenothoughtswhicharecompletelytheproductofoneindividual,orcompletelyoriginal,andthatinanysituationwhatonesaysisonlytheendproductofathoughtwhichisbornoftheinputofcountlessoutsidesourceswhichnourishusaschildrenandenrichusasadultsTheworkofaninterpreteris,therefore,onlyanextremecaseofreconstructionofideasfromoutsidesourcesInpractice,however,thesimultaneousinterpreterisrelievedoftheimmediatetaskofdevelopingthethoughthehasjuststatedInplaceofthishesubstitutesanalysisandcomprehensionofthespeaker’slineofthoughtSimultaneousinterpretationinvolves“hearing”thethoughtsofanotherinsteadofone’sownthoughtsItalsoinvolvesspeakingspontaneouslybecauseallspeakinginvolvestalkingandlisteningatthesametime,althoughusuallyone“hears”one’sownthoughtsSimultaneousinterpretationmeansreorderingthestepsinthementalprocesswhichweallexperiencewhenwespeakspontaneouslyThisiswhy,ifcorrectlytaught,simultaneousinterpretationcanbelearnedquiterapidly,assumingonehasalreadylearnedtheartofanalysisinconsecutiveinterpretationTheprobleminsimultaneousinterpretationstemsnotfromthetechniqueused,butfromaseriesofotherproblemsLetussimplysayherethatsimultaneousistoooftenconsideredasasimplewordforwordtranslation,withacertainnumberofwordsstoredinthememory(probablytoavoidthetrapoffalsecognatesandnottranslateactuelbyactual)andthenrepeatedinthetargetlanguageDuringthetimelagwhichseparatesthespeaker’swordsfromthoseoftheinterpreter,theinterpreterhadbetterthingstodothanmemorizethewordshehasheard,becausethespeakerrelentlesslycontinuestodeliverhisideaandtheinterpretermustdothesametoavoidsputteringoutsnatchesofideasEvenmemorizingahalfdozenwordswoulddistracttheinterpreter,whoseattentionisalreadydividedbetweenlisteningtohisownwordsandthoseofthespeakerItwouldbeimpossibleforhimtomemorizeonesinanotherlanguageItishumanlyimpossibletolistenattentivelytoonethingwhilesayinganotherTheinterpreterlistensandsaysthesamethingByavoidingthepitfallofwordmemorizationtheinterpretermanagestounderstandthethoughtwhichwillproducehisnextwordsThusthesimultaneousinterpreterisananalystormindreader,notaparrotHismemorydoesnotstorethewordsofthesentencedeliveredbythespeaker,butonlythemeaningwhichthosewordsconveyQuotedfromInterpretingforInternationalConferencesbyDanicaSeleskovitch,Professor,UniversityofParisIII,SorbonneNouvelle

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