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2011voa(5).doc

2011voa(5).doc

上传者: idarebecca 2011-10-16 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《2011voa(5)doc》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含美国穆斯林庆祝斋月结束MuslimsfromaroundAmerica'scapitalpouredintotheIslamicCenterofWa符等。

美国穆斯林庆祝斋月结束MuslimsfromaroundAmerica'scapitalpouredintotheIslamicCenterofWashingtoninoneofthemostelegantpartsofthecity,knownasEmbassyRowEgyptianlawstudentYoussefMuhammadAufhurriedtowardthemen'sentrancewithhismindonwhathewouldaskofGodthisyear"Ofcourse,prayformycountry,theIslamicworld,andallhumanbeingstobesafe,peace,andhavepeacefulrelationswitheverycountry,especiallytheUnitedStatesandtheIslamicWorld,"hesaidEidalFitrmarksthebreakingofthemonthlongfastofRamadanIncanlastuptothreedaysinsomecountriesAufsaiditwasthefirsttimehespenttheholidayoutsideofhisnativeEgypt"TheEidhereistotallydifferentfromtheIslamicworld,"notedAuf"BecausethedayhereisabusinessdayEverythingisokayButinourcountries,theEidmeanseverythingNoworkEveryoneisonvacation,holidaySoitistotallydifferentButIhopethatitwillbeagoodday,insha'allah(Godwilling)"ThislandmarkmosquewasbuiltinthesanditsminarettowersovertheposhstreetsofthisdiplomaticneighborhoodSeveralbeggarsstoodoutsidethewroughtirongateofthemosqueOnepointedveiledwomentowardtheseparatesideentranceJamileRamadanmovedtoAmericafromLebanonyearsagoShesometimesmissesthewaytheEidiscelebratedinhernativecountry,especiallywhensheisinsecularsettings"Therearenotalotofpeoplewhoarefasting,especiallyatwork,"shenoted"Youfeelyouhavetoaccommodate,youhavetorestrainyourselffromthecoffeeAnditisnotasrespectfulasbackhomeYoufeelpeopleaskyou,'Youarefasting''Itisamyth,whydoyoudoit'"AsurveyofMuslimsintheUnitedStatesreleasedonEidalFitrfoundthatwhilemosthaveassimilatedwellintoAmericansociety,manysayithasbecomehardertobeaMusliminAmericasincetheSeptember,attacks美国首都的穆斯林纷纷来到位于最高雅的地区使馆区的伊斯兰中心。埃及法律学生YoussefMuhammadAuf迅速来到男子入口处脑海中想的是今年应该向上帝祈求什么。“当然为我们的国家为伊斯兰世界为全人类祈祷希望他们安全和平与邻国有着和平的关系尤其是美国和伊斯兰世界。”开斋节(EidalFitr)标志着长达一个月的斋月的结束。在有些国家开斋节可以持续三天的时间。YoussefMuhammadAuf说这是他第一次在埃及以外的其他国家庆祝这个节日。“这里的开斋节与伊斯兰世界完全不同。因为在这里这一天是商业化的。一切都好。但是在我们的国家开斋意味着一切。不用上班每个人都休假。所以是完全不同的。但是我希望这是美好的一天。愿上帝保佑我们。”这座地标性的清真寺建于年代高高的尖塔矗立在这个外交区域繁华的街道。几名乞丐站在这座清真寺做工精细的铁门外。其中一人正在引导戴面纱的女子前往另外一个入口。JamileRamadan于年前从黎巴嫩移居美国。她有时会回忆起自己的国家庆祝开斋节的方式尤其是在世俗环境中。“没有许多人斋戒尤其是工作的时候。你感觉到你应该适应应该控制自己不要喝咖啡。在这里不像在家里那样受到尊重。如果人们问你你在斋戒吗?你可能会觉得很奇怪为什么这么做呢?”美国向穆斯林进行的关于开斋节的调查发现尽管大部分人已经被美国社会同化许多人仍然表示自从年恐怖袭击以来在美国作为一名穆斯林已经更加困难。SpeculationContinuesAboutPalin'sPoliticalFutureFormerAlaskagovernorSarahPalinaddressesaTeaPartyrallyinIowaonSaturdayandpoliticalsupportersandrivalsalikewillbelisteningcloselyforanyindicationthatshehasdecidedtorunforpresidentFormonthsnow,SarahPalinhassaidsheisconsideringapresidentialrunnextyear,butsofarhasyettodecidePalinhastoldinterviewersshewouldprobablyhavetodecidebylateSeptember,andpoliticalanalystswillbekeepingacloseeyeonthisweek'sTeaPartygatheringinIowa,atwhichPalinisthefeaturedspeakerPalin'spoliticalactioncommitteereleasedatwominutevideobasedonherrecenttriptoIowathathasincreasedspeculationsheisabouttoentertheracefortheRepublicanParty'spresidentialnomination"IthinkweareseeingagreatawakeningoftheAmericanpublic,theindividualAmericanswhowanttheexceptionalismputbackintoourcountry,"saidPalinPalinwastheRepublicanParty'svicepresidentialcandidateinandquicklydevelopedanenthusiasticfollowingamongsocialconservativevotersandsupportersofthesmallgovernmentTeaPartymovementButPalinhasbeenovershadowedthisyearbypresidentialcontenderslikeMinnesotaCongresswomanMicheleBachmannandTexasGovernorRickPerry,whohasjumpedtothetopoftheRepublicanfieldinrecentpublicopinionpollsAtoppoliticaladvisertoformerPresidentGeorgeWBush,KarlRove,toldFoxNewsthatPalinshoulddecidesoonifshewantstobeacandidatefortheWhiteHousein"HerdifficultyisthatifshedoesnotgetinshortlyafternextweekthenIthinkpeoplearegoingtobasicallysay,'Sheisnotin,shewillnotbein,andifshegetsinIamnotgoingtobeforher'YoucanonlyteasesomanytimesinthepoliticalprocessandIthinksheisgettingtotheendofthat,"saidRovePerry,BachmannandformerMassachusettsgovernorMittRomneyappeartobethetopchoicesforRepublicansatthemomentButIndianaGovernorMitchDanielssaysthereisalwaysroomforadditionalcandidates"MyownviewhasbeenthatalthoughIlikeallthosefolks,thereissomethingtolikeabouteachoneofthem,thisisamorethemerriersituationandthatiswhywehaveanextendednominationprocess,"saidDanielsSupportershadurgedDanielstoentertheraceearlierthisyear,buthedeclinedandsaidhedidnotwanttoputhisfamilythroughtheordealofapresidentialcampaignPalinhasbeenapoliticallighteningrodsinceshewaschosenasRepublicannomineeJohnMcCain'srunningmateinPalingetshighratingsfromconservativevoters,butremainsunpopularwithcentristsandDemocrats,saysQuinnipiacUniversitypollsterPeterBrown"Letusbeclear,"saidBrown"MsPalinhasverystrongsupportamongRepublicanvotersTheproblemisthatinageneralelectionshedoesparticularlynotwellamongindependentvotersandwillobviouslynotdowellamongDemocrats"ThelatestCNNORCPollfoundRickPerryleadingtheRepublicanfieldwithpercentsupport,followedbyMittRomneyatpercentSarahPalinwasinthirdplacewithpercent,followedbyMicheleBachmannatninepercentANCYouthLeagueSupportersProtestViolentlyinJohannesburgSupportersofJuliusMalema,theleaderoftheAfricanNationalCongressYouthLeague,protestedviolentlyindowntownJohannesburgTuesday,damagingproperty,attackingpoliceandjournalists,andinjuringatleastonepersonTheprotestsbeganasanANCdisciplinaryprocessinvolvingMalemagotunderwayViolenceeruptedwhenpoliceattemptedtokeepprotestersbehindabarrierastreetblockawayfromtheANCheadquarters,knownasLuthuliHouseProtesters,someofthemschoolchildreninuniform,threwstones,bricksandbottlesandbreachedthepolicebarrierSomeburnedANCTshirtsandpostersofPresidentJacobZumaANCSecretaryGeneralGwedeMantashetoldtheeNewsChannelthatthoseresponsiblewereenemiesoftheparty"TheburningoftheANCflagandthequestionofburningthefaceposterofthepresidentoftheANCJacobZuma,obviouslywhenyoudothatyouaresayingtotheworld,'IamnotamemberoftheANC,I'mtheenemyoftheANC,'"hesaidMantashealsomadeitplainthattheyouthleaguewouldhavetoacceptresponsibilityfortheactionsoftheprotesters"ButifyouinvitedyourfriendstobeoutsideLuthuliHouseandhooligansandcriminalsjoin,youtakeresponsibilityofallofthatcrowd,"heexplained"Becausethatcrowdisyourcrowd,voetstootsjustasitis"ProtestersweredeterminedtogointoLuthuliHousewheretheseconddisciplinaryhearinginlessthanayearagainstMalemawasunderwayThechargesagainstMalemaincludebringingtheANCintodisreputebycallingforaregimechangeinneighboringBotswanaMalemaisknownforhisfieryandoftencontroversialrhetoricforwhichhe,theyouthleague,andtheANCoftenhavetoapologizeHehasforcedtheANCtoputnationalizationoflandandminesbackontotheANCpolicydiscussionsagendasomethingthepartybackedawayfromintheearly'sTheoncesupportiverelationshipbetweenMalemaandZumahasdeterioratedoverthepasttwoyears,asMalemahasevermorefrequentlychallengedthepresidentandtheANCovertheirpoliciesDuringanafternoonrecessTuesday,Malemacameouttoaddresstheprotesters,callingonthemtorespecttheANCanditsprocessesandfocusonwhathecalledtherevolutionontheenemyWhenhesaidtheyknowwhotheenemyis,theychanted"Zuma,Zuma,Zuma"TheoutcomeofthedisciplinaryactionisunlikelytobeknownbeforenextweekMillionsofNewbornsDieNeedlesslyEachyear,millionsofbabiesdiewithinthefirstfewweeksoflifeAnewreportfromtheWorldHealthOrganizationandSavetheChildrensaysmanyofthosenewborndeathsareeasilypreventable"Thisisthemostcomprehensivepicturethatwehavetodateofwhat'shappeningfornewborndeathsaroundtheworldandovertimeAndtheseestimateslookatcountriesandoveryears,"saidDrJoyLawnofSavetheChildren,coauthorofthestudyShesaidnewbornsare"barelyontheglobalhealthagenda"Soyoung,sovulnerable"Everyyear,inthefirstmonthoflife,therearemillionbabieswhodieThisisahugenumberofdeathsItsoundsoverwhelming,buteachofthosedeathsisamotherwhohaslostababy,afamilywhohaslostanexpectedlifeAndsoweshouldn'tletthenumbersoverwhelmeachindividualtragedythat'sbehindthose,"shesaidNewborndeathsmakeupoverpercentofchilddeathsworldwideIndiahasthehighestnumberofnewborndeathseachyear–morethan,India,alongwithNigeria,Pakistan,ChinaandtheDemocraticRepublicofCongo,accountsformorethanhalfofthemilliondeathsSlowprogress"Incertainareas,"saidLawn,"particularlyAfrica,there'sbeenverylittleprogressTheaverageannualrateofreducingnewborndeathsinAfricaislessthanonepercentperyearIt'salmostthesameasnochange"Atthatslowrateofprogress,Lawnsaysit'lltakeyearsforAfricanbabiestohavethesamechanceofsurvivalthatbabiesinhighincomecountrieshavetodayTheWHOSavetheChildrenreportcitesthreemaincausesofnewborndeathsThefirstispretermdelivery,beingborntooearly"Doingsimplethings,likekeepingthemwarm,feedingthembetter,treatinginfections,wouldsavethem,"shesaidThesecondleadingcauseofdeathfornewbornsiscomplicationsduringdelivery"Solackofcareatthetimeofbirth,havingamidwife,havingaccesstosafecareatbirthwouldsavethebabyandthemother,"saidLawnAmidwifesavedherlife"I'mababyborninAfricaIwasborninthebushofnorthernUgandaandmymotherhadcomplicationsinchildbirthAndshenearlydiedandIwouldhavediedifpeoplehadn'tmadeadifference,"shesaidShesaidhavingmoremidwivesandhealthcareworkersinruralareasiscriticalThethirdleadingcauseofdeathisinfection"Heresimpleprevention–notdeliveringababyontoadirtyfloor,notputtingdirtythingsonthecord,breastfeedingthebaby,givingantibiotics–theseareallthingsthatwouldsavethesebabieslives,"shesaidLawnistheheadofSavingNewbornLives,aprogramofSavetheChildrenShesaidmoreinvestmentisneededButshesaysthatmeansinvestinginthe"rightthingstodo"forchildandmaternalcare"ThisisparticularlycriticalfortheMillenniumDevelopmentGoalsWenowonlyhavefouryearsleftuntilthattargetin,"shesaidThereportsayseventheUnitedStatesisnotimmunefromtheproblemItsays,newbornsdieintheUSeachyearThat'sahighernewborndeathratethanothercountries美国一些州仍然执行过时法律OutdatedLawsStillonBooksinUSStatesIfyou'replanningatriptotheUnitedStates,beverycarefulYoucouldeasilybreakoneofourlawsandnotknowitWe'renottalkingaboutobviousillegalbehavior,likethrowingachairthroughyourhotelwindowNo,thereareother,moreobscureoffensesthatcouldgetyouintroubleSayyouvisitAlabamaWhateveryoudo,donotsprinklesaltonanyrailroadtracksNotonlyisitagainstthelawinthatsouthernstateit'spunishablebydeathillistir,FlickrCreativeCommonsThismaybetheproverbial'bettermousetrap,'butyou'dbesthopeyoudon'tcatchanythinginitinCaliforniaReally,atleastaccordingtowarningsthatareflyingallovertheInternetWecan'tfindtheactuallegalcitation,though,andthisisquitepossiblyoneofthoseurbanlegendsWanttogowhalehuntingDon'tdoitinUtah,whereit'ssupposedlyillegalDoesn'tmatterthatUtahis,kilometersfromthenearestoceanWhalehuntingisforbiddenAndbewarned,youcan'tlegallysetamousetrapinCaliforniawithoutahuntinglicense,eitherTeaseaskunkinMinnesota,andtheycanhaulyouofftojailmikebaird,FlickrCreativeCommonsGoingafteroneoftheseIthadbetternotbeinUtahYou'reprobablysaying,"Ifthesesillyoldlawsarereal,whynotgetridofthem"Well,supposeyou'reonthetowncouncilinWaterville,MaineYoustandupandproclaimthatit'shightimetodoawaywiththelawthatmakesitillegaltoblowyournoseinpublicThevotersinWatervillewouldtossyououtofofficeforwastingtimeonsuchthingsAndalotofoldlaws,iftheyreallyexist,havetodowithsex,religiousbeliefs,andcuddlyanimalsSosomeinterestgroupwouldgetinvolvedifyoumadeafussSolawslikeoneinIndianathatmakesitillegalformonkeystosmokestayonthebooksAsforthatsaltonthetrackslaw,weaskedaroundtoseewhysuchathingmighthavebecomelawTurnsoutthatintheheydayofrailroadingalloverthenation,crewsusedtospreadsaltinthewintertimeFreezingmudthatreachedtracklevelcouldderailatrain,androcksaltkeptthemudsoftProblemwas,thesaltattractedcattleAndhittingoneofthemcouldderailatrainforsure如果你计划到美国旅行一定要非常小心。你非常容易在不知情的情况下触犯法律。我们说的不是很明显的违法行为例如从酒店的窗户中向下扔椅子。不我们说的是其他的行为一些更加模糊的行为可能也会让你惹上麻烦。例如你去阿拉巴马州旅游。不管你做什么千万不要在任何铁路轨道上撒盐。在这个南部州这种行为不仅违法甚至可能面临死刑。实际上至少根据互联网上普遍的警告是如此。然而我们不能找到具体的法律依据这很有可能是当地城市的传闻。想要捕鲸吗?在犹他州不要这样做这种行为在那里是非法的。尽管犹他州距离最近的海洋有着,千米的距离捕鲸仍然是被禁止的。一定要记住在加利福尼亚如果没有猎捕许可证安装捕鼠器也是非法的。如果你在明尼苏达州戏弄臭鼬你也可能会入狱。你可能会说“如果这些愚蠢的法律是真的为什么不取消呢?”如果你在缅因州沃特维尔的城镇委员会你站起来宣布现在应该废除在公共场合擤鼻涕为非法的法律沃特维尔的选民会把你轰出办公室认为你在这样的事情上浪费时间。许多旧的法律如果它们确实存在的话与性宗教信仰和令人喜爱的动物有关。如果你引逗这些动物的话一些兴趣组织会介入。例如印第安那州法律规定让猴子吸烟是违法的。关于在铁轨上撒盐的法律我们查看了为何这种行为会被法律禁止。据说在铁路全盛期职员经常在冬季向道路上撒盐。铁轨周围结冰的泥土会造成火车脱轨岩盐可以使泥土保持松软。问题是岩盐会吸引牛羊。如果火车撞上牛羊肯定会脱轨。ElephantStudyRevealsSocialBonds,CommunicationSkillsThosewhothinkofelephantsassolitary,gentlegiantslumberingquietlyintheirzooenclosuresmightbesurprisedbytherangeandforceoftheirdistinctivecallstoeachotherinthewildShermindeSilva,aUniversityofPennsylvaniabiologist,identifiesthatasa"trumpet"sound,oneofdistinctvocalizationssheandhercolleagueshaverecordedinSriLanka'sUdaWalaweNationalParkoverthepastsixyears"Trumpetsareproducedactuallyinsituationsofdistress,"saysdeSilva"SotheyarenotparticularlyhappyvocalizationsTheyareeitherexcitedordistressedButinadditiontothetrumpets,AsianelephantsproduceaverypeculiarkindofsoundthatIcall‘squeaks'""SqueakstendtobeproducedalsoinsituationsofalarmandinsituationsofsubmissionSowhenanelephantisbackingawayfromanopponentorbackingawayfrominsomecases,people,andalarmedbypeopleorjackalsorperceivedthreats,theyalsoproducedanelongatedformofthatcalled'squeals'"(SlideshowCourtesyShermindeSilvaUniversityofPennsylvaniaSchoolofArtsandSciences)Asianelephantcalvesoftenemitasortofprolongedroarwhenthey'renursingorwhentheywantattention"Theyalsogivelongversionsoftheroarwhentheyareseparated,"DeSilvasays"AndyouseeanimalsroaringastheyaretryingtofindtheirsocialcompanionsWhatdowemeanwhenwesayananimalis‘social'Andthatisaverybigquestion"AccordingtoDeSilva,elephantsociallifeisbasedonavarietyoffemalebondingbehaviorsWhilesomefemaleelephantsflitfromonefavoredcompaniontoanother,othersmayvisitagroupofcompanionsfordaysorevenweeks,butalwaysreturntofavoredfriendsDeSilvaobservedanelephantpairtheynamedKamalaandKanthiwhowerenearlyinseparable"WhenIsaythatfemalesarefriendswithoneanother,theyactivelyhavechoicesinwheretheygoSotheycanchoosetobewithsomebodyornotEventhoughthatchoiceisnotapparenttousbecauseallweseethemdoingiseatingandmovingIntheclassicunderstandingofanimalbehavior,whentwoindividualsaretogetherspatiallyandtheyaretogethermoreoftenthanyou'dexpectbycoincidence,youarereasonablyjustifiedinthinkingtheypreferoneanother"Incontrast,oldermaleelephantstendtogoitaloneYoungmalesoftenseektobeintheroughvicinityofoldermales,eventhoughlittleornobondingtakesplace"Africanelephantsderivesomekindofknowledgebyfollowingaroundtheseoldermales,"DeSilvasays"Theylearntheirplaceinthehierarchy,andthereareunfortunatelyevenincidentswhereyoungmaleswhoaredeprivedofthiskindofguidancefromoldermalesorfemalesbecomeboisterousandpsychologicallytraumatized"DeSilvasaysanotherfocusofherresearchwashowtheelephantsimpactedtheSriLankanenvironmentElephantstillthesoilwiththeirtusksanddiglargeholeswherewatercancollectTheyalsouproottrees,andplantseedsthroughtheirdroppingsAlthoughelephantscancomeintoconflictwithhumansiftheyraidortramplecrops,deSilvasaystheiractivitiescanindirectlybenefithumanstoo"Iftherearen'telephantswalkingarounddispersingseeds,therearen'tgoingtobeanytrees,andiftherearen'tgoingtobetreesofaparticularkindthatgrowuptosuckupwaterandcreateclouds,thenthataffectsthewatertableTheseareallindirectandlongtimescaleinteractions,buttheyareveryimportantinteractions"DeSilvanotesthatpoaching,habitatencroachment,climatechangeandotherfactorsthreatenwildAsianelephantherds,suchasthoseinUdaWalaweAccordingtotheWildlifeConservationSociety,thepopulationofAsianelephantshasdeclinedsignificantlyinrecentdecades,andtheirsurvivalinthewildisendangeredDeSilvasaysthatiswhyitisessentialtoworkwithlocalpeopletofindwaystolivealongsidetheseimpressivecreatures,inawaythatwillallowbothhumanandelephantgroupstothriveDespiteHardTimes,VolunteeringSpikesinUSThenumberofAmericansvolunteeringintheircommunitiesjumpedbymillionlastyear,thelargestincreaseinsixyears,accordingtoarecentgovernmentreportAccordingto"VolunteeringinAmerica,"millionAmericansgavebillionhoursthroughformalorganizationsinThevolunteerratewentupamongallraceandethnicgroupsVolunteeringinAmericaisanannuallystudy"WehavefoundoutthatvolunteeringiscoretowhoweareasAmericans,"saysHeatherPeeler,spokeswomanfortheCorporationforNationalandCommunityService(CNCS),thefederalagencywhichconductedthestudy"Whatwe'vefoundisthatvolunteersareworkingwithyouththroughmentoringandtutoringMorethanaquarterofvolunteersarehelpingnonprofitorganizationsraiseneededfundsAndoneoutoffivevolunteersaregivingwhatwecall‘sweathours,'thegenerallaborthat'sneededtohelpnonprofitorganizationsrun"MoreessentialthaneverTheUnitedStateshasalongtraditionofvolunteering,asopposedtomanyEuropeancountrieswheregovernmentispervasiveandprovidesmostofbasicservices,likefreedaycareforchildrenandcomprehensivemedicalcareInaddition,recentcutsinthebudgetsofmanyUSstateshavemadevolunteeringevenmoreessentialAccordingtoPeeler,Americanvolunteersprovidedservicesvaluedatnearly$billionlastyearUtahrankednumberoneamongtheU

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