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首页 %B0%94语言学:理性主义思想史的一个篇章

%B0%94语言学:理性主义思想史的一个篇章.pdf

%B0%94语言学:理性主义思想史的一个篇章

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2011-10-13 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《%B0%94语言学:理性主义思想史的一个篇章pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankCartesianLinguisticsInthisextraordinarilyoriginalandprofoundwork,NoamChomskydiscussesthemesinthestudyoflanguageandmindsincetheendofthesixteenthcenturyinordertoexplainthemotivationsandmethodsthatunderliehisworkinlinguistics,thescienceofmind,andevenpoliticsThiseditionincludesanewandspeciallywrittenintroductionbyJamesMcGilvray,contextualizingtheworkforthetwentyfirstcenturyIthasbeenmademoreaccessibletoalargeraudiencealltheFrenchandGermanintheoriginaleditionhasbeentranslated,andthenotesandbibliographyhavebeenbroughtuptodateTherelationshipbetweentheoriginaledition(publishedin)andcontemporarybiolinguisticworkisalsoexplainedThischallengingvolumeisanimportantcontributiontothestudyoflanguageandmind,andtothehistoryofthesestudiessincetheendofthesixteenthcenturyNOAMCHOMSKYisInstituteProfessorandProfessorofLinguistics(Emeritus)intheDepartmentofLinguisticsandPhilosophyattheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyCartesianLinguisticsAChapterintheHistoryofRationalistThoughtNoamChomskyProfessorofLinguisticsMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyThirdEditioneditedwithanewintroductionbyJamesMcGilvrayCAMBRIDGEUNIVERSITYPRESSCambridge,NewYork,Melbourne,Madrid,CapeTown,Singapore,SãoPauloCambridgeUniversityPressTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKFirstpublishedinprintformatISBNISBNISBN©JamesMcGilvrayInformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorgThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofCambridgeUniversityPressCambridgeUniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetwebsitesreferredtointhispublication,anddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchwebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriatePublishedintheUnitedStatesofAmericabyCambridgeUniversityPress,NewYorkwwwcambridgeorgpaperbackeBook(EBL)hardbackContentsIntroductiontothethirdeditionjamesmcgilvraypageCartesianLinguisticsAcknowledgmentsIntroductionCreativeaspectoflanguageuseDeepandsurfacestructureDescriptionandexplanationinlinguisticsAcquisitionanduseoflanguageSummaryNotesBibliographyIndexvIntroductiontothethirdeditionJamesMcGilvrayIAnoverviewCartesianLinguistics(CL)beganasamanuscriptwrittenwhileNoamChomskywasayearoldfellowoftheAmericanCouncilofLearnedSocietiesAnearlyversionofitwaspreparedforpresentationasaChristianGausslectureonCriticismatPrincetonUniversityearlyinPerhapsbecauseitprovedbeyondtheaudience,itwasnotdelivered,andChomskypresentedagenerallectureonlinguisticsasunderstoodatthetimeThemanuscript,however,wasrevisedandpublishedinAnintellectualtourdeforce,CLisnotaneasytexttoread,butitiscertainlyarewardingoneItisanunprecedentedand–sofar–unequalledlinguistic–philosophicalstudyoflinguisticcreativityandthenatureofthemindthatisabletoproduceitCLbeginsbydescribingthesortoflinguisticcreativitythatisfoundwithvirtuallyeverysentenceproducedbyanyperson,includingyoungchildrenAsitssubtitle(“AChapterintheHistoryofRationalistThought”)suggestsitwill,though,CLsoonturnstofocusonthekindofmindthatisrequiredtomakethissortofcreativitypossible,andonthebestwaytostudysuchamind,andlanguageinitTheseventeenthcenturyphilosopherRenéDescartesfiguresprominentlyinthediscussionandthebook’stitleThisisbecausehewasamongthefirsttorecognizetheimportanceofthis‘ordinary’formoflinguisticcreativity–creativityexhibitedbyeveryone,notjustpoets–forthestudyofthehumanmindBecauseofthis,andbecauseagroupoflinguistsandphilosopherswhocameafterDescartessharedhisinsight(eventhoughtheymighthavedisagreedwithDescartesinotherways)anddirectedtheirstudyoflanguageandthemindtowardsdealingwiththeissuesitposed,Chomskytitledhisstudyoftheirworkandoftheiropponents’CartesianLinguisticsThosewhoChomskythinkscanplausiblydealwiththeissuesthatlinguisticcreativityposesforthestudyofmindandlanguagehecalls“rationalists”thosewhocannot,hecalls“empiricists”InthisintroductionIadd‘romantic’toChomsky’slabel‘rationalist’toemphasizewhatisimplicitinastudyofordinarylinguisticcreativityanditsroleinhumanthoughtandaction:thattherationalistsofinteresttohim,liketheromanticshefocuseson,recognizethecentralityineverydaylifeoffreedomofthoughtandaction,andtheytrywiththeirviewofthehumanmindtospeaktohowthiscreativityispossibleFormanyofthem–andcertainlyforChomskyinparticular–thenatureoflanguageitselfasacomponentofthemindbrainplaysacentralroleintheexplanationCartesianLinguisticshasmanyassetsOneisthatitplacesChomsky’sefforttoconstructascienceoflanguageinabroadhistoricalcontextItdoesnotpretendtobeaworkinintellectualhistoryitistoobriefandtooselectiveintheindividualsitdiscussesforthatButitdoesofferimportantinsightsintotheworksofhistoricalfigures,anduncoversanddiscussesoftenignoredbutclearlyrelevanthistoricaltextsItalsorevitalizesarivalrythathaslastedforcenturiesandthat–inandstillnow–continuesinthecognitivesciencesAnotherassetistheunderstandingitgivesofthebasicobservationsthatliebehindChomsky’s–andotherrationalist–romantics’–researchstrategyorfundamentalmethodologyforthestudyoflanguageandmindTherearetwosetsofobservationsOne–the“povertyofthestimulus”facts–focusesonthegapbetweenwhatmindsobtainwhentheyacquirearichandstructuredcognitivecapacitysuchasvisionorlanguageandthesmalland‘impoverished’inputthatthemindreceivesasitdevelopsthecapacityAnother–the“creativeaspectoflanguageuse”observations–focusesonthefactthatpeople,evensmallchildren,uselanguageinwaysthatareuncausedandinnovative,whilestillappropriateBecauseofitsextensivediscussionoflinguisticcreativity,CartesianLinguisticsfocusesmorethananyoftherestofChomsky’sworksonthecreativityfacts,andexplorestheirimplicationsforthescienceofmindandtheexplanationofbehavior–andittouchesontheirbroaderimplicationsforpoliticsandeducation,andevenart–especiallypoetryBydescribingaformofcreativitythateveryoneexercisesintheiruseoflanguage–acreativitythatfiguresinvirtuallyallthoughtandactionwherelanguagefigures–ithighlightsacommonphenomenonthatseemstodefyscientificexplanationHumansuselanguagecreativelyroutinely,yetthisroutineuseseemstobeanexerciseoffreewillIfitis,itwouldhardlybesurprisingifthetoolsofscience,whichworkwellwithdeterminationorrandomness,failtodescribeorexplaintheuseoflanguageFreeactionsareuncaused,hencenotdetermined,yettheyareneverthelesstypicallyappropriate,hencenotrandomToChomsky,astootherrationalist–romantics,thissuggeststhatifyouwanttoconstructascienceofmindandlanguage,youshouldavoidtryingtoconstructascienceofhowpeopleusetheirminds,andespeciallytheirlanguageDonottrytoconstructascienceoflinguisticbehaviorPerhaps,infact,giventhedegreetowhichlanguageinfusesandshapessomuchofhowweunderstandandact,donottrytoconstructsciencesofactionandbehavioringeneralIntroductiontothethirdeditionThisisnottosaythatoneshouldnottrytoconstructascience–infact,manysciences–ofthemindAnditdidnotstopanyoftherationalist–romantics–withthepartialbutpuzzlingexceptionofDescartes–fromtryingtoconstructsciencesofmindandlanguageAfterall,thepovertyofthestimulusfactsforlanguageandotherdomains,suchasvisionandfacialrecognition,suggestthattherecanbesciencesofatleastsomecomponentsofthemindTheyseemtoindicatethatthemindismadeupofinnatesystemsthatgrowautomatically,muchasdothehumanheartandliverAdoptingsucharesearchstrategyiscalled“nativism”rationalist–romanticsarenativistsAdoptingthisstrategy,Descartestoanextentaside,rationalist–romanticstrategistsaimedinonewayoranother,andwithdifferentdegreesofsuccess,toofferspeciesuniversal,objectivetheoriesofvariouscomponentsofthemind,componentsofthemindthatthetraditioncalled“faculties”Mentalfaculties–wewouldnowsay“modules”–doseemtoworkdeterminatelyOratleast,rationalist–romanticefforts,suchasDescartes’sventuresintoacomputationaltheoryofvision,thePortRoyalgrammarians’effortstoproduceaUniversal(“philosophical”)Grammar,Cudworth’sspeculationsaboutthenatureof“aninnatecognoscitivepower,”andvonHumboldt’sefforttodealwiththementalmachineryneededtoprovideforcreativity,havemanagedwithvaryingsuccesstodealwithaspectsofdeterministicsciencesofvariousfacultiesProgresshasbeenmuchgreatersincethemidsDavidMarrandChomskyandtheircoworkershaveproducedadvancednativistsciencesofvisionandlanguageTheirobvioussuccess–andthemorelimitedsuccessesofearlierrationalist–romantics–seemstoindicatethatitispossibletoconstructsciencesofvariouspartsofthemindbrain,althoughnotofthewaysinwhichhumansusewhatthesecomponentsprovidethemtodealwiththeworldandotherwisesolvevariousproblemsTheveryrealriskoffailurewhenonetriestogooutsidetheheadtodealwiththecomplexitiesofhumanactionandbehaviorsuggeststhatthescientistofmindshouldfocusonwhatis‘inthehead’andhowwhatisinaparticularperson’sheadcomestohavetheshapeand‘content’thatitdoes–howit‘grows’Chomsky’stermforthisstrategyforthestudyofmindis“internalist”Inadditiontoadoptingnativistassumptions,rationalist–romanticsadoptaninternalistapproachtothesciencesofmindLinguisticcreativityobservationsseemtosuggestthatthisistheonlyonelikelytoprovefullysuccessfulOfcourse,someoftheevidenceforascienceofwhatisinthehead(althoughbynomeansall)comesfromobservinghowapersonbehaves–inthecaseoflanguage,howapersonpronouncesasentence,andwhenandwheresheusesit,amongotherthingsBut,obviously,aninternalisttheoryofwhatisintheheadisnotjustacompilationofthisoranyotherkindofevidencethetheoryisconcernedwithwhatreallyisintheheadandhowitworksItisconcernedwiththeprinciplesofoperationofafacultymodule,withitsinternalIntroductiontothethirdeditioninputsandoutputs,andwithhowthisfacultydevelopsandgrowsastheorganismdevelopsItdoesnotfollow,bytheway,thattherationalist–romantictheorist’snativistandinternalistapproachtothemindhasnothingtosayaboutcreativelinguisticbehaviorandactionForassuggestedaboveitcan–anddoes–accountbothforwhatinthehumanmindmakeslinguisticcreativitypossible,andforwhylinguisticallyinformedcreativebehaviorisavailableonlytohumansInrecentyearsChomsky’slabelforhisapproachtomindandlanguagehaschangedfrom“rationalistic”to“biolinguistic”Heandothersworkinginthefieldarenowcalled“biolinguists”ThelabelchangehighlightsacharacteristicofChomsky’seffortstoconstructsciencesoflanguagefromthestartofhisworktheaimhasalwaysbeentotrytoaccommodatethescienceoflanguagetosomenaturalscience,thusbiology–forbiologyalonecanexplainhowlanguageisinnate,whyitisuniquetohumans,andhowitgrowsNevertheless,biolinguisticresearchstrategyisjusttherationalist–romantics’nativistandinternaliststrategyupdatedThesamepovertyandcreativityobservationscontinuetobehonoredRationalist–romantic(RR)researchstrategyisaliveandwellinthepracticesofbiolinguistsAthirdassetofCartesianLinguistics(CL)isthatitpointstothecentralroleoflinguisticcreativityinalmostallhumanaffairsUnlikeorganismsthatlacklanguage,wecananddothinkandtalkaboutanything,anywherewespeculateandwonder,questionanddoubt,organizeourselvesinnonkinandnoncontactcommunities,cooperatetocarryoutprojects,liveandthriveinmanyenvironments,engageinfantasyandplay,andsoonOurcognitivecapacitiesingeneralaremuchmoreflexiblethanthoseofothercreaturesWecanadapttovariousenvironmentsandsolve(andcreate)problemswelloutoftherangeofanyotherkindofcreatureWecanmakeandinterpretart,developvariousformsofreligionandthekindsofexplanationtheyoffer,developourselvesandourculturesLinguisticcreativitysurelyhasacentralroletoplayinallthis,andtheoperationsofthelanguagefacultyinmakingpossiblethiscentralfeatureofwhatmakesushuman–givingusourdistinctivehumannaturesTheimplicationsofthisgiftwerenotlostonAWSchlegelorvonHumboldtor,followingthem,ChomskySomearepoliticalIdiscusssomeofthesebrieflyinanothersectionofthisintroductionTheintroductionhasfourpartsInthenext,PartII,Idiscussinmoredetailtheplaceoftherationalist–romanticviewofthemindanditsstudyinChomsky’swork,andexplainhowthisview,andalongwithithisscienceofmind,havedevelopedsince’sCartesianLinguisticstobecomecontemporarybiolinguisticsIalsocontrastittotheempiricistviewoftherightstrategytouseininvestigatingthemind,focusingonsomeofempiricism’scontemporaryversionsOneofmyaimsinthispartistoemphasizetheimportanceoftakingDescartes’screativityobservationsseriouslyDoingthiswhilealsotakingIntroductiontothethirdeditionseriouslythepovertyofthestimulusobservationsleads–Isuggest–totheremarkableprogressseeninrecentyearsinthescientificstudyofmindandlanguagePartIIIfocusesonDescartesandhiscontributionsandfailuresTheother,PartIV,takesupbrieflysomeoftheimplicationsofbiolinguisticstudyoflanguageandmindforpoliticsandeducationReadersmightwanttoreadChomsky’srichtextrightnow,andreturntoPartIItolearnmoreabouttheRRstrategyforthestudyofmind,andaboutprogressinChomsky’sapproachtolanguagesinceAlternatively,theymightwanttoreadPartIInowtogetanoverviewoftheRRresearchstrategyandwhyitseemstoleadtoprogressinthescienceofmindwhereempiriciststrategyseemstofailPartsIIIandIVareforthosewhobecomecuriousaboutDescartes’sspecificcontributions,andabouttheimplicationsofaninternalistandnativistresearchstrategyforpoliticsandeducationThisthirdeditionofCL,likeanearliersecond,isinEnglishaloneIntheoriginaltext,ChomskyleftmanyquotationsdrawnfromtheworksofthosehediscussesinFrenchorGermanforthemostpart,heusedtranslationsonlyiftheywereavailableatthetimeTomakethesecondeditionmoreaccessibletothewideraudienceCLdeserves,SusanJudithHoffmanntranslatedthetextsinGermanthatremained,andRobertStoothoffthepartsthatremainedinFrenchMostoftheFrenchtranslationsofDescartes’sworksthatChomskyhadincludedintheoriginalhavebeenreplacedwithimprovedonesfromlatertranslations–specifically,thoseavailableinvolumes–ofJohnCottingham,RobertStoothoff,DugaldMurdoch,and(forthethirdvolumealone)AnthonyKenny’sCambridgeeditionsofThePhilosophicalWritingsofDescartesWithalltranslations,aneffortwasmadetosuitboththeoriginaltextandChomsky’sterminologySometimesthisrequiredminormodificationsinavailabletranslationstomakeclearwhatChomskyseemstohaveseenintheuntranslatedoriginalsIcannot–noonecan–guaranteethatthetranslationsorchangesexactlycapturewhattheoriginaltextsintended,ofcourse,buttheoverallresultmeets,Ibelieve,thedemandsofbothscholarandstudent,thankstoProfessorsStoothoffandHoffmann’sadmirableworkFinally,Ithankaformergraduatestudent(nowprofessor),SteveMcKay,forhisworkinthepreparationofanindexforthesecondeditiontheoriginalhadnoindexatallThecurrentindexmodifiesMcKay’stoaccommodatethisintroductionNotethefollowingconventions:Chomsky’sendnotenumberscontinuefromthoseofthenewintroductionEditorialadditionstoChomsky’snotesappearinsquarebrackets(…)forthemostpart,theseadditionsoffersuggestionsforfurtherstudyChomsky’sreferencestotextsandpagesremainastheywereintheoriginalalladditionshavetheform(Author,dateofpublication:page)IaddedbibliographicalitemsdatedafterIntroductiontothethirdeditionNoamChomskyreadthisintroductionearlyinandsentmemanyusefulcommentsIamverygratefulhiscommentsledtoseveralchangesandimprovementsIntwoplaces,IsimplyquotedwhathehadtosayIamalsoverygratefultoCedricBoeckx,OranMagal,andJuhaniYliVakkuriforreadingdraftsofthisintroductionIdon’tdoubtthaterrorsremainTheyare,however,entirelymineIIThescienceofmindandlanguageIICreativityandpoverty:internalists,nativists,andtheiropponentsRationalist–romantics(RRs)andempiricistsdifferagreatdealintheirviewsofthemindand–notsurprisingly–intheirviewsofhowthemindshouldbestudiedTheydifferbothinhowtheyconceiveofthemindhavingthe‘shape’andcontentitdoes,andinhowtheyconceiveoftheroleoftheworldoutsidetheheadinshapingandgivingcontentEmpiricistsclaimthatwelearnmuchofwhatweget–atleast,whenitcomesto‘higher’conceptsandcognitiveprocessesRRsdisagreethesearemostlyinnateComparingtheseviewshighlightsthefeaturesofeach,andallowsustoaskwhichview,andwhichresearchstrategybasedonthatview,hasthebestprospectsofsuccessToillustratetheirdifferences,letuslookathoweachcampconceivesoftwokindsofmentalentitiesandhowtheycometobeinthemind–howtheyareacquiredorlearnedOneclassconsistsof‘atomic’conceptssuchasWATER,DRINK,COLD,andthousandsofothersthatweuseinvariouswaystocarryoutvariouscognitivetasks,suchasdescribing,speculating,reminiscing,tellingstories,etcTheotherclassof‘entities’consistsoftherulesorprinciplesthatgovernhowthemindputstheelementalconceptsthatwordsexpresstogethertoassemblethecomplexconceptsexpressedbyphrasesandsentencesPhrasesinclude“drinkcoldwater,”andendlessotherssentencesinclude“Janewillonlydrinkcoldwater”andendlessothersHumans–orbetter,humanminds–routinelyputtogethercomplexessuchastheseTheRRsholdthatthemind’sconceptsandthewaysofputtingthemtogetherinlanguageandthoughtarelargelyinnatelyconfiguredtheyalsohold,then,thattherightwaytostudythemindistoconstructtheoriesofthevarioussortsofinnermentalmachinerythatputconceptsi

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%B0%94语言学:理性主义思想史的一个篇章

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