下载

2下载券

加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 英语专业四级辅导

英语专业四级辅导.doc

英语专业四级辅导

可爱臭宝007
2011-10-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语专业四级辅导doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

英语专业四级辅导卷面形式及考试时长TESTFORENGLISHMAJORSTESTFORENGLISHMAJORSMINGRADEFOURPARTI    DICTATIONMINPARTII   LISTENINGCOMPREHENSIONMINSECTIONACONVERSATIONS()SECTIONBPASSAGES()SECTIONCNEWSBROAOCAST()PARTIIICLOZE()MINPARTIVGRAMMARVOCABULARY()MINPARTV  READINGCOMPREHENSION  ()MIN PARTVIWRITING MINSECTIONACOMPOSITION MINSECTIONBNOTEWRITING    MINIII完型填空(PartIII:Cloze) 测试要求:(a)能在全面理解所给短文内容的基础上,选择一个最佳答案使短文意思和结构恢复完整(b)考试时间分钟测试形式:本部分采用多项选择题在一篇约个单词题材熟练难度中等的短文中留出个空白每个空白为一题,每题有四个选项填空的词涉及语法和词汇 测试目的:测试学生的综合语言知识和能力IV语法与词汇(PartIV:GrammarandVocabulary) 测试要求:(a)掌握并能运用<<大纲>>规定的一至四级语法内容(b)掌握<<大纲>>规定的基础阶段认知词汇(),并且能正确熟练地运用其中的个单词及其最基本的搭配(c)考试时间分钟 测试形式:本部分采用多项选择题共道题,每题有四个选项题目中约为词汇词组和短语用法题,其余为语法结构题 测试目的:测试学生掌握词汇短语及基本语法概念的熟练程度 语法考查项目从句及其引导词非谓语动词虚拟语气情态动词动词时态、语态限定词(不定代词)倒装主谓一致句子结构词汇考查形式单词辨析)形近词辨析)义近词辨析短语辨析词汇搭配词的用法完形填空应试策略完形填空与单选相同之处:①词汇知识②语法知识完形填空与单选不同之处:①篇章→上下文确定答案而非单句确定②篇章→逻辑关系→承接词a句与句之间b段与段之间c意群与意群之间篇章作用→词汇群→词汇复现①原词复现②同义、近义词复现③反义词复现④同源词复现⑤上义词复现:概述词下义词复现:分述词场所同现修饰同现因果同现结构同现一注意词汇知识的运用完形填空中对词的考查以实词为主,如名词、形容词、动词、副词等其中有相当一部分词汇题中各个选项之间并无大的联系这类题要求考生应从上下文的语义入手,根据各选项单词的意思和结构进行选择二运用篇章知识一个完整的语篇一篇内容充实、结构合理、行文流畅的短文所依赖的不只是词汇和语法更多的是篇章技巧。作者借助于篇章技巧成文考生在复现作者的语言时同样可以借助篇章技巧。完形填空毕竟不同于单项选择作为一个意思连贯、结构完整的语篇其中篇章技巧的使用是完形填空解题中至关重要的手段。运用词汇复现技巧复现有原词复现、同义词复现、反义词复现、概括词复现等。完形填空中考生可以利用上下文的复现信息确定正确的表达方式。运用词汇同现技巧同现指意义上相互联系的单词同时出现在同一语篇当中。一个语篇一个话题要求与之相联的词汇。由于单词意义的差别、所使用的语域不同因此所适应的上下文也各有别。为了保证语篇的和谐性、得体性有必要以话题为中心了解相关单词组成的词汇链。三逻辑关系一个完整的语篇应该是符合逻辑的文章逻辑关系的取得主要靠转承语的使用。正确使用转承语是保证文章连贯和谐保证文章逻辑的有效手段。作者利用转承语保证文章的逻辑考生在做完形填空时通过自己对上下文的理解找到适当的逻辑关系然后选择正确的转承语因此有必要掌握转承语的用法。完形填空的目的不是阅读而是根据阅读掌握的信息恢复写作的原貌。从转承语上来说即要求考生根据文章的语义发展和逻辑关系确定适当的词语。转承语与连词不同。连词一般是句子层面上的东西要求考生所理解的是一句中主从句之间的语义联系而转承语要求考生掌握的是语篇层面上的东西考生需根据语篇上下文的逻辑关系才能确定适当的表达发方式。因此在转承语的选择上考生要仔细阅读文章的上下文内容从整体上去把握。四根据文章类型结构解答完形填空完形填空多以说明文和议论文为主说明文、议论文一般采用分类、比较对照、因果、例证等方式谋篇。正确把握文章的结构类型有助于文章的理解也因此有助于完形填空的解答。完形填空的任务是在正确理解短文的基础上再现作者的语言表达方式为此考生应注意加强文章谋篇布局的分析。段落类型的知识不仅有利于短文的理解帮助考生掌握文章的语义发展逻辑掌握文章的细节内容考生也可以根据段落类型所提供的信息确定完形填空的选项。根据段落类型确定适当的转承语根据段落类型寻找复现、同现信息从段落类型入手把握文章内容完形填空首先是阅读理解。如果考生能了解段落的结构模式对掌握文章的具体内容是十分有帮助的。总结:完形填空能力的提高以语言知识、词汇知识、句法知识、语法知识、篇章结构知识为基础。在平时的词汇学习中应注意以话题为中心培养词汇的同现意识。另外在进行阅读时注意分析各类文章的叙事逻辑同时加强写作训练。语言能力的发展是一个综合能力发展的过程听说读写一项不可偏废。语法知识一、虚拟语气Subjunctivemood虚拟语气:表示说话人的主观愿望、假设、怀疑或推测等(一)虚拟语气在简单句中的用法虚拟语气可用在口语中使语气显得比较客气委婉。通常谓语由“should,would,could,might加动词原形”构成)陈述自己的看法IshouldliketohaveatalkwithyouIwouldliketosayafewwordsaboutit)提出请求或邀请WouldyoumindopeningthedoorCouldyoucomeandseemetomorrow)提出建议或劝告YoumightaswelltellmethetruthYou’dlikesomecoffee,wouldn’tyou)提出问题WhatwouldyouadvisemetodoCouldyoutellmeyourtelephonenumber虚拟语气可用于简单句中表示祝愿、诅咒、禁止或命令等)用动词原形LonglivetheCommunistPartyofChina!中国共产党万岁!Godblessyou!愿上帝保佑你!Goddamnyou!该死的!Heavenforbid!上天不容!Somebodyfetchabasinofwater谁去打盆水来。Everybodycomein!大家都近来!)may用于句首动词用原形Mayyoubehappy!Mayyousucceed!(二)虚拟语气在if条件状语从句中的用法对现在情况假设即与现在事实相反主句情态vv原形从句v过去式(be→were)对过去情况假设,即与过去事实相反主句情态vhavedone(v现在完成式)从句haddone(v过去完成式)对将来情况假设即将来不太可能实现的情况主句情态vv原形从句①v过去式(be→were)②shouldv原形③weretov原形虚拟语气中常用情态动词为:would,should,might,couldEgIftheyhadtime,theywouldstudyRussian,tooIfIwereyou,IshouldgoandseethedoctoratonceIcouldhavemetherifIhadcomeafewminutesearlierIfshehadn’tgotuplate,shewouldn’thavebeenlateforschoolIfitrainedtomorrow,thesportsmeetwouldbeputoffIfitshouldraintomorrow,thesportsmeetwouldbeputoffIfitweretoraintomorrow,thesportsmeetwouldbeputoff①省if在书面语和正式文体中从句中有were,should,had可省if把were,should,had放提到主语之前。EgIfitwerenotfortheirsupport,wewouldbeinaverydifficultposition→Wereitnotfortheirsupport,wewouldbeinaverydifficultpositionIfIhadleftalittleearlier,Iwouldhavecaughtthetrain→HadIleftalittleearlier,IwouldhavecaughtthetrainIfitshouldraintomorrow,whatwouldwedo→Shoulditraintomorrow,whatwouldwedo②错综时间有时候条件从句表示的动作和主句表示的动作发生的时间是不一致的(如一个是过去发生的一个是现在发生的)。这种句子被称为错综时间条件句(ConditionalSentenceofMixedTime)。这时主、从句中谓语动词的形式应按各自时间变化。EgIfyouhadseenthedoctoringoodtime,youwouldbequiteallrightnowIfwehadn’trepairedtherooflastsummer,thelivingroomwouldbewetnow(三)wish宾语从句用在wish后的宾语从句中表示不可实现的愿望。主句通常为Iwish,从句用下列形式:与现在事实相反,即目前未能实现的愿望从句v过去式(be→were)与过去事实相反即过去未能实现的愿望从句①haddone(v过去完成式)②情态vhavedone(动词的完成式)将来不太可能实现的愿望从句情态vv原形注:①如果将wish改为wished,that从句的动词形式不变②动词hope的that从句用陈述语气而不用虚拟语气。EgIwishIwereyoungagainSometimesIwishIwerelivinginadifferenttimeandadifferentplanetIwishyouhadtoldmesoonerIwishyouwouldhavecalledyesterdayIwishtheywouldtellusthetruth(四)特殊v后的宾语从句中特殊v为表示“命令、建议、要求、请求、坚持”等意义的动词宾语从句中动词形式为:(should)v原形这些动词常见的有:ask,require,request,suggest,propose,order,advocate,agree,command,demand,direct,insist,advise,prefer,second,urge,move,recommend,permit,allow,intend,desire,beg,forbid,decide,arrangeetcEgHesuggestedthatweshouldstartatonceWouldyoupreferthatIwithyouAamgoingtofishingBwillgofishingCwouldgofishingDgofishingWedesirethatthetourleaderusimmediatelyofanychangeinplansAinformBinformsCinformedDhadinformed上述动词的名词后的同位语从句或表语从句中也要求相同形式的虚拟语气。advice,agreement,requirement,request,suggestion,proposal,order,demand,insistence,preference,second,urge,motion,recommendation,permission,intention,desire,etcEgHissuggestionwasthatweshouldstartatonceTheordersooncamethatallciviliansshouldevacuatethevillageWeknewhisinsistencethathedotheworkhimselfIsecondMrGreen’smotionthatthemeetingbeputoffuntilnextweek上述动词的形容词后的that主语从句也要求相同形式的虚拟语气。advisable,desirable,preferable,urgent,…Itisadvisablethatyou(should)gotoseeadoctorItisdesirablethatyou(should)speakthelanguagefluently上述动词的被动式引出的主语从句中也要求相同形式的虚拟语气。Itisdecidedthat…Itisarrangedthat…EgItisrecommendedthattheprojectuntilallthepreparationshavebeenmadeAnotbestartedBwillnotbestartedCisnotstartedDisnottobestarted(五)asifasthough引导的方式状语从句中真实方式状从:Helooksasifheisyoung(Heisreallyyoung)虚拟方式状从:与现在事实相反从句v过去式(be在一、三人称后可用waswere通常用were较多)与过去事实相反从句v过去完成式(haddone)与将来事实相反即将来不太可能发生从句情态v(might)v原形EgHetalksasifhewereascholar(Infact,heisnotascholar)Hespeaksasifhehadseenitwithhisowneyes(Actually,hedidn’tseeitatall)Itlooksasifitmightrain(六)lest,forfearthat,incase(惟恐、以免、以防)引导的目的状语从句中从句中谓语动词用shouldv原形lest引导的目的状从中should常可省略incase引导的目的状语从句有真实和虚拟两种真实条件句中不用虚拟语气。例如:TakeanumbrellaincaseitrainsEgI’llbekindtoherlestshedecidetoleavemeHejottedthenamedownforfearthatheshouldforgetitHere’ssomemoneyincaseyoushouldneeditHetookhisraincoatwithhimlestitshouldrainIhadtorestrainhimlestheshouldgiveusaway(约束暴露)HeputhiscoatoverthechildforfearthatlestheshouldcatchcoldHeburnedalltheimportantdocumentsforfearthattheyshouldfallintotheenemy’shandsI’llkeepaseatforyouincaseyoushouldchangeyourmind(七)whatever,whoever,nomatterwhat之类代词或副词(词组)引起的让步状语从句中从句谓语动词多用may加动词原形构成。Whateverdefectshemayhave,heisanhonestmanIwon’tletyouinwhoeveryoumaybeNomatterwhatyoumaysay,IamdeterminedtodowhatIthinkisrightComewhatmay,wewillgoahead这时如果指的是一个过去的动作may后面的动词就要用完成式。Thepartywasasuccess,howeverinadequatethepreparationsmayhavebeenYoumustn’tbeproud,howevermuchyoumayhaveachieved(八)在Itisadjnthat…等结构后的主语从句中从句谓语动词用should加动词原形should可省略。(如果动作是过去发生的可用should加动词的完成式。)这里的形容词表示“重要性、必要性、可能性、命令、请求、建议”等常见词有:important,essential,vital,necessary,imperative,natural,strange,proper,advisable,desirable,preferable,urgent,incredible,itisapity,itisashame,itisnowonder,…ItisimperativethatweshouldpracticecriticismandselfcriticismItisessentialthattheseapplicationformsbesentbackasearlyaspossibleItisvitalthatenoughmoneybecollectedtofundtheprojectItisstrangethatsheshouldhavefailedtoseeherownshortcomingsItseemsincrediblethatheshouldhavefinishedtheworksosoonItisquitenaturalthatsuchfearsshouldariseItisagreatpitythatheshouldbesoconceited(自大)(九)特殊句型Itis(highveryabout)timethat从句从句中谓语动词用过去式。It’sabouttimethatclassbeganIt’shightimetheyweretaughtalessonSwouldsoonerwouldjustassoonwouldratherhadratherthat从句①从句中谓语动词用过去式Iwouldratheryoucametomorrowyoudidn’tdothat②从句中虚拟语气的形式与wish之后的that从句相同(注意:在wouldrather后的从句中过去式可用于表示现在或将来情况的虚拟语气)I’drather(that)hehadbeenhereyesterdayI’dratherhewereherenowI’dratherhewouldbeheretomorrowI’dratheryoucamenextweekendIwould(just)assoonthathehadnotspokenrudelytome用于表示惊奇、喜悦、怀疑、不满等意义的形容词后的状语从句中从句中谓语动词用should加动词原形或完成式。Iamsorry,weweresurprised,theyweredisappointed,…I’msorrythatheshouldsaysoI’msurprisedthatIshouldbeaccordedsuchaheartywelcome(十)其它词或短语引导虚拟语气Ifonly从句​ 与现在事实相反从句v过去式(be用were)​ 与过去事实相反从句v过去完成式。​ 与将来事实相反,即将来不太可能实现从句情态vv原形EgIfonlyIhadamilliondollarsIwereamillionaireIfonlyIhadn’tlostitIhadstudiedcomputeratcollegeIfonlyIwouldgoabroadButforn(短语)及withoutn(短语)结构中主句用虚拟语气。①与现在事实相反主句谓语动词用情态vv原形②与过去事实相反主句谓语动词用情态vv现在完成式(havedone)butfor=ifitwerenotforifithadnotbeenforbutthat=butforthefactthat…butfor后面接名词butthat后面接从句二者均表示“要是没有…”的意思。EgWithoutairtherewouldbenolifeatallButforyourhelp,wecouldn’thavefinishedthetaskontimeButthatIsawit,IcouldnothavebelieveditShewouldhavefallenbutthatIcaughther事实陈述句orotherwiseorelse虚拟句①与现在事实相反主句谓语动词用情态vv原形②与过去事实相反主句谓语动词用情态vv现在完成式(havedone)EgIwasillthatdayOtherwise,Iwouldhavetakenpartintheparade二、非谓语动词非谓语动词既有非动词特征又有动词特征。非动词特征:不定式具有nadjadv的特征在句中担任除谓语外任何成分动名词具有n特征在句中可作主语、宾语、定语、表语分词具有adjadv特征在句中可作主语、表语、宾补、状语动词特征:有语态和部分时态的变化可以有自己的宾语和状语同其宾语和状语一起构成短语还可有逻辑主语区别:动名词名词习惯性动作不定式将来一次性动作分词:现在分词动作正在进行表主动过去分词动作已经完成表被动(一)不定式形式:tov原形否定式:nottodo主动形式:一般式todo进行式tobedoing完成式tohavedone完成进行式tohavebeendoing被动形式:一般式tobedone完成式tohavebeendone)一般式:不定式表示的动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生或者在谓语动词表示的饿动作之后发生。I’mgladtoseeyou(同时发生)Theyinvitedustocometoaparty(不定式动作后发生))完成式:不定式表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前I’mgladtohaveseenyourmother=I’mgladthatIhaveyourmotherTheenemywasreportedtohavesurrendered=Itwasreportedthattheenemyhadsurrendered)进行式:谓语动词表示的动作发生时不定式表示的动作正在进行。Theyaresaidtobebuildinganotherbridgeovertheriver=Itissaidthattheyarebuildinganotherbridgeovertheriver)完成进行式:在谓语动词表示的动作发生前不定式表示的动作一直在进行。Theyaresaidtohavebeencollectingfolksongsthere=Itissaidthattheyhavebeencollectingfolksongsthere⊙关于不定式的时态考试中主要测试一般式、进行式和完成式的区别多数试题将正确答案设置在完成式上。为了更好地理解和掌握这一语法测试点研读和比较下列句子。TheyexpectedtheirsontodowellintheexaminationTheyexpectedtheirsontobedoingwellduringtheexaminationTheyexpectedtheirsontohavedonewellintheexamination不定式作用①作主语EgTomasteraforeignlanguageisnoteasy→It’snoteasytomasteraforeignlanguageIt’sthegreatesthappinessoflifetoloveandtobeloved注:不定式(短语)作主语通常转化成Itiswasadjn不定式(短语)其中it是形式主语(formsubject)真正的主语是后面的不定式(短语)②作表语EgHerwishistobeateacherSheseemstobehappy③作宾语EgHelovedtolistentomusicIfinditdifficulttospeakEnglishfluently下列及物动词要求不定式作宾语:afford,agree,aim,appear,arrange,ask,care,choose,decide,desire,demand,determine,help,hope,intend,learn,manage,mean,offer,plan,pretend,promise,refuse,seem,strive,tend,wish,…④作定语EgHeisthebestmantoconsultwithThereisalotofworktodo注:不定式通常作后置定语而且vi后要加介词⑤作状语a目的状语EgIstartedearlysoastoinordertogettherebeforedarksoasto和inorderto是不定式的强调形式soasto用在句中inorderto用在句中或句首否定形式:nottodosoasnottodoinordernottodob原因状语EgWeareproudtobemembersofthisteamWejumpedwithjoytohearofthegoodnewsc结果状语EgHeistooyoungtogotoschoolHeisoldenoughtogotoschoolIhurriedtotherailwaystationonlytofindthatthetrainhadleftHebehavedsofoolishlyastomakemethinkthatheisoutofhissensesHisstoryissosadastoarouseoursympathysoastosuchastoso…astosuch…astososuch区别:soadjsuchnsosuch排序:soadjaannsuchaanadjnEgHersissuchasadstoryastoarouseoursympathyHersissosadastoryastoarouseoursympathyHerstoryissuchastoarouseoursympathy⑥作补语a宾补EgChinaexpectseveryonetodohisdutyIcouldmakethemunderstandme补:要求不定式作宾补的动词:ask,tell,want,expect,invite,allow,forbid,force,oblige,urge,advise,persuade…sbtodosth要求省to不定式作宾补的动词:makehaveletsbdosthhelpsbtodosth主语不直接参与动作helpsbdosth主语直接参与动作EgThiskindofsoapwillhelpustowashtheclothesmoreeasilyTheyalwayshelpmedomyhomeworkb主补EgWeweremadetopaythemoneyAmanwasseentoenterthehouse注:主被动语态转换Smakesbdosth→sbbemadetodosthSsawamanenterthehouse→AmanwasseentoenterthehouseSsawamanenteringthehouse→Amanwasseenenteringthehouse结构与考点①否定式Youmustpromisenevertodothatagain②疑问词不定式(作主语、宾语、宾补、表语)介词疑问词不定式(作状语)EgWheretostayhasnotbeendecidedyet(主语)Shedoesn’tknowwhattodo(动词宾语)Hehadnoideaofhowtodo(介词宾语)Iaskhimwheretogetthisbook(宾语补足语)Thequestioniswhichtochoose(表语)Iwantaroomwithbigwindows,throughwhichtoseethesea(状语)③复合结构:forsbtodosthItisadjnforofsbtodosth(当形容词为表示“性格特征或行为表现”的形容词时介词用of如kind,wrong,polite,wise…)EgThebookistoodifficultforthestudentstoreadThereisnoneedforhertocomeIt’sdifficultforustolearnEnglishwellIt’skindofyoutohelpmewithmyEnglish④独立结构:作插入语表示说话人的看法or态度EgTobefrank(withyou),Idon’tcaremuchforyourprojectTheyare,sotospeak,grownupboys(可以这么说)Heisnotabadman,tobesure(固然)tobehonestwithyoutotellyouthetruth⑤分离不定式:在to与v原形之间插入advEgShepreparedtosilentlyaccompanyhim省略不定式符号to的情况(省to不定式即动词原形)①hadbetterhadbest(not)dowouldratherwouldsoonerdosththandosthwouldjustassoondosthasdo…(宁愿…也不愿…)maymight(just)aswelldo…(还是…好还不如…不妨…)cannotbutdo…(不能不不得不)EgIwouldjustassoonstayasgowithhimWemayaswellbeginatonceYoumayaswelltellthetruthWemightjustaswellstayathomeIcannotbutadmirehiscourage②感官动词或使役动词宾语动词原形宾补makehaveletsbsthdo常见感官动词:see,hear,watch,notice,observe,listento,lookat,feeletc注:makehavesbsthdone③若连词(than,as)或介词(except,but)前有do的某种形式省to反之则不省EgHedidnotsomuchassayhewassorryIdidnomorethanmakeabeginningIhavenochoicebuttoacceptthefactIdidnothingbutexceptrepairthefarmtoolsMydogdoeseverythingexceptspeak④作表语的不定式若主语中有do的某种形式可省to也可不省EgAllIdidwas(to)hithimontheheadTheonlythingwecandois(to)encouragehimtotryagainTheonlythingtodois(to)encouragehimtotryagainWhatI’lldois(to)tellherthetruth(二)动名词形式:ving否定形式:notving主动形式:一般式ving完成式havingdone被动形式:一般式beingdone完成式havingbeendone复合结构:one’sdoing作用①作主语EgSeeingisbelievingThereisnodenyingthisIt’snousegooduselesscryingoverthespiltmilk②作表语EgHishobbyiscollectingstamps③作宾语动词宾语Ihavefinishedreadingthebook介词宾语Sheisveryfondofdancing④宾补HecalledthisrobbingPetertopayPaulDoyoufindstayinghereinteresting→Doyoufinditinterestingstayinghere动名词作宾补经常转换成:vt(谓语)it(形式宾语)ving(动名词短语为真正的宾语)⑤定语动名词作定语说明人或物的性能or用途现在分词作定语表明动作进行是主谓关系Egsleepingpillsasleepingchild结构及考点:否定式和复合结构①否定式notving②复合结构:名词所有格或物主代词动名词(作主语或宾语)名词通格或代词宾格动名词(非正式文体或语中)EgIt’snousebuyingbooksbutnotreadingthemHisHimgoingtherewon’thelpmuchJohn’sJohncomingherewillgetusoutoftroubleIdon’trememberhishimgivingmebackthatdictionaryIdon’tremembermywife’swifecomplainingaboutpricesIheardofMissMary’sMarycomingback附录:有些动词后需接动名词作宾语:anticipate,appreciate,involve,remember,forget,forgive,forbid,imagine,keep,mind,regret,avoid,consider,discuss,encourage,finish,like,love,resist,delay,admitrisk,resume,suggest,advise,allow,permit,deny,dislike,favor,fancy,endure,enjoy,escape,excuse,leaveoff,overlook,miss,pardon,postpone,practice,putoff,prevent,prohibit,quit,recommend,require,resent,recall,tolerate,understand,stop,…approachtodoing,bebusydoing,objecttodoing,feellikedoing,can’thelpdoing,preferdoingAtodoingB,…有些介词和形容词后需接动名词作宾语:approachtodoing,onthepointofdoing,busydoing,objecttodoing,feellikedoing,thereis(no)pointindoing…有些句式要求动名词作宾语It’snousegooddoing…It’suselessdoing…⊙theretobe和therebeing作介词宾语时的区别theretobe和therebeing都是therebe的非谓语形式并且都可以作介词宾语二者在作介词宾语时的唯一区别在于:如果介词是for则后面接theretobe如果是其它介词则后面接therebeing。ItwasunusualfortheretobesofewpeopleinthestreetJohnwasrelyingontherebeinganotheropportunity(三)分词形式①现在分词一般式:ving否定式:notving主动一般式:doing主动完成式:havingdone被动一般式:beingdone被动完成式:havingbeendone②过去分词一般式:ved否定式:notved被动一般式:veddone③独立(主格)结构:(with)npron分词作用①作表语Mypencilwasbroken(过去分词作表语→主语状态)Herspeechwasquitestirring(现在分词作表语→主语性质)②作定语AlostopportunityneverreturnsThewomansittingatthedeskishissecretaryThematerialusediscement注:分词(短语)作定语可以转化成定语从句③作状语:分词(短语)作状语,其逻辑主语必须与句子主语一致a时间状语(When)Seeingtheprofessor,thestudentssmiledandsaidgoodmorningtohim(When)Seenfromthehill,thecitylooksbeautifulb原因状语Beingill,hestayedathomeConvincedoftheaccuracyofthedata,Istucktomyopinionc条件状语Workinghard,you’llsucceedUnited,westanddivided,wefalld让步状语Workingveryhard,hedidnotfeelalittletiredThoughbeatenbytheoppositeteam,theplayersdidnotloseconfidence(连词though→加强语气)e结果状语Aletterhasjustcome,relievingherfromanxietyNewmachineswereinstalled,thustherebyresultinginanincreaseinproduction(thusthereby→加强语气)f方式状语Travelingbycar,thestudentsvisitedmanyplacesArmedwithMarxismLeninism,thePartysolvedtheproblemsoneafteranotherg伴随状语Theteacher,followedbysomestudents,wentontotheclassroomTheystayedathomeallday,givingthehouseathoroughcleaning④补语a宾补IamsorryIhavekeptyouwaitingIhavemyhaircutonceamonth(谓语v多为使役v和感官v)b主补ShewasseengoingupstairsTheworkwaslefthalfdone结构与考点①分词短语作状语(其逻辑主语必须与句子主语一致)Havingworkedforanhour,hedidn’tfeeltiredyet(现在分词working的现在完成式)Havingbeenquestionedforanhour,headmittedhavingstolenthemoney(过去分词questioned的现在完成被动式)(havingstolen为动名词现在完成式)⊙现在分词与过去分词作状语时的区别一般说来现在分词与过去分词作句子状语时的主要区别在于:现在分词表示主动的意思而过去分词表示被动的意思。Pleasefillinthisform,givingyourname,address,etcHestoodthere,surroundedby

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/41

英语专业四级辅导

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利