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首页 认知心理学 英文清晰版

认知心理学 英文清晰版.pdf

认知心理学 英文清晰版

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2011-10-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《认知心理学 英文清晰版pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

COGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGYPHILIPQUINLANBENDYSONCOGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGYPHILIPQUINLANBENDYSONCOGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGYPHILIPQUINLANBENDYSON“TherearemanystrengthstothisbookperhapsthemostimportantoftheseistheconceptualframeworkaroundwhicheachtopicisdiscussedThematerialishighlycontemporary”DrRichardJTunney,UniversityofNottinghamCognitivePsychologyprovidesalivelyandengagingintroductiontothefield,offeringcompletecoverageofalltheBritishPsychologicalSociety(BPS)requiredtopicsincludingmemory,languageandreasoningUnderpinnedthroughoutbyclassicandcontemporaryresearch,thistextprovidesaclearanddetailedaccountofkeyexperiments,theoriesandconceptswithcriticalanalysisoftheissuessurroundingthemExamples,colourphotosandillustrationsareincludedthroughouttoillustratethetheoreticaldiscussionandenablestudentstograspthepracticalapplicationsofCognitivePsychologyFeaturesArangeoffeatureshasbeendesignedtohelpstudentsconsolidatetheirunderstandingofcoreconceptsandpromoteengagementwithongoingresearchinthefieldTheseinclude:•Openingexamplesandreflectivequestionsintroducethechapterandpresentthemainthemeofdiscussionwithinalivelyframework•Researchfocusboxesoutlineandcriticallyanalysecontemporaryresearchdiscoveries•Forexampleboxespresentrealworld,topicalillustrationsofimportantconceptsandideasdiscussedinthetext•Whathavewelearntboxesofferaconcisesummaryofcontemporarytopics,questions,theoriesandargumentsinthebookanddevelopskillsincriticalthinking•Pinpointquestionsencourageyoutoconsolidateyourunderstandingoftheideasandtopicsdiscussed•Keytermsprovideusefuldefinitionsofthetermswithinthetext“ThisbookgivesarefreshinginsightintothebasicsofCognitivePsychology,anditwillstimulatestudentstothinkinascientificway”ProfessorEricSoetens,UniversityofBrussels(VUB),BelgiumwwwpearsonbookscomACompanionWebsiteaccompanyingthebookoffersavarietyofinteractivefeaturestoallowyoutoconsolidateyourunderstandingandfurtheryourlearningThiscanbefoundat:wwwpearsonedcoukquinlan“Thisdistinctivetextlookslikelytosetanewpaceamongstitscompetitors”DrAndrewKDunn,NottinghamTrentUniversityAbouttheauthorsDrPhilipQuinlanisSeniorLecturerinPsychologyattheUniversityofYork,UKDrBenDysonisLecturerinPsychologyattheUniversityofSussex,UK“AparticularlygoodfirstintroductiontothemostimportantissuesinCognition”DrJeanMcConnell,GlasgowCaledonianUniversity“AnoutstandingpublicationthatsetsanewandremarkablyhighstandardforCognitiontextbooksWithitsaccessiblewritingstyle,andperfectblendofdataandtheory,thisbooklinksseamlesslythefoundationsofCognitivePsychologywiththemostrecentresearchfindingsinthefieldAbreakthroughtextbookthatwillstimulateandexcitethestudentandinstructoralike!”ProfessorAlanKingstone,UniversityofBritishColumbia,CanadaWhatdolookingforyoursuitcaseonabaggagecarouselato’clockinthemorning,sortingoutclothesintimeforthesummerandwaitingintherainforabusthatnevercomes,allhaveincommonTheyalldemonstratehowtheconceptsofCognitivePsychologycanbefoundineverydaylifeCoverimage©PeggyStJacquesCOVERindd::COGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGYVisittheCognitivePsychologyCompanionWebsiteatwwwpearsonedcoukquinlantofindvaluablestudentlearningmaterialincluding:Foreachchapteryouwillfindthefollowingresources•Remindyourself–Aquicktesttogetanideaofhowwellyouunderstandthemaintopicscoveredinachapter–Anamesanddatesquiztohelprecallimportantfiguresandtheirtimeofwriting–Aconcentrationgametotestyourunderstandingofkeyterms•Testyourself–Forthemaintopicsineachchapter,exploreanimationsanddiagramsfromthetextAssessedmultiplechoicequestionswillhelptestyourunderstandingofkeyconceptsinCognitivePsychology•Goingfurther–AnnotatedweblinkstoclassicexperimentsandannotatedweblinkstothelatestresearchallowyoutoexploretopicsinmoredepthOnenteringthesiteforthefirsttimeselectRegisterYouwillthenbeaskedtoprovidesomepersonaldetailswhenyoucreateyouruseraccountCOGPAqxd:AMPageiWeworkwithleadingauthorstodevelopthestrongesteducationalmaterialsinpsychology,bringingcuttingedgethinkingandbestlearningpracticetoaglobalmarketUnderarangeofwellknownimprints,includingPrenticeHall,wecrafthighqualityprintandelectronicpublicationswhichhelpreaderstounderstandandapplytheircontent,whetherstudyingoratworkTofindoutmoreaboutthecompleterangeofourpublishing,pleasevisitusontheWorldWideWebat:wwwpearsonedcoukCOGPAqxd:AMPageiiCOGNITIVEPSYCHOLOGYPHILIPQUINLANBENDYSONCOGPAqxd:AMPageiiiPearsonEducationLimitedEdinburghGateHarlowEssexCMJEEnglandandAssociatedCompaniesthroughouttheworldVisitusontheWorldWideWebat:wwwpearsonedcoukFirstpublished©PearsonEducationLimitedTherightsofPhilipQuinlanandBenDysontobeidentifiedasauthorsofthisWorkhavebeenassertedbytheminaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withouteitherthepriorwrittenpermissionofthepublisheroralicencepermittingrestrictedcopyingintheUnitedKingdomissuedbytheCopyrightLicensingAgencyLtd,SaffronHouse,–KirbyStreet,LondonECNTSISBNBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongressTypesetinptMinionbyPrintedandboundbyRotolitoLombarda,ItalyThepublisher’spolicyistousepapermanufacturedfromsustainableforestsCOGPAqxd:AMPageivDedicationPQ:ToAmandaBD:ToMumandDadCOGPAqxd:AMPagevBritishPsychologicalSocietyStandardsinCognitivePsychologyTheBritishPsychologicalSociety(BPS)accreditspsychologydegreeprogrammesacrosstheUKIthassetguidelinesastowhichmajortopicsshouldbecoveredwithincognitivepsychologyWehavelistedthesetopicsbelowandindicatedwhereinthistextbookeachiscoveredmostfullyTopicChapterPerception:visualinformationprocessing,auditoryperceptionandspeechrecognitionChapters–AttentionChapters,VisualandspatialimageryChapters,ComprehensionChapters,ConceptualknowledgeChapterLearningChapters,,SkillacquisitionandexpertiseChapterMemory:encodingandretrievalprocesses,working,autobiographical,episodicandsemanticmemory,implicitandexplicitmemory,memoryimprovementChapters–Thinkingandreasoning,problemsolving,decisionmakingChapterLanguage:structure,comprehension,production,readingChapterConnectionistmodelsChapters,EmotionandcognitionChapterCOGPAqxd:AMPageviBriefcontentsListoffiguresandtablesxxivGuidedtourxxxPrefacexxxvAcknowledgementsxxxviiAbouttheauthorsxxxviiiChapterFoundationsChapterInformationprocessingandnatureofthemindChapterVisualprocessesandvisualsensorymemoryChapterMasking,thresholdsandconsciousnessChapterAnintroductiontoperceptionChapterTheoriesofperceptionChapterMentalrepresentationChapterAttention:generalintroduction,basicmodelsanddataChapterAttentionalconstraintsandperformancelimitationsChapterHumanmemory:anintroductionChapterHumanmemory:fallibilitiesandfailuresChapterSemanticmemoryandconceptsChapterObjectrecognitionChapterThenatureoflanguageanditsrelationtotheothermentalfacultiesChapterReasoningChapterCognitionandemotionBibliographyGlossaryNameindexSubjectindexPublisher’sacknowledgementsCOGPAqxd:AMPageviiSupportingresourcesVisitwwwpearsonedcoukquinlantofindvaluableonlineresourcesCompanionWebsiteforstudentsForeachchapteryouwillfindthefollowingresources•Remindyourself–Aquicktesttogetanideaofhowwellyouunderstandthemaintopicscoveredinachapter–Anamesanddatesquiztohelprecallimportantfiguresandtheirtimeofwriting–Aconcentrationgametotestyourunderstandingofkeyterms•Testyourself–Forthemaintopicsineachchapter,exploreanimationsanddiagramsfromthetextAssessedmultiplechoicequestionswillhelptestyourunderstandingofkeyconceptsinCognitivePsychology•Goingfurther–AnnotatedweblinkstoclassicexperimentsandannotatedweblinkstothelatestresearchallowyoutoexploretopicsinmoredepthOnenteringthesiteforthefirsttimeselectRegisterYouwillthenbeaskedtoprovidesomepersonaldetailswhenyoucreateyouruseraccountAlso:theCompanionWebsiteprovidesthefollowingfeatures:•Searchtooltohelplocatespecificitemsofcontent•Emailresultsandprofiletoolstosendresultsofquizzestoinstructors•OnlinehelpandsupporttoassistwithwebsiteusageandtroubleshootingForinstructors•Onlinetestbankofoverquestions•PowerPointslidesfeaturingfiguresandtablesfromthebook•PowerPointsetoflecturesinCognitivePsychology•AsetofteachingideasforusewiththebookFormoreinformationpleasecontactyourlocalPearsonEducationsalesrepresentativeorvisitwwwpearsonedcoukquinlanCOGPAqxd:AMPageviiiContentsListoffiguresandtablesxxivGuidedtourxxxPrefacexxxvAcknowledgementsxxxviiAbouttheauthorsxxxviiiChapterFoundationsLearningobjectivesChaptercontents‘Ifyoudon’tbelieve,shewon’tcome’:PlaygroundhypothesisingaboutthetoothfairyReflectivequestionsPart:AnhistoricalperspectiveandwhythereismoretocognitivepsychologythanmeetstheeyeIntroductionandpreliminaryconsiderationsTheabstractnatureofcognitivepsychologyDualismandoneofthemanymindbodyproblemsBehaviourismThelawsofbehaviourTheprinciplesofassociationismAssociativeprocessesandlearningaboutcausationSomegeneralpointsaboutbehaviourismResearchfocus:AreyoulookingatmeTheroleofracewhenfearstaresyouinthefaceMethodologicalbehaviourismBehaviourismandfreewillBehaviourismandthescienceofpsychologyLogicalbehaviourismCriticismsoflogicalbehaviourism‘Testabilityisfalsifiability’:cognitivepsychologyandtheorytestingOccam’sRazor:thebeautyofsimplicitySimplicityandthethermostatSimplicityandcognitivetheoryResearchfocus:Reefermadness:behaviouralsolutionstomarijuanaproblemsCOGPAqxd:AMPageixContentsxPart:AnintroductiontothenatureofexplanationincognitivepsychologyHowthemindandthebrainarerelatedCentralstateidentitytheoryTypeidentitytheoryThedifferentbrainsproblemTokenidentitytheoryFunctionandfunctionalroleFunctionalismFlowchartsofthemind:distinctionsbetweenmind,brain,softwareandhardwareFunctionaldescriptionandareturntothethermostatFunctionalismandinformationprocessingsystemsMarr’slevelsofexplanationandcognitivepsychologyThelevelofthecomputationaltheoryTheleveloftherepresentationandthealgorithmThelevelofthehardwareLevelsofexplanationandinformationprocessingsystemsResearchfocus:What’sacomputerHalfacenturyplayingtheimitationgameLevelsofexplanationandreductionismConcludingcommentsChaptersummaryAnswerstopinpointquestionsChapterInformationprocessingandnatureofthemindLearningobjectivesChaptercontentsHoldthebells!TheunfortunatecaseofthemodularfruitmachineReflectivequestionsPart:AnintroductiontocomputationandcognitivepsychologyIntroductionandpreliminaryconsiderationsDifferentmethodologicalapproachestothestudyofthemindThecognitiveapproachTheartificialintelligenceapproachTheneuroscienceapproachInformationtheoryandinformationprocessingAbriefintroductiontoinformationtheoryInformationandthenotionofredundancyInformationtheoryandhumaninformationprocessingThecomputationalmetaphorofmindandhumancognitionThenakeddesktop:theinternalworkingsofadigitalcomputerlaidbarePhysicalsymbolsystemsSymbolicrepresentationSymbolicrepresentationandmemoryInformationprocessingandtheinternalsetofoperationsControlCOGPAqxd:AMPagexContentsxiThespecialnatureofmindsandcomputersRulefollowingvsrulegovernedsystemsMentalcomputationTheformalityconditionTheformalityconditionandstrongAIPart:SowhatisthemindreallylikeMarr’sprincipleofmodulardesignResearchfocus:Wearenotamusiaed:ismusicmodularisedOtherconceptionsofmodularityThenatureofhorizontalfacultiesThenatureofverticalfaculties:adifferentkindofpotheadFodor’smodulesHowisitbesttocharacterisemodulesModularityandcognitiveneuropsychologyCognitiveneuropsychologyResearchfocus:Lifeaftertrauma:theastonishingcaseofPhineasGageandtheironrodThelogicofthecognitiveneuropsychologicalapproachAssociationdeficitsDissociationdeficitsCognitivedeficitsandcognitiveresourcesDoubledissociationsResearchfocus:It’srudetopoint:doubledissociationsandmanualbehaviourConcludingcommentsChaptersummaryAnswerstopinpointquestionsChapterVisualprocessesandvisualsensorymemoryLearningobjectivesChaptercontentsCatchingthelastbushomeReflectivequestionsIntroductionandpreliminaryconsiderationsAnintroductiontosensorymemoryVisualsensorymemory:iconicmemoryEarlyexperimentalinvestigationsoficonicmemoryResearchfocus:Blinkingheck!WhathappenstoiconicmemorywhenyoublinkIconicmemoryandvisualmaskingIconicmemoryandvisiblepersistenceVisiblevsinformationalpersistencePuzzlingfindingsandthetraditionaliconThe‘eyeasacamera’viewofvisualperceptionThediscretemomentandthetravellingmomenthypothesesIconsasretinalsnapshotsCOGPAqxd:AMPagexiContentsxiiCodinginthevisualsystemVisualframesofreferenceResearchfocus:Honkifyoucanhearme:listeningtotrainsinsidecarsTurvey’s()experimentsonmaskingVisualmaskingandtheorganisationofthevisualsystemFurtherevidenceonwheretheiconisResearchfocus:Going,going,gone:iconicmemoryindementiapatientsIconicmemoryandthemoredurablestoreApertureviewingConcludingcommentsChaptersummaryAnswerstopinpointquestionsChapterMasking,thresholdsandconsciousnessLearningobjectivesChaptercontentsWhileyouweresleeping:ThecontinuingjoysofcommunallivingReflectivequestionsIntroductionandpreliminaryconsiderationsThesequentialaccountofprocessingandTurvey’sworkonvisualmaskingTheconcurrentandcontingentmodelofmaskingMaskingbyobjectsubstitutionFeedforwardandfeedbackprocessesFeedbackasreentrantvisualprocessesMaskingandconsciousnessSemanticactivationwithoutconsciousidentificationAllport()ProblemsforAllport()andareinterpretationofhisdataDrawingthelinebetweenconsciousandnonconsciousprocessingPerceptualthresholdsThresholdsandconsciousperceptionResearchfocus:DidyousaysomethingSubliminalpriminginauditionThetraditionalviewofanabsolutethresholdVariablethresholdsandsubjectivefactorsThresholdsandperceptualdefenceResearchfocus:Slaportickle:dowehaveapreferenceforthedetectionofnegativeorpositivewordsPerceptualdefence:aperceptualeffectThresholdsandsignaldetectiontheoryThetraditionalinterpretationofSDTininformationprocessingtermsPerceptualdefenceaperceptualeffectBroadbentandGregory(a)revisitedMorerecentaccountsofsemanticactivationwithoutconsciousidentificationMarcel’sworkonsemanticactivationwithoutconsciousidentificationPerceptionwithoutawarenessAreappraisalofMarcel’sfindingsCheesmanandMerikle()COGPAqxd:AMPagexiiContentsxiiiResearchfocus:Payingyourwayintoconsciousness:canpostdecisionwagersmeasureawarenessPerceptionwithoutawarenessMoreprovocativeevidenceJusthoweffectiveisvisualmaskinginhaltingstimulusprocessingConcludingcommentsChaptersummaryAnswerstopinpointquestionsChapterAnintroductiontoperceptionLearningobjectivesChaptercontents‘Itonlyattackswhenthemoonisaglow’:TheBeastofBurnleyReflectivequestionsIntroductionandpreliminaryconsiderationsDistinguishingperceptionfromcognitionDrawingadistinctionbetweentheperceptualsystemandthecognitivesystemFamiliarityandperceptionFamiliarityandwordrecognitionSensoryperceptualaccountsoftheeffectsoffamiliarityDecisionalpostperceptualaccountsoffamiliarityExplainingthewordfrequencyeffectActivevspassivetheoriesofperceptionFamiliarityeffectsreflectlateprocessesFamiliarityeffectsreflectearlyprocessesRecencyandexpectancyTheperceptionofambiguousfiguresResearchfocus:Flipflopping:children’sresponsestoambiguousfiguresAttemptingtodisentangleeffectsofrecencyfromthoseofexpectancyRecencyandrepetitionprimingExpectancyandsetInstructionalsetMentalsetMoregeneralconclusionsTheOldLookNewLookschoolsinperceptionTheOldLook:GestalttheoryTheGestaltlawsofperceptualorganisationThePrincipleofPrägnanzGestalttheoryandthebrainMentalcopiesandperceptualorganisationResearchfocus:ThegestationofGestalt:howinfantslearntogroupperceptuallyTheNewLookBruner’sperceptualreadinesstheoryPerceptionasaprocessofunconsciousinferenceThelikelihoodprincipleThepovertyofthestimulusargumentCOGPAqxd:AMPagexiiiContentsxivPerceptualinferencemakingResearchfocus:Yousawthewholeofthecube:spatialneglectandNeckerdrawings

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