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首页 艾瑞克森催眠(电子书英文版)催眠体验-意识转换的治疗.pdf

艾瑞克森催眠(电子书英文版)催眠体验-意识转换的治疗.pdf

艾瑞克森催眠(电子书英文版)催眠体验-意识转换的治疗.pdf

上传者: ellen 2011-09-25 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《艾瑞克森催眠(电子书英文版)催眠体验-意识转换的治疗pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含EXPERIENCINGHYPNOSIS:THERAPEUTICAPPROACHESTOALTEREDSTATESByMiltonHErickson符等。

EXPERIENCINGHYPNOSIS:THERAPEUTICAPPROACHESTOALTEREDSTATESByMiltonHErickson,MDandErnestLRossi,PhDIRVINGTONPUBLISHERS,Inc,NewYorkCopyrightErnestLRossiAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanymannerwhatever,includinginformationstorageorretrieval,inwholeorinpart(exceptforbriefquotationsincriticalarticlesorreviews),withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisherForinformation,writeto:IrvingtonPublishers,IncBroadway,NYNYISBNPRINTEDINTHEUNITEDSTATESReprintEditionEXPERIENCINGHYPNOSIS:THERAPEUTICAPPROACHESTOALTEREDSTATESDrMiltonEricksonandDrErnestRossiWededicatethisvolumetoElizabethEricksonandMargaretRyan,whosethoughtfuleditorialworkhasmadeitpossibleCONTENTSIntroductionITheIndirectApproachestoHypnosisaHypnosisinPsychiatry:TheOceanMonarchLecturebUtilizationApproachestoIndirectCommunicationLanguageandtheArtofSuggestionMultipleLevelsofCommunicationinHypnosisInternalResponsesastheEssenceofSuggestionIndirectCommunicationintheOceanMonarchLectureIICatalepsyinHypnoticInductionandTherapyaCatalepsyinHistoricalPerspectivebRecognizingSpontaneousCatalepsycFacilitatingCatalepsydUtilizingCatalepsyeSummaryfExerciseswithCatalepsyDemonstrationintheUseofCatalepsyinHypnoticInduction:HandLevitationinaBlindSubjectIIIIdeomotorSignalinginHypnoticInductionandTherapyaIdeomotorMovementsandSignalinginHistoricalPerspectivebRecognizingSpontaneousIdeomotorSignalingcFacilitatingIdeomotorSignalingdFacilitatingIdeosensorySignalingeUtilizingIdeomotorSignalingfSummarygExercisesinIdeomotorSignalingAnAudioVisualDemonstrationofIdeomotorMovementsandCatalepsy:TheReverseSettoFacilitateHypnoticInductionIVTheExperientialLearningofTrancebytheSkepticalMindSessionOne:TheExperientialLearningofMinimalManifestationsofTranceSessionTwo:TheExperientialLearningofHypnoticPhenomenaDissociationandtheModernExperientialApproachtoAlteredStatesLearningIndirectCommunication:FramesofReference,Metalevels,andPsychotherapyINTRODUCTIONThisbookisacontinuationofourearlierworkinHypnoticRealities(Erickson,Rossi,Rossi,)andHypnotherapy:AnExploratoryCasebook(EricksonRossi,),wherebytheseniorauthor,MiltonHErickson,trainsthejuniorauthor,ErnestLRossi,inclinicalhypnosisTakentogether,thesethreevolumespresentadeepeningviewofwhathypnosisisandthewaysinwhichacreativeprocessofhypnotherapycanbeachievedThematerialinthesevolumestouchesultimatelyonthenatureofhumanconsciousnessandsuggestsavarietyofopenendedapproachestofacilitateitsexplorationinhypnotherapyaswellasinmoreformalresearchsituationsIndirectcommunicationistheoverallconceptweusetocoverwhatwehavevariouslydescribedastwolevelcommunication,thenaturalisticapproach,andtheutilizationapproachThecommondenominatorofalltheseapproachesisthathypnotherapyinvolvessomethingmorethansimpletalkonasingle,objectivelevelThereadilyapparent,overtcontentofamessageislikethetipofanicebergTherecipientofindirectcommunicationisusuallynotawareoftheextenttowhichhisorherassociativeprocesseshavebeensetinmotionautomaticallyinmanydirectionsHypnoticsuggestionreceivedinthismannerresultsintheautomaticevocationandutilizationofthepatient'sownuniquerepertoryofresponsepotentialstoachievetherapeuticgoalsthatmighthavebeenotherwisebeyondreachInourpreviousvolumesweoutlinedtheoperationofthisprocessasthemicrodynamicsoftranceinductionandsuggestionAlthoughthisistheessenceoftheseniorauthor'soriginalcontributiontomodernsuggestiontheory,wewillreviewinthisvolumesomeofthemanymeansandmeaningsthatotherauthorshaveusedastheystruggledtoreachanunderstandingofindirectcommunicationinthelonghistoryofhypnosisThefirstsectionofthisvolumepresentsanhistoricallyimportantlectureonclinicalhypnosisbytheseniorauthorwhereinwewitnesshistransitionfromtheolderauthoritarianapproachtohypnosistothenewpermissiveapproaches,whichhepioneeredDuetotheuniquenatureofthispresentation,anaudiocassetteofitaccompaniesthisvolumeWestronglyrecommendthatourprofessionalreaderslistentothiscassetteandsavoritabitbeforedealingwiththelectureaspresentedinthetextThesecondandthirdsectionsofthisvolumefocusonthephenomenaofcatalepsyandideomotorsignaling,twooftheseniorauthor'sbasicapproachestotranceinductionandhypnotherapyTheprimaryconcernisthepracticalquestionofhowtoinducetherapeutictranceandhowtoevokethepatient'srepertoryoflifeexperiencesandinvoluntaryresponsesystemsthatareutilizedinhypnotherapyAsischaracteristicofourpreviouswork,thegrowingedgeofourcurrentunderstandingofthesubjectiveexperienceofclinicaltranceandalteredstatesisdiscussedthroughoutAfilmofEricksonmadebyErnestHilgardandJayHaleyatStanfordUniversityisavailablefromIrvingtonPublishersforstudybyseriousstudentswhowishtoobservethenonverbalaspectsofErickson'sIinnovativeworkutilizingthereversesetinhypnoticinductionpresentedinSectionIIIWebelievethatfurtherresearchonanddevelopmentofthisreversesetapproachwillgreatlyexpandourunderstandingofthedynamicsoftranceandserveasthefoundationforanewgenerationofmoreeffectiveapproachesinhypnotherapyThefourthsection,dealingwiththeexperientiallearningofhypnosis,illustratesoneoftheseniorauthor'sfavoriteoccupationsinrecentyears:thetrainingofprofessionalsintheuseofclinicalhypnosisbyallowingthemtoexperiencetheprocessthemselvesThetwosessionspresentedinthissectionareillustrativeoftheproblemfacedbyamodern,rational,scientificallytrainedmindinlearningtoexperiencehypnoticphenomenaHereinareillustratedmanyofthephenomenaandparadoxesofmodernconsciousnessasitseekstounderstandmoreaboutitselfbymakinganefforttotranscenditscurrentlimitationsErnestRossiMalibu,CaliforniaSECTIONITheIndirectApproachtoHypnosisWebeginherebyillustratingtheindirectapproachtohypnoticcommunicationthroughthetranscriptionofalecturegivenbytheseniorauthorbeforeagroupofhisprofessionalcolleaguesWethenoutlineourcurrentunderstandingofthisapproachanditsrelevanceforfacilitatingtheprocessesofhypnoticinductionandtherapeutictranceAHYPNOSISINPSYCHIATRY:THEOCEANMONARCHLECTUREThislectureisanunusuallyclearandsuccinctpresentationoftheseniorauthor'sapproachtohypnoticinductionandhypnotherapyGivenattheheightofhisteachingcareer,itrepresentsanimportantshiftawayfromtheauthoritarianmethodsofthepasttohispioneeringworkwiththemorepermissiveandinsightfulapproachescharacteristicofourcurrenteraIntheactualwordsofthispresentationwecanwitnesshowimportantconceptsareintransitionWhileEricksonstillusesthewordstechniqueandcontrolanumberoftimesandevenmanipulateandseduceappearonceeachitisevidentfromthebroadercontextthattheyareoutmodedinthetraditionalauthoritariansenseinwhichtheyhadbeenusedAparadigmaticshiftistakingplaceinthispresentation:Itisnowrecognizedthatthemostsignificantpersoninthehypnotherapeuticinteractionisthepatient,notthetherapistThepatient'spotentialsandproclivitiesaccountformostofthevariance(whatactuallyhappens)inhypnotherapy,notthepurported"powers"ofthehypnotistThetherapistdoesnotcommandthepatientrather,astheseniorauthorsays,"Itisalwaysamatterofofferingthempatientstheopportunityofrespondingtoanidea"ItisnowrecognizedthatthehypnotherapistoffersthepatientmanyapproachestohypnoticexperienceratherthanimposinghypnotictechniquesTheconceptoftechniqueimpliesthemechanicalandrepetitiousapplicationofaparticularprocedureinthesamewaytoeverypatientwiththeintentofproducingapreconceivedandpredictableresponseTheconceptofapproachesimpliestheprofferanceofalternativestohelpeachpatientbypasshisorherownparticularlearnedlimitationssothatthevarioushypnoticphenomenaandhypnotherapeuticresponsesmaybeexperiencedTherapistsdonot"control"thepatientsrather,theyhelpthepatientslearnto"utilize"theirownpotentialsandrepertoryofunconsciousskillsinnewwaystofacilitatethedesiredtherapeuticoutcomeThisneworientationrequiresthedevelopmentofmanyobservationalandperformanceskillsbyhypnotherapistsMorethaneveritisrequiredthattheylearntorecognizeandappreciateeachpatientasauniqueindividualEveryhypnotherapeuticinteractionisessentiallyacreativeendeavorcertainknownprinciplesarebeingapplied,buttheinfinitepossibilitieswithineachpatientrequireanessentiallyexploratoryapproachtoachievethetherapeuticgoalsThislectureishighlycharacteristicoftheseniorauthor'sstyleofpresentinghisapproachtohypnoticinductionandhypnotherapyListeningtoitonthecassetteaccompanyingthisvolumeinarelaxedmoodmayhaveimportantvaluesforthereaderthatarenotcontainedintheeditedversionpresentedinthisvolumeBeforereadinganyfurther,then,thereadermaybestlistentothecassettelabeled"HypnosisinPsychiatry:TheOceanMonarchLecture"ThosereaderswhoarefamiliarwithourtwopreviousbooksinthisserieswillknowwhywerecommendlisteningtothecassettefirstOtherreaderswillunderstandthereasonsafterreadingthediscussionofthistapethatfollowsitseditedversiononthesepagesPleaselistennowtothelectureAHYPNOSISINPSYCHIATRY:TheOceanMonarchLectureTheConsciousandtheUnconsciousMindIdonotnecessarilyintendtodemonstratehypnosistoyoutodaysomuchastodiscussitsuseinpsychiatryHowever,theuseofhypnosisinpsychiatryactuallyappliestotheuseofhypnosisinanyothermedicalfield,whetherdental,dermatology,orwhateveritmightbeThefirstideaIwanttoimpressuponyouisonewayofthinkingaboutyourpatientsclinicallyItisdesirabletousethisframeworkbecauseoftheeaseofconceptformationforthepatientIliketoregardmypatientsashavingaconsciousmindandanunconscious,orsubconscious,mindIexpectthetwoofthemtobetogetherinthesameperson,andIexpectbothofthemtobeintheofficewithmeWhenIamtalkingtoapersonattheconsciouslevel,Iexpecthimtobelisteningtomeatanunconsciouslevel,aswellasconsciouslyAndthereforeIamnotverygreatlyconcernedaboutthedepthofthetrancethepatientisinbecauseIfindthatonecandoextensiveanddeeppsychotherapyinthelighttranceaswellasinthedeepermediumtranceOnemerelyneedstoknowhowtotalktoapatientinordertosecuretherapeuticresultsLearningOne'sOwnMethodofSuggestionFollowingthePatient'sLeadNowthenextthingIwanttostressisthetremendousneedforeachdoctortoworkoutamethodofsuggestionforhimselfIndevelopingmyowntechnique,IworkedoutwhatIfeltwasagoodhypnotictechniqueItwasabouttypewrittenpages,singlespaced,ofthevarioustypesofsuggestionsnecessarytoinduceadeeptranceAndthenIslowlycutitdownfromtypewrittenpagessinglespacedto,to,to,to,to,andsoon,sothatIcouldusethewholepagesorIcouldusejustonepageoroneparagraphButIlearnedthoroughlyhowtograduatemysuggestions,andhowtoleadfromonesuggestiontoanotherWhenonedoesthatsortofthing,onelearnshowtofollowtheleadsgivenbyhispatientTranceInduction:CatalepsytoHeightenResponsivenessIninducingatranceinyourpsychiatricpatientor,forthatmatter,anypatient,itisthefashioninwhichyoupresentthesuggestiontothepatientthatisimportantForexample,someofyouhaveseenmedemonstratetheproperwaytotakeholdofapatient'swristToooften,adoctorwillgrabholdofawristandliftitupforciblyButwhenIliftsomeone'shand,Ipurposelydosoinavery,verygentlefashionsothatthereisjustasuggestionthatIamliftingthearm,andjustasuggestionthatIamtryingtomoveitthiswayorthatwayAndthemoregentleyoucanbeinthephysicaltouchofthearm,whenyouareliftingitupintheairtoinducecatalepsy,themoreeffectiveitisAnyforcibleseizureofthepatient'sarmcausesdifficultybecauseyouwanttostimulatethepatienttoberesponsivetoyouHypnosisisprimarilyastateinwhichthereisincreasedresponsivenesstoideasofallsortsAndoneemploysthatresponsivenessnotbytryingtoforce,butbytryingtoelicitanimmediateresponseandtoelicititbyhavingthepatientparticipateInexactlythesameway,Idonotlikethismatteroftellingapatient,"Iwantyoutogettiredandsleepy,andtogettiredandsleepier"ThatisanefforttoforceyourwishesuponthepatientThatisanefforttodominatethepatientItismuchbettertosuggestthattheycangettired,thattheycangetsleepy,thattheycangointoatranceForitisalwaysamatterofofferingthemtheopportunityofrespondingtoanideaPatient'sFreedomtoRespond:PositiveandNegativeSuggestionsIhavefoundthatpatientsoftenhavethenotionthathypnosisisapowerfultoolthatcancompelthemtoactaccordingtomywishesIliketoapproachmypsychiatricpatientswhethertheyareneurotic,emotionallydisturbed,prepsychotic,orevenpsychoticinafashionthatletsthemfeelfreetorespondtowhateverdegreetheywishInevertellapatientthathehastogointoadeeptrance,orintoamediumtrance,orforthatmatterintoalighttranceIsuggestalsothathenevertellmeanythingmorethanhereallywantstotellmeIusuallytellmypatientthathecanwithholdwhateverhewishes,andtobesuretowithholdwhateverhewishesIamemphasizingthispointbecauseIwantyoutohavesomeunderstandingofpositiveandnegativesuggestionsTotellapatient,"Now,tellmeall,"isaratherthreatening,evendangerousrequesttomakeRather,youwantthepatienttobewillingtotellyouthis,willingtotellyouthat,sothatastheybegintellingyouthisandthat,theyalsobegintodevelopacertainsenseofconfidenceRapport:UtilizingAmbivalenceandNaturalisticModesofFunctioningNowandagainyouwillmeetapatientwithwhomyouhaveanimmediaterapport,andthenyoucantakethedominantattitudeButonereallyoughttobecautiousInusingpositiveandnegativesuggestions,onetriestomakeitpossibleforthepatienttoexercisehisownambivalenceforyourbenefitandforhisbenefitHeisbothwillingandunwillingtosecurehelpfromyou,soyoutrytodefinethesituationforhiminsuchawaythathecangethelpinonedirectionandrefusehelpinanothersituationInthatwaythepatientdevelopsareadinesstogoalongwithyouNowinhypnotizingthepsychiatricpatientIthinkoneoftheimportantthingstodofirstistoestablishagoodconsciousrapportLethimknowthatyouaredefinitelyinterestedinhimandhisproblems,anddefinitelyinterestedinusinghypnosisifinyourjudgmentyouthinkitwillhelpSooftenIhavehadpatientscomeinanddemandthattheybehypnotized,towhichIusuallycounterwiththestatementthatitisbetterforthedoctortoprescribethanforthepatienttoprescribeAndsurelyiftheycanbenefitfromhypnosis,IwillemployitButthenIwillasktheirpermissiontoemployitinthewaythatismosthelpfultothemAndwhathaveIreallysuggestedIhavesuggestedthatitbeemployedinawaymosthelpfultothemUsuallyIgothroughthepreliminaryexplanationthattheyaregoingtoremainconsciousButIpointouttothemthatthefactthattheycanheartheclockonthewall,thattheycanseethebookcasesintheroom,thattheycanhearanydisturbingsounds,isratherunimportantTheessentialpointisthattheypayattention,notnecessarilytome,buttotheirownthoughtsespeciallythethoughtsthatflashthroughtheirmind,includingthemannerandthesequenceinwhichthosethoughtsflashthroughtheirminedHypnoticsuggestionalwaysutilizessuchnaturalisticmodesoffunctioningitneverimposesanythingalienonthepatientNow,hypnosisissomethingthatallowsyoutomanipulatesicwenowpreferutilize!thepersonalityinitsvariouswaysoffunctioningOnecanaskapatientinthetrancestatetoremembersomethingofthepast,ortospeculateuponthefuture,ortoshiftfromonegeartoanothergearToooftenthereisanattempttofollowthroughinaconsistentwayononeparticularproblem,longafterthepatienthasbecometoofatiguedortoodisturbedemotionallytodothatYoumustrealizethathypnosisallowsyoutocomebacktoaparticularidea,orfear,oranxietysothatitisnevernecessarytoaskapatienttoexperiencetoomuchdistressoremotionaldiscomfortatanyonetimeQuestionsFacilitatingRapportandTrustWhataresomeoftheusesofhypnosisinpsychiatryThefirst,andIthinktheprimary,useofitshouldbeinestablishingagoodpersonalrelationshipwiththepatientOnceyouhavehypnotizedpatients,theywilloftenfeelthattheycantrustyouAnd,itisimportanttogivethemtheopportunityofdiscoveringthattheycantrustyouTherefore,IusuallyaskpatientsinthehypnotictrancesomequestionthatIknowtheyshouldnotansweratthattimeIaskaquestion,andbeforetheycanpossiblyhearit,Ipointouttothemthatitisaquestionthatshouldnotyetbeanswered,andthattheyoughtnottoanswerituntiltherighttimecomesalongThenIaskthemtothinkaboutwhatIhavesaidAsaresult,theyrealizethattheycananswerquestionsfreelyandeasily,butareundernocompulsionstoansweraquestionbeforetherighttimecomesImakethiscleartopatientsinthewakingstateaswellasinthetrancestate,becauseyouaredealingwithapersonthathasaconsciousmindandanunconsciousmindIntegratingConsciousandUnconsciousLearningThisbringsustoanotherimportantpointregardingtheuseofhypnosisBecauseyouaredealingwithapersonwhohasbothaconsciousmindandanunconsciousmind,achievinggoodresultswithapatientinadeeptrancedoesnotmeanthatthepatientwillbenefitfromitintheordinarywakingstateTherehastobeanintegrationofunconsciouslearningswithconsciouslearningsThisshouldbeforemostinyourmindwheneveryouusehypnosisonpsychiatricpatientsYoucanrecognizethatyoucanresolveaconflict,aphobia,orananxietyinthetrancestateButunlessyoudosomethingaboutitinthewakingstate,thepatientisstilllikelytohavethatanxietyorphobiaYoucanremoveaphobiaforacertaincolorinthetrancestatesothatthepatientbehavesnormallyNevertheless,whenheawakensfromthetrancestate,hewillstillhaveconscioushabitpatternsofresponset

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