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首页 【菲茨杰拉德】伟大的盖茨比 The Great Gatsby [Wordsworth 经典版]

【菲茨杰拉德】伟大的盖茨比 The Great Gatsby [Wordsworth 经典版].pdf

【菲茨杰拉德】伟大的盖茨比 The Great Gatsby …

calvino_lue
2011-09-24 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《【菲茨杰拉德】伟大的盖茨比 The Great Gatsby [Wordsworth 经典版]pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

liiil{lrT==Flill'lliiliiiiililiiiiASSJVEIVgUgHITFIE,GREAGATSBYFScottFrtzgeruldIntroduaionandNotesbyGUYREYNOLDSWORDSWORTHCIASSICSInlovingmemoryofMrcnaErTnavrnnthefounderofWordsworthEditionsReaderswhoareinterestedinothertitlesfromWordsworthEditionsareinvitedtovisitourwebsiteatwwwwordswortheditionscomForourlatestlistandafullmailorderservicecontactBibliophileBooks,ThomasRoad,LondonErBNTEL:)zogzzzFAx:)zorrEMAIL:ordersbibliophilebookscomThiseditionpublishedtggbyWordsworthEditionsLimitedEastStreet,Ware,HertfordshirescrzHJIntroductionandNotesaddedoortsBNsTextOWordsworthEditionsLimitedrggIntroductionandNotesGryReynoldsoorWordsworthisaregisteredtrademarkofWordsworthEditionsLimited,NlrightsreservedThispublicationmaynotbereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopFng,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublishersTypesetinGreatBritainbyAntonyGrayPrintedandboundbyClaysLtd,StIvesplcGENERALINTRODUCTIONWordsworthClassicsareinexpensiveeditionsdesignedtoappealtothegeneralreaderandstudentsWecommissionedteachersandspecialiststowritewideranging,jargonfreeintroductionsandtoprovidenotesthatwouldassisttheunderstandingofourreadersratherthaninterpretthestoriesforthemInthesamespirit,becausethepleasuresofreadingareinseparablefromthesurprises,secretsandrevelationsthatallnarrativescontain,westronglyadviseyoutoenjoythisbookbeforerurningtotheIntroductionGeneralAdaiserKnrrHCananrNE,RutherfordCollege(JniaersityofKentatCanterburyINTRODUCTIONThe'constantJlicker'oftheAmericansceneWhyisTheGreatGottbsuchaquintessentialnventiethcenturynovelAftermixedreviewsandaslowstartinsales,Fitzgerald'srgznovelhasmovedtothecentreofliteraryhistov,totheextentthattomanyreadersthisisthemodernAmericannovelGatsbyiswidelyloved,andhasachievedtheunusualstatusofappealingtoboththatmythicalcreanrrethe'CommonReader'andanacademicaudienceThenovel'sstaturehasincreasedexponentiallywithrge,anditisprobablyregardedwithmorefondnessandreadwithgreatercriticalsophisticationtodaythanintheseventyfiveyearssinceitspublicationOnereasonforthegrowingstatusofthenovelmightbethatitwasinmanywaysprescientPrescient,firstofall,inthenarrowsensethatFitzgerald'sportrayalofL'**os,narcissisticilJJt"#d::Lroneer'yprenguredtheUSstockmarket'srgzg'GreatCrash'andthesubsequentDepressionButthenovelwasalsoastuteinitsmappingofacontemporaryurbanworld:atechnological,consumerist,leisuresocietyseenhereinoneofitsfirstfictionalrepresentationsEvenontheveryfirstpageofthetext,I{ickCarraway'snarrativeintroducesustoaworldofinsistentmodernityandtechnologicalinnovationHecomparesGatsby's'heightenedsensitivitytothepromisesoflife'tothatofaseismograph,'oneofthoseintricatemachinesthatregisterearthquakestenthousandmilesaway'(pl)Gatsby'scharacterisunderstoodthroughcomparisonwithapieceofrecondite,advancedmachineryTheimpressofsuchtechnologicalmodernityisfeltthroughoutthetextEvencomictouchesofrendependonsuchnotation:'Therewasamachineinthekitchenwhichcouldexfiractthejuiceoftwohundredorangesinhalfanhourifalitdebuttonwaspressedtwohundredtimesbyrbutler'sthumb'(p)Thenarrator,NickCarraway,willconfessthatwhatfascinateshimaboutNewYorkisitsmechanicalvitality:'thesatisfactionthattheconstantflickerofmenandwomenandmachine"sgivestotherestlesseye'(pmyemphasis)Thisstrangelyoxymoronic'constantflicker'ischaracteristicofthenovel,andNickusesthephraseagaintodescribetheceaselessglintsoflightonthecity'sshining,metallicsurfaces:'Overthegreatbridge,withthesunlightthroughthegirdersmakingaconstantflickeruponthemovingcars'(p)'Constantflicker'echoesakyphrasefromJosephConrad'sHeartofDarkness(writtentSggpublishedtgoz),atextwhichweknowplayedanimportantpartinteachingF'itzgeraldabouttheorganisationofnarrativeConrad'snarrator,Marlow,surveysBritishimperialhistoryandthehistoryofcivilisations,imaginingempireasarrct*pingblazeonaplain"'Now,hsays,'"Weliveintheflicker"'Fitzgenldshifts'theflicker'totheUS,whereitfunctionsasthedistinctivesrrmbolofmodernity,ofthenewTheflickerofelectriclightoffacartheflickerofanimageasmoviefilmclattersthroughaprojectortheflickerofthedistractedmodernconsciousnessTheflickeringofconsciousnessisparticularlyimportant,andNick'sdistinctivestateofmindisoneofedgyaleruressanalertressthatisveryurbanandmodernfuhebecomesfascinatedwithGatsby'swarrecord,forinstance,Nickreflectst'Myincredulitywassubmergedinfascinationnowitwaslikeskimminghastilythroughadozenmagazines'(pl)rConrad,poForfulldetailsofthisandotherreferencesturntotheBibliographyattheendofthisIntroduction'Flicker'becameakeywordformodernistwritersCfTSEliot,'Pmfrock':'Ihaveseenthemomentofmygreatnessflicker'liot,pr)INTRODUCTIONWI'skimmirg',likeflickering,isaverbatthecentreoftheGatsbyworld,andnotetoohowNickimagineshimselfskimminga'dozenmagazines'(apowerfulimageoffebrilesuperficialiry)Thisisanovelofglancingbutpinpointdetails,shardsofrecognitiongraduallypiecedtogetherintoamosaicofAmericanmodernityWhatmakesthenovelmodernandthereforenotVictorianisitsalertreceptivitytoaculrurethathadfirstbeguntoemergearoundthetimeofFitzgerald'sbirth()andhadestablisheditselfinthergrosandrosFitzgeraldwasbornintotheAmericaofthehorse,gaslightandrailroad,butbyrgStheworldwasmadeofelectricity,carsandtelephonesThinkaboutallthethingsweseeinthenovel,hownewthywereinrgzS('new'isoneofGatsby'rfavouritewords)andhowperceptivelynotedthesedetailsareTheroswereadecadeofgreattechnologicalinnovationandcirculation,whenmanyoftheinventionsofthepreviousthirryyearsfinallyachievedacommoncurrenryinAmericansociety:electriiry,especiallyelectriclightingcarstelephonesthemoviesandphotographyInTheGreatGnttbthesediscoveriesareeverpresent,andarefeltasnew,creatingstrangelydisconcertingeffectsinthelivesofcharactersMostreadersrememberthenovelastremendouslyaffnospheric,buttheambienteffectsrestonFitzgerald'sprecisedetailsoflightandcolourElectriclight,forinstance,createsastrange,EdwardFlopperesqueurbanlyricismEarlyinthenovelCarrawaynoteshowthe'newredgaspumpssatoutinpoolsoflight'(pt)Short,lovelypassagespunctuatethenarrative,creatingmemorableeffectsoflighting:IsatonthefrontstepswiththemwhilethywaitedfortheircarItwasdarkhereonlythebrightdoorsenttensquarefeetoflightvolleyingoutintothesoftblackmorningSometimesashadowmovedagainstadressingroomblindabove,gavewaytoanothershadow,Dindefiniteprocessionofshadows,thatrougedandpowderedinaninvisibleglasspqApoeticeffect,certainlybutwhatsuchimagesdoistocreatearepeatedpatternofstrangenessinthetextresonantmeaphorsfortheglamour,allureandultimateartificialityofthejazzageSrylistically,thetextitselfis'lit'byrsuccessionofbright,jewellikesentencesandphrasesForNick'sfirstpersonnarrativecreatesawriffencounterparttothematerialworldofGatsbyLikeGatsby'sshirts,th*narativeisgorgeousandshining,opulent,almosttoomuchItisbuiltaroundaparadeofglitteringeffects,brilliantphrases,burstsofpoeticismNickilluminateshismeditationswithsudden,radiantimages'Auniverseofineffablegaudinessspunitselfoutinhisbrainwhiletheclocktickedon:*'shstandand*ll:"::Hff:llrn,histangredcrothesuponthefloor'(p)ThesurreallunryofGatsby'rmansionisrenderedinterrnsofhowextravagandylitthebuildingis:WhenIcamehometoWestESgthatnightIwasafraidforamomentthatmyhousewasonfireTwoo'clockandthewholecornerofthepeninsulawasblazingwithlight,whichfellunrealontheshrubberyandmadethinelongatirgglinsupontheroadsidewiresTurningacorner,IsawthatitwasGatsby'shouse,litfromtowertocellarprGatsbylearntfromTSEliot'sTbeWasteLand(tgzz)thatmodernurbansettingscouldbegivensymbolicandevenmythicresonancethe'valleyofashes'episodeisoftenseenasasour,ElioticcontemporarylandscapeInthispassage,thatstrangelyunidiomaticphrase(ittanovelwherethephrasingseemsuncannilyacute)'fellunreal'recallsTSEliot'slines:IJnrealCity,underthebrownfogofawinterdawn,AcrowdflowedoverLondonBridge,somany,IhadnotthoughtdeathhadundonesomanyFitzgeraldhadadaptedEliot'ssenseofthecontemporarylandscapetoanAmericansetting,creatingananalogousamalgamationofthemodernandthemythicForEliot,theLondonUndergroundwasunmistakablycontemporaryandalsofreightedwithovertonesofHadesForFitzgerald,theseblazinglightscreateasimilareffect:brazenlynew,butreachingbackintofairytaletosuggestamagicalcasdeForFitzgeraldandEliotthenewcityscapeis'unreal',butFitzgeraldinvertsEliot'ssenseofplaceEliot'sunrealLondonisbrown,fogg,subterraneanFitzgerald'sl{ewYorkisbright,evenblazing,andstructuredaroundtheheightofGatsby'rmansionoradvertisingbillboardsorManhattan'sbuildingsitisadeliciousconfection,'thecityrisingupacrosstheriverinwhiteheapsandsugarlumps'(p)ArtificiallightcreatesanoriginalformofAmericanlandscape,ikindofurbanpastoralthatisbothnaturalandmanmadeThenovelwillthendevelopacontrastbenveenthe'natural'andthe'ardficial'throughtheselightingeffectsGatsby'smeetingwithDaisyinChapterispoeticallyorganisedaroundaninterplaybenveenrealandartificiallightWhenNickreturns,DaisyandGatsbyhavehadtheirchat'FIeTSEliot,pzINTRODUCTIONIXliterallyglowedwithouflwordoragestureofexultationanewwellbeingradiatedfromhimandfilledthelittleroom'Andwhenitstopsraining,Gatsby'smiledlikeaweatherman,likeanecstaticpatronofrecurrentlight'(p)OnthenextpageGatsbydeclares:'"Myhouselookswell,doesn'titSeehowthewholefrontofitcatchesthelight"'(p)Meanwhile,thebuttonsonDaisy'sdress'gleamedinthesunlight'(p)Thedetailsheremeshtogether,alltumingaroundimagesoflightandsunshineThekyquestionaboutJayGatsbyisherebeingposedpoeticallyIsGatsbyanaturalbeing,agenuinebringerofsunshineOristhelighthebringstoDaisy(andNicktoo)artificialalightingeffectproducedbymoneyratherthanpersonalityThecariscentraltothenorrel,andisusedbothasasynbolofthenewcivilisationand,evenmoredaringly,asadynamicpartoftheplotThus,astheydriveintoManhattan,NickandGatsbynoticeacaria'limousinepasseduS,drivenbyawhitechauffeur,inwhichsatthreemodishnegroes,twobucksandagirl'(pM)Theraceoftheoccupants(registeredwithNick'stypicalabruptress)andtheluxuriousextravaganceofthecarcomplementoneanotherUnsetding,exciting,modernNewYorkisbothatechnologicalandadynamicculnrralspaceThisishowthenovelworks:throughthecompressionofsociologicalorculturalinsightsintothe'flicker'ofbrief,flashingimagesAgain,atonepointNickcomplainsthathisowncaris'old':'IhadadogatleastIhadhimforafewdaysuntilheranawayandanoldDodgeandaFinnishwoman,whomademybedandcookedbreakfastandmutteredFinnishwisdomtoherselfovertheelectricstove'(p)WiththisoneadjectiveFitzgeraldrevealsaworldwhereayoungmancanalreadyownacarand,evenmoretellingly,wherehecanbemoanitsageBrandnamesarealsoimportantthecarisaDodgeNewnessisnowvitaltoone'spersonaLityIayGatsbyisafascinatingcharacter,anddistinctivelyofhissociety,becausehesimplyextendsthisobservationintoaprincipleofbehaviourJustasNickwouldreallylikeanewcar,andlamentshisoldone,soGatsbytradesinhisoldselfforaneworreTbeGreatGnttbexplores,throughthiskindoflogicalcircuit,theconsumerisationoftheself,aselfconstitutedofsurfacesFitzgerald'scarelessnessaboutfactsandempiricalknowledgeiswellknown:hefrequendywroteaboutFrancewhenhisknowledgeofFrenchwaspoorhisspelling(inFrenchandEnglish)wasexecrableInGa*hyhetouchesonsubjects(notably,thedoingsonWallStreet)aboutwhichheknewlittleandimaginedagooddealHisfictiontendstocircumventtheseproblemsbyselectingsigruficantrealisticdetailratherthanaccumulatingamassoffactsfuarecordofaparticulartimeandplace,thenovelisfocused,selectiveanddistilled:ahistoricalconcentrateli,,g",darejecred*l::,,ilf:::"*,**pioneeredbyapreviousgenerationofAmericannovelists(includingTheodoreDreiserandWilliamDeanHowells)instead,hconcentratedondeployingrepresentativeandsymbolicdetailsItisalsoanovelwherephoneconversationsareveryimportantTherearearoundadozenmomentswherephonesareseenbeingused,inavarietyofcontextsMostsignificantly,NickgainsthevitalcluetoGatsby'scriminalityinSlagle'sabortedphonecallfromChicago'YoungParke'sintrouble,'hesaidrapidly'TheypickedhimupwhenhehandedthebondsoverthecounterTheygotacircularfroml{ewYorkgiving'emthenumbersjustfiveminutesbeforeWhatd'youknowaboutthat,heyYounevercantellinthesehicktowns'proI{otetherapid,breathlessrhythmofthespeech,andthatSlagle'scommentaryisbasedonamisunderstanding(hethinksheistalkingtoGatsby)itisakeenlyurbanwayofspeaking,wheretheAmericanhinterlandisabrupdydismissedas'"hicktowns"'Frtzgeraldrealisedthatthephonehadalteredthewaysinwhichu'espeakandlisten,andthatpatternsofsocialinteractionwereconsequendybeingtransformedThenewconversationalstyle,broughtintobeingbythetelephoneandacapitalmarket('bonds','circular'),isedgy,fracturedandellipticalitisalsoinformal,markedbycolloquialismsandslangyoutburstsCrucially,thetelephoneconversationcanconcealasmuchas"itrevealsWecannotseethespeakerattheotherend,soinferenceoftonebecomesimportantTothelistenerwhooverhearssomeoneonthephone,thereisfurthercomplexity(whatisbeingsaidattheotherend)Tothecontemporarftaccustomedtothetechnology,thesemightseembanalorobviouspointsButFitzgeraldregisterstheimpactofthetelephonewithananthropologist'seyefortheidioqmcrasiesofquotidianbehaviourTheelusivenessandmysteryofphoneconversationisusedtogiveamodernfeeltooneofthenovel'squestions:howdowe'know'whatlieswithinthehumanheartlrTickmightneverknowthefinaltnrthaboutGatsbyandGatsbyhimselfmisunderstandsDaisyButthenovel'scatalogueofelusiveandfracturedphoneconversationspoignantlyandironicallysuggestthateveninanagewhencommunicationissupposedlygettingeasier,misunderstandingproliferates'Inmakingusahomogeneouspeople,'announcedatelephoneadvertisementinrS,'thetelegraphandthetelephonehavebeenimportantfactors'ThatthephonewouldhelptouniftavastanddiversenationwasoneoftheearlyclaimsofthetelephonecompaniesbutTheGreatINTRODUCTIONXIGatshysardonicallynotesthecriminalusageoftechnologyGatsbycanonlymaintainhisshadycontactsbackintheMidwesterntownsofDetroitandChicagobecausethetelephonehasnowshrunktheJnitedStatesToalargeextent,hehasonlybeenabletogetawaywithitbecauseheisphysicallyremovedfromtheplaceswherehiscrimestakeplaceHedrivesintoManhattanhetelephonesChicagoWestEggitselfisakindofglitteringretreat,umbilicallylinkedbyphonewireandroadtothesitesoftheactualcriminalityThetelephonethusaidsandabetsthatmosttypicalofAmericanfictionalcharacters,theconfidencemanStoriesaboutconfidencemen,abouttrickery,imposnrreandconning,wereimportantinearlierAmericanunitingHermanMelville'sTheConfidenceMan(tSZ)andMarkTwain'sTbeAduenntresofHucklebenyFinn(r)arethemostfamousworkswithinthisnotablesubgenreConfidencehasbeenanimportantthemeforAmericanwritersbecauseitenablesthenovelisttoexplore,inplotsconstructedfromsensationalisttalesofduplicityandtrickery,thnatureofcommuniryinthenewnationTheconfidencethemeprovidesadark,antiphonalvoicetotherepublicanbrotherhoodcelebratedbyWaltWhitmanandRalphWaldoEmersonTheGreatGatsbyistheconfidencenovelrewrittenforthemodernmachineageNow,trickeryandgullinghavebeenglvenafurthertwiscFitzgerald'sprotagonistscannotevenseethosewhomightbetrickingthemAtleastinthenineteenthcenturynovelofconfidence(aswiththoseconmen'theKitg'and'theDuke'inHucklebtrryFinn),onecouldrelyonfacetofacecontactNickCarrawayfindshimselfinayetmoreduplicitousworld,wherecrootr<s,criminalsandconmentalkbyphoneAfourthsignofFitzgerald'sfascinationwithAmericanmodernitycanbeseeninthenovel'sreferencestofilmanditstechnicalindebtednesstobothcinemaandphotographyThenovelisverymuchwrittenasadialoguev'ithmoviecultureGuestsatGatsby'rpartiesincludefilmstars)andMyrde'sfirstactionwhenshearrivesinNewYorkistobry'TownT'anleandamovingpicturemagazine'(pr)Butthereisamoregeneralcinematicorphotographicfeeltothetext,ascinemastartstoshape(howeverindirecdyorsubtly)theconstructionoffictionalnarrativeFitzgeraldhadlearntfromtheJosephConradofHeartofDarknessandLordJimthevalueofahighlyshapednarrative,emphasisingtightcuttingandconcisionFIisownnovelthenfusedthismodernistnarratologywithacinematicformalism:TheGreatGatsfo,'sconcisionandsplicingtogetherFischer,prqFischermakesastrongclaimforthetelephoneasafactorinchanginghowweperceivegeographicalspaceand'community':i,""esechotheurgff:T"""'svisualimmediaryalsoremindsusthatthiswastheagewhenphotographybegantobepopularisedanddomesticatedFitzgeraldgeneratesanextendedcomicpassagefromhischaracterMrMcKee,aphotographerwhocreatesbanallandscapeswithtitlessuchas'MontaakPointTheGulls'(pzz)Thenovelmildlymocksthephotographiccraze,butitisalsoindebtedtothecameraItsbright,snapshotquality(Gatthyisformalisticallyacatalogueofvignettes)mightowesomethingtothedevelopmentoflightweight,portablephotographyEasunanKodakinventedtheBrowniecamerainroo,andFitzgeraldwasthereforeoneofthefirstwriterstohavegrownupwithsnapshotphotography(hebecameamuchphotographedwriterhimself)Isittoofancifultosuggestthatthenovel'sfond

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【菲茨杰拉德】伟大的盖茨比 The Great Gatsby [Wordsworth 经典版]

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