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首页 AASHTO T260-97R2009混凝土和混凝土原材料中总氯离子量的采样和试验方法

AASHTO T260-97R2009混凝土和混凝土原材料中总氯离子量的采样和试验方法.pdf

AASHTO T260-97R2009混凝土和混凝土原材料中总…

猴不拉机姆
2011-09-23 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《AASHTO T260-97R2009混凝土和混凝土原材料中总氯离子量的采样和试验方法pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

TScTAASHTOStandardMethodofTestforSamplingandTestingforChlorideIoninConcreteandConcreteRawMaterialsAASHTODesignation:T()SCOPEThismethodcoversproceduresforthedeterminationoftheacidsolublechlorideioncontentorthewatersolublechlorideioncontentofaggregates,portlandcement,mortarorconcreteThetotalamountofchlorideisusuallyequaltotheacidsolublechlorideHowever,organicadditivesormineralsthatcontainacidinsolublechloridemaybepresentinconcreteandconcreterawmaterialsTheseconstituentsmaybecomeacidsolubleduringlongtermexposuretothealkalineenvironmentinconcreteormortarTheageofconcretemortar,orhydratedportlandcementatthetimeofsamplingwillhaveanaffectonthewatersolublechlorideioncontentTherefore,unlessearlyagestudiesaredesired,itisrecommendedthatthematerialbewellcuredandatleastdaysofagebeforesamplingThisstandardprovidesforthedeterminationofchlorideioncontentbytwoprocedures:ProcedureA,DeterminationofAcidSolubleChlorideIonContentandWaterSolubleChlorideIonContentbyPotentiometricTitrationorIonSelectiveElectrode(LaboratoryTestMethod)andProcedureB,AcidSolubleChlorideIonbyAtomicAbsorption(LaboratoryTestMethod)SulfidesareknowntointerferewiththedeterminationofchloridecontentBlastfurnaceslagaggregatesandcementscontainsulfidesulfurinconcentrationsthatcancausesuchinterference,whichcanbeeliminatedbytreatmentasnotedinthetestproceduresOthermaterialsthatproduceastrongodorofHSwhenacidisaddedtothemshouldbesimilarlytreatedThevaluesstatedinSIunitsaretoberegardedasthepreferredstandardPROCEDUREAACIDSOLUBLECHLORIDEIONANDWATERSOLUBLECHLORIDEIONBYPOTENTIOMETRICTITRATIONORIONSELECTIVEELECTRODE(LABORATORYTESTMETHOD)APPARATUSSamplingequipmentforProceduresAandBarelistedinSectionsorCoredrillRotaryimpacttypedrillwithadepthindicatoranddrillorpulverizingbitsofsufficientdiametertoprovidearepresentativesampleofsufficientsizefortesting©bytheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsAllrightsreservedDuplicationisaviolationofapplicablelawsunildhoundeyalLineTScTAASHTOSamplecontainerscapableofmaintainingthesampleinanuncontaminatedstateSpoonsofadequatesizetocollectthesamplefromthedrilledholesA“blowout”bulborothersuitablemeansofremovingexcesspulverizedmaterialfromtheholepriortoredrillingoperationsAdevicecapableofdeterminingthelocationanddepthofsteelreinforcementto±mm(±in)EquipmentforChemicalTesting:ChlorideionorsilversulfideionselectiveelectrodeandmanufacturerrecommendedfillingsolutionsNoteSuggestedelectrodesaretheOrionCombinationChlorideElectrodeortheOrionSilverSulfideElectrodeorequivalentsTheSilverSulfideElectroderequiresuseofanappropriatereferenceelectrode(Orionorequivalent)AmillivoltmetercompatiblewiththeionelectrodeNoteSuggestedmillivoltmeteristheOrionModelADigitalphmVmeterorequivalentMagneticstirrerandTeflonstirringbarsBurettewithmLgraduationsBalancecomplyingwithM,ClassABalancecomplyingwithM,ClassGHotplate,toºCheatingsurfacetemperatureGlassware,andmLbeakers,filterfunnels,stirringrods,watchglasses,dropper,washbottlesSieve,USStandardμm(No)WhatmanNoandNofilterpapers(orequivalent)NoteIfequivalentfilterpapersareused,theyshouldbecheckedtoconfirmtheydonotcontainchloride,whichwillcontaminatethesampleREAGENTSConcentratedHNO(spgr)Sodiumchloride,NaCl,reagentgrade(primarystandard)StandardnormalityNaClsolutionDryreagentgradeNaClinanovenatºCCool,inadesiccator,determinethemassofapproximatelygtothenearestg,dissolvein©bytheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsAllrightsreservedDuplicationisaviolationofapplicablelawTScTAASHTOdistilledHO,andtransfertoaLvolumetricflaskMakeuptothemarkwithdistilledHOandmixCalculatetheexactnormalityasfollows:()actualNaC()WN=()where:Wactual=actualmassofNaCl,andNNaCl=normalityofNaClsolutionStandardnormalityAgNODeterminethemassofgramsofreagentAgNO,dissolveindistilledHO,filterintoaLbrownglassbottle,fill,andmixthoroughlyStandardizeagainstmLoftheNaClsolutionbythetitrationmethodgiveninSectionCalculatetheexactnormalityasfollows:()()NaCNaCAgNOAgNOVNNV=()where:AgNON=normalityofAgNOsolution,VNaCl=volume(mL)ofNaClsolution,NNaCl=normalityofNaClsolution,andAgNOV=volume(mL)ofAgNOsolutionDistilledWaterNoteDeionizedwatermaybeusedinplaceofdistilledwaterforsampleswhereextremeprecisionandaccuracyarenotdemandedMethylorangeindicatorEthanol,denatured,ormethanol,technicalHydrogenPeroxide(percent)METHODOFSAMPLINGConcreteSample:DeterminethedepthwithintheconcreteforwhichthechloridecontentisdesiredNoteAconvenientmethodofdeterminingthelocationanddepthofreinforcementbarsisapachometercapableofdeterminingthelocationanddepthofsteelreinforcementto±mm(in)CoreMethodDrillthecoretochosendepthandretrieveWhensamplesarereceivedinthelaboratoryinotherthanpulverizedcondition,thesampleshallbecrushedandgroundtoapowderAllsawingorcrushingshallbedonedry(ie,withoutwater)Allmaterialshallpassamm(No)sieveAllpulverizingtoolsandsievesshallbewashedwithalcoholordistilledwaterandshallbedrybeforeusewitheachseparatesample(SeenotefollowingSection)©bytheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsAllrightsreservedDuplicationisaviolationofapplicablelawTScTAASHTOPulverizingMethod:Settherotaryhammerdepthindicatorsothatitwilldrilltomm(in)abovethedesireddepthUsingadrillorpulverizingbit,drilluntilthedepthindicatorseatsitselfontheconcretesurfaceThoroughlycleanthedrilledholeandsurroundingareautilizingthe“blowout”bulborothersuitablemeansResetthedepthindicatortopermitmm(in)additionaldrillingPulverizetheconcreteuntilthedepthindicatoragainseatsitselfontheconcreteNoteCaremustbeexercisedduringthispulverizingoperationtopreventthedrillbitfromabradingconcretefromthesidesoftheholeabovethesamplingdepthToinsureagainstthis,someusersutilizeamm(in)smallerdiameterbitinthisstepthanthatusedinSectionCollectatleastgofthematerialremainingintheholeusingaspoonandplaceinthesamplecontainerIfthesample,ascollected,doesnotcompletelypassamm(No)sieve,additionalpulverizingshallbeperformedinthelaboratoryuntiltheentiresampleisfinerthanmm(No)NoteDuringsamplecollectionandpulverizing,personnelshallusecautiontopreventcontactofthesamplewithhands,orothersourcesofbodyperspirationorcontaminationFurther,allsamplingtools(drillbits,spoons,bottles,sieves,etc)shallbewashedwithalcoholordistilledwaterandshallbedrypriortouseoneachseparatesampleAlcoholisnormallypreferredforwashingbecauseoftherapiddrying,whichnaturallyoccursRawMaterialSample:CementsamplesshallbetakenandpreparedasprescribedinT,SamplingandAmountofTestingHydraulicCementCoarseandfineaggregatesamplesshallbetakenasprescribedinT,SamplingofAggregatesSamplesshallbereducedinaccordancewithT,ReducingSamplesofAggregatestoTestingSize©bytheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsAllrightsreservedDuplicationisaviolationofapplicablelawTScTAASHTOTestsamplesshallcontainthefollowingminimumsizes:�cementg,�sandg,�coarseaggregategCoarseaggregatesamplesshallbecrushedtopassamm(No)sieveandthenreduceddowntoaboutgThefinalgofcoarseorfineaggregateshallbegroundtoaminusmm(No)sievePROCEDURETwodistinctproceduresarepresentedherefordeterminationofacidsolublechlorideionorwatersolublechlorideioncontentForacidsolublechlorideioncontentfollowSectionsand,thencontinuewithSectionForwatersolublechlorideioncontentfollowSectionsand,thencontinuewithSectionDeterminethemasstothenearestmilligramofagpowderedsamplerepresentativeofthematerialundertestsNoteSomeusersdrythesampletoconstantmassinaºCovenanddeterminethedrysamplepriortoanalysisThisoptionalprocedureprovidesaconstantbaseforcomparisonofallresultsbyeliminatingmoisturecontentasavariableItisgenerallybelievedthatdryingisonlynecessarywhenveryhighaccuracyisdesired(SeeReferencefordatainthisarea)ProcedureforAcidSolubleChlorideIonContent:TransferthesamplequantitativelytoabeakeraddmLofdistilledHO,swirlingtobringthepowderintosuspensionAddmLofconcentratedHNOwithcontinuedswirlinguntilthematerialiscompletelydecomposedBreakupanylumpswithastirringrodanddilutewithhotHOtomLStirthoroughlytoensurecompletesampledigestionIfthesamplecontainsblastfurnaceslagorothersulfidebearingmaterial,addmLofhydrogenperoxide(percentsolution)AddfivedropsofmethylorangeindicatorandstirIfyellowtoyelloworangecolorappears,solutionisnotsufficientlyacidicAddadditionalconcentratedHNOdropwisewithcontinuousstirringuntilafaintpinkorredcolorpersistsinthesolutionCoverwithawatchglass,retainingthestirringrodinthebeakerHeattheacidsolutionorslurrytoboilingonahotplateatmediumheat(toºC)andboilforaboutminuteRemovefromthehotplate,filterthroughdoublefilterpaper(WhatmanNooverNofilterpaperorequivalent)WashthefilterpapertimeswithhotdistilledHO,beingcarefulnottoliftthepaperawayfromthefunnelsurfaceFinally,liftthefilterpapercarefullyfromthefunnelandwashtheoutsidesurfaceofthepaperwithhotdistilledHOthenwashthetipofthefunnelThefinalvolumeofthefilteredsolutionshouldbetomLCoverwithawatchglassandallowtocooltoroomtemperatureinanHClfumefreeatmosphereNoteDuetothepresenceofrelativelyinsolublematerialsinthesample,thesolutiongenerallywillhaveastronggraycolor,makingthedetectionofindicatorcolordifficultattimesRunningofseveraltrialsamplesissuggestedtogivetheanalystpracticeindetectingtheindicatorcolorNoteAsamplepreparedtopercentpassingmm(No)sieveshouldgenerallyallowdeterminationofanyexpectedchloridelevelwithadequateprecisionandaccuracySamplescontaininghighlysiliceousaggregatesmayrequirefinergrindingtominimizebumpingduringthe©bytheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsAllrightsreservedDuplicationisaviolationofapplicablelawTScTAASHTOprocedureinSectionThismayalsobethecasewhentheconcretecontainsmodifierssuchaslatexorpolymerProcedureforWaterSolubleChlorideIonContent:Transferthesamplequantitativelytoabeaker,add–mLdistilledHOCoverthebeakerwithawatchglassandbringtoaboilonahotplatemagneticstirrerusingasmallmagnetBoilforminutes,thenletstandforhoursinanHClfumefreeatmosphereFiltertheclearsupernatantliquidinthebeakerthroughdoublefilterpaper(WhatmanNooverNoorequivalent)intoamLbeakertakecaretoquantitativelytransferanyadheringdropsonthewatchglass,anduseastirringrodtoaidtransferAddsufficienthotdistilledHOtocoveranyresidueleftintheoriginalbeaker,stirminuteonamagneticstirrer,andfilterintothemLbeakerwithaswirlingactionWashthebeakerandthestirringrodonceintothefilterwithhotdistilledHOWashthefilterpaperoncewithhotdistilledHOLiftthefilterpapercarefullyfromthefunnelandwashtheoutsidesurfaceofthepaperwithhotdistilledHOSetasidethepaperandwashtheinteriorofthefunnelanditstipwithhotdistilledHOFinally,add–dropsofmethylorangeindicatortothemLbeakerthenaddconcentratedHNOdropwisewithcontinuousstirringuntilapermanentpinktoredcolorisobtainedIfthesamplecontainsblastfurnaceslagorothersulfidebearingmaterial,addmLofhydrogenperoxide(percentsolution)MakeupthevolumetotomLwithdistilledHOThreealternatemethodsareavailabletodeterminetheCl–contentofthesolutionAllmethodsutilizeanionselectiveelectrode(Cl–orAg)andallmethodsforthepurposeofthisanalysisgiveresultsofessentiallyequalaccuracyandprecisionMethod:PotentiometricTitrationFilltheCl–ortheAgelectrodewiththesolution(s)recommendedbythemanufacturer,plugitintothemillivoltmeter(preferablythetypewithadigitalratherthanadialreadout),anddeterminetheapproximateequivalencepointbyimmersingtheelectrodeinabeakerofdistilledHONotetheapproximatemillivoltmeterreading(whichmaybeunsteadyinHO)TakethecooledsamplebeakerfromSectionandcarefullyaddmLofnormalityNaCl,swirlingconstantlyRemovethebeakerofdistilledHOfromtheelectrode,wipetheelectrodewithabsorbentpaper,andimmersetheelectrodeinthesamplesolutionPlacetheentirebeakerelectrodeassemblyonamagneticstirrerandbegingentlestirringUsingacalibratedburet,addgraduallyandrecordtheamountofstandardnormalityAgNOsolutionnecessarytobringthemillivoltmeterreadingto–mVoftheequivalencepointdeterminedindistilledHOThenaddstandardnormalityAgNOsolutioninmLincrementsrecordingthemillivoltmeterreadingaftereachadditionAstheequivalencepointisapproached,theequaladditionsofAgNOsolutionwillcauselargerandlargerchangesinthemillivoltmeterreadingPasttheequivalencepoint,thechangesperunitvolumewillagaindecreaseContinuethetitrationuntilthemillivoltmeterreadingisatleastmVpasttheapproximateequivalencepointTheendpointofthetitrationusuallyisneartheapproximateequivalencepointindistilledwaterandmaybedeterminedby()plottingthevolumeofAgNOsolutionaddedversusthemillivoltmeterreadingsTheendpointwillcorrespondtothepointofinflectionoftheresultantsmoothcurve,or()calculatingthedifferencesinmillivoltmeterreadingsbetweensuccessiveAgNOadditionsandcalculatingthetotalvolumeofAgNOthatcorrespondswitheachdifference(ie,themidpointsbetweensuccessiveadditions)©bytheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsAllrightsreservedDuplicationisaviolationofapplicablelawTScTAASHTORawDataDifferencesTitrantVolumeMillivoltReadingTitrantMidpointsMillivoltDifferencemLmLmLmLmLmLmLetcetcTheendpointwillbenearthemidpoint,whichproducedthelargestchangeinmillivoltmeterreadingItmaybedeterminedbyplottingmidpointsversusdifferencesanddefiningtheAgNOvolume,whichcorrespondstothemaximumdifferenceonasmooth,symmetricalcurvedrawnthroughthepointsHowever,itcanusuallybeestimatedaccuratelywithoutplottingthecurvebychoosingthemidpoint,whichcorrespondstothemaximumdifferenceandadjustingforasymmetry,ifanyInotherwords,ifthedifferencesoneachsideofthelargestdifferencearenotsymmetrical,adjusttheendpointmathematicallyinthedirectionofthelargestdifferencesDetailedexamplesofthisadjustmentarecontainedinReferenceCalculations:DeterminetheendpointofthetitrationasdescribedinSectionbyeitherplottingacurveorestimatingfromthenumericaldataCalculatethepercentCl–ionfromtheequation:()()ClpercentVNVNW−−=()where:V=endpointinmLofAgNON=normalityofAgNOW=massoforiginalconcretesampleingramsV=volumeofNaClsolutionadded,inmLandN=normalityofNaClsolutionMethodII:GranPlotMethodThismethodiscompatiblewitheitheraCl–orAgionselectiveelectrodeAttachtheelectrodeofchoicetoacompatibledigitalmillivoltmeterafterfillingtherequiredsolutionsaspertheelectrodemanufacturer’sinstructionsCleantheelectrodewithdistilledHOandpatdrywithabsorbentpaperDeterminethemassofthesolutionandbeakerfromSectionwithoutthewatchglassandrecordthemassUsingacalibratedburet,titratethesampleto±mV(Cl–electrode)or±mV(Agelectrode)withstandardnormalityAgNOsolutionRecordthevolumeaddedandthemillivoltmeterreadingContinuetotitrateinmLincrementsrecordingthevolumeaddedandthemillivoltmeterreadingforeachincrementAddandrecordthedataforatleastfiveincrementsEmpty,clean,dry,anddeterminethemassofthebeakerSubtractbeakermassfrombeakersolutionmassdeterminedabovetodefinesolutionmassExampleshowninFigureAdditionalinformationontheGranMethodisgiveninReference©bytheAmericanAssociationofStateHighwayandTransportationOfficialsAllrightsreservedDuplicationisaviolationofapplicablelawTScTAASHTOFigureUseofGranMethodtoDetermineEndpointinthePotentiometricTitrationofanAcidExtractofConcreteGranMethodCalculations:CalculatecorrectedvaluesforeachofthevolumesrecordedinSectionbytheequation:recordcorrectVVW=()W=originalsolutionmassing,andVrecord=volumesrecordedinmLIfanyoftheVcorrectvaluesaregreaterthan,seeSectionIflessthan,plotthesecorrectedvaluesversusthecorrespondingmillivoltreadingsonOrionGranPlotPaper(percentvolumecorrectedtypewitheachmajorverticalscaledivisionequaltofivemillivolts)orequivalentDrawthebeststraightlinethroughthepointsandreadtheendpointattheintersectionofthelinewiththehorizontalaxisofthegraphCalculatetheactualendpointbythee

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AASHTO T260-97R2009混凝土和混凝土原材料中总氯离子量的采样和试验方法

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