关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 Understanding_Signal_Integrity

Understanding_Signal_Integrity.pdf

Understanding_Signal_Integrity

yufei
2011-09-19 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Understanding_Signal_Integritypdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

UnderstandingSignalIntegrityLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheUSLibraryofCongressBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:CoverdesignbyVickiKane©ArtechHouseCantonStreetNorwood,MAAllrightsreservedPrintedandboundintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherAlltermsmentionedinthisbookthatareknowntobetrademarksorservicemarkshavebeenappropriatelycapitalizedArtechHousecannotattesttotheaccuracyofthisinformationUseofaterminthisbookshouldnotberegardedasaffectingthevalidityofanytrademarkorservicemarkUnderstandingSignalIntegrityStephenCThieraufToChristopher,Kevin,and,asalways,AnnvContentsPrefacexvCHAPTERIntroductiontoSignalIntegrityWhatIsSignalIntegrityTheImportanceofSignalIntegrity:TheFirstTransatlanticTelegraphCableWhatIsaPulseTimeandFrequencyDomainsLineSpectrumsRecreatingaPulsewithSineWavesWhyDoestheFrequencyDomainMattertoSignalIntegrityEngineersUpperBandwidthPowerIntegrityandSimultaneousSwitchingNoiseWhatIsSimultaneousSwitchingNoiseWhatIstheDielectricConstantandLossTangentMainPointsReferencesCHAPTERTheSignalIntegrityProcessIntroductionWhyPerformaSignalIntegrityAnalysisWhatIsaTypicalSignalIntegrityWorkflowSignalIntegrityWorstCaseAnalysisSiliconWorstCaseIOModelsWhatCombinationofEnvironmentalEffectsAreWorstCaseUsingSIAnalysisResultsDuringDebugElectricalOverstressesMainPointsReferencesviContentsCHAPTERSignalIntegrityCADandModelsIntroductionIOModelsWhatAreTransistorLevelModelsWhatAreIBISModelsModelingTransmissionLinesSParametersWhatAreSParametersWhatIsInsertionLossWhatIsReflectionLossWhatAreTouchstoneFilesFieldSolversWhatAreDFieldSolversWhatAreDFieldSolversMainPointsReferencesCHAPTERPrintedTestandEvaluationBoardsIntroductionTestBoardsTestBoardsasaChipDebugPlatformMarginingPowerSupplyTestingDecouplingCapacitorEfficacyTestingSensitivitytoClockQualityEvaluationBoardsRollofthePrintedCircuitLayoutShopFabricatingandAssemblingtheBoardAlternativeMethodsforDesignandFabricationMainPointsReferencesCHAPTERPrintedCircuitBoardConstructionIntroductionHowIsaMultilayerCircuitBoardConstructedHowAreConnectionsMadeBetweenLayersWhatIstheViaAspectRatioWhatIstheSignificanceofCallingaCircuitBoard“FR”WhyIsThereSuchVariabilityinDkBetweenLaminateManufacturersWhyIstheSameBoardProducedDifferentlybyVariousFabShopsWhatAreSomeAlternativestoFRContentsviiCircuitBoardTracesMicrostripStriplineWhatIsaMilandWhatDoesaTraceThicknessinOuncesMeanWhatCopperTypesAreUsedtoFormTracesandWhatAreTheirCharacteristicsWhatIsSurfaceRoughnessandWhatAreTypicalValuesAreTracesRectangularMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERTransmissionLineFundamentalsIntroductionWhatIsaTransmissionLineWhatIstheSignalReturnPathCircuitModelofaTransmissionLineImpedanceandDelayUnitsandElectricalLengthHowDoesaSignalTravelDowntheLineWhatVoltageGetsLaunchedDownaTransmissionLineHowDoestheCurrentintheReturnPathBehaveHowDoesCurrentFlowinReturnPathsThatAreNotGroundWhatIstheBehaviorWhenOneReturnPathIsaRelatedPowerPlaneHowDoestheReturnCurrentFlowWhenthePowerSupplyIsNottheSignalingVoltageWhenDoesaConductor,Via,orConnectorPinActLikeaTransmissionLineWhyDoestheSignalRiseTimeMatterButNotthePulseWidthWhyDoesPropagationDelayTimeDependontheLineLength,ButImpedanceDoesNotMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERUnderstandingMicrostripandStriplineTransmissionLinesIntroductionDCResistanceandResistivityStriplineandMicrostripCapacitanceWhatIstheEffectiveDielectricConstantWhatAretheDifferencesBetweenMicrostripandStriplineCapacitancesviiiContentsHowDoesFrequencyAltertheLossTangentWhatIsConductanceandHowIsItDeterminedStriplineandMicrostripInductanceHowDoestheSkinEffectChangetheTrace’sResistanceWhatIstheProximityEffectHowDoestheSkinEffectChangetheInductanceUnderstandingStriplineandMicrostripImpedanceUnderstandingStriplineandMicrostripPropagationDelayTimeHowDotheDielectricandEffectiveDielectricConstantsAffectDelayTimeHowSensitiveIsDelayTimetoChangesintheDielectricConstantMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERSignalLossandtheEffectsofCircuitBoardPhysicalFactorsIntroductionWhatAreTransmissionLineLossandAttenuationWhatEffectsDoLossesHaveonSignalsHowIsLossSpecifiedConvertingBetweenDecibelsandPercentageLossWhatCreatesTransmissionLineLossandHowIsItCharacterizedLossDifferencesBetweenMicrostripandStriplineTracesHowDoImpedanceandLoopResistanceAffectConductorLossHowDoesSurfaceRoughnessIncreaseConductorLossSurfaceRoughnessinPerspectiveWhatCanBeDonetoReduceConductorLossesUnderstandingDielectricLossesDifferencesinDielectricLossesBetweenStriplineandMicrostripEffectsofTemperatureandMoistureWhatCanBeDonetoReduceDielectricLossesSummaryofSignalLossandDistortionCharacteristicsEffectsofResinContentandGlassWeaveonDelayTimeandImpedanceEffectsofTraceShapeMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERUnderstandingTracetoTraceCouplingIntroductionUnderstandingMutualCapacitanceandInductanceWhatAretheCapacitanceandInductanceMatricesContentsixWhyDoSomeFieldSolversReportCapacitanceswithNegativeNumbersHowDoesSwitchingAltertheTraceInductanceandCapacitanceHowIstheCapacitanceAffectedHowIstheInductanceAffectedWhatEffectDoesCouplingHaveonImpedanceandDelayWhatAreOddandEvenModesCantheOddandEvenModeEquationsBeUsedwithMoreThanTwoTracesWhyIstheEvenandOddModeTimingtheSameforStriplineButNotMicrostripByHowMuchDoestheEvenandOddModeImpedanceChangeWhatAretheCircuitEffectsWhenSwitchingCausestheImpedancetoChangeHowIsReceiverTimingAffectedbyInandOutofPhaseSwitchingMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERUnderstandingCrosstalkIntroductionHowIsCrosstalkCreatedandWhatAreItsCharacteristicsFarEndCrosstalkCalculatingFEXTWhatAreTypicalKfValuesFEXTSummaryNearEndCrosstalkCalculatingNEXTWhatAreTypicalKbValuesNEXTSummaryHowCloselyDoCalculationandSimulationAgreeHowWellDoDFieldSolversAgreeGuardTracesConnectingtheGuardTraceMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERUnderstandingSignalReflectionsIntroductionHowAreReflectionsCreatedAPhysicalAnalogyforTransmissionLineReflectionsTheReflectionCoefficientxContentsWhatDeterminestheReflectionCoefficientValueHowDotheReflectedWavesCombinewiththeIncidentWavesDifferenceBetweentheResponseofaPulseandaStepWhatIstheBehaviorWhenThereAreMultipleReflectionsWhatIstheBehaviorWhenThereAreManyPulsesReactiveDiscontinuitiesMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERTerminationStrategiesIntroductionSourceSeriesTerminationSelectingtheResistanceValueEffectofDriverResistancePowerSavingsParallelandTheveninTerminationSelectingVttandVtermTheveninTerminationConnectingRtermDirectlytoVddorGroundDiodeTerminationDiodeTypesACTerminationTopologiesSingleLoadPointtoPointTerminationMultipleLoadPointtoPointTerminationMultidropLinesResponseWhenSignalRiseTimeIsVeryShortResponseWhenSignalRiseTimeIsComparabletotheTransmissionLineDelaysStubsandBranchesBranchesMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERDifferentialSignalingIntroductionWhatAretheElectricalCharacteristicsofDifferentialSignalingHowIsaDifferentialPairObservedWhatIsanEyeDiagramWhatIsIntersymbolInterferenceHowAretheEffectsofLossCorrectedContentsxiWhatAretheElectricalCharacteristicsofaDifferentialTransmissionLineWhyIstheDifferentialImpedanceTwicetheOddModeImpedanceHowAreDifferentialTransmissionLinesTerminatedHowShouldaDiffPairBeTerminatedWhenthePropagationIsNotFullyOddModeWhatPreventsCreatingOddModeSignalsHowAreDifferentialTransmissionLinesCreatedManufacturingTradeOffsBetweenLooselyandTightlyCoupledPairsElectricalTradeOffsBetweenLooselyandTightlyCoupledPairsWhatAreSomeSuggestedDiffPairLayoutandRoutingRulesObtainingtheProperDifferentialImpedanceSignalTraceBetweenDiffPairsKeepingSignalTracesFarAwayfromDiffPairsAvoidReturnPathSplitsRouteonSameLayersMinimizeLayerHoppingUseDifferentialViasMatchOverallTraceLengthsMatchLengthsonEachLayerEnsureThatNoiseIsEquallyCoupledtoBothTracesMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERTraceandViaArtworkConsiderationsforSignalIntegrityIntroductionMiteredCornersRoutingNeartheBoardEdgeSerpentineTracesHowAreSerpentineDelayLinesModeledEffectsofCornersHowLongShouldtheSegmentsBeGuardTracesViasViaCircuitModelWhatFactorsDetermineViaCapacitanceWhatFactorsDetermineViaInductanceWhatAretheEffectsofDifferentAntipadDiametersWhatAreNonfunctionalPadsCantheViaImpedanceBeAdjustedWhatAreDifferentialViasxiiContentsMainPointsReferencesCHAPTERIdentifyingCommonSignalIntegrityProblemsIntroductionQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingPCBStackupQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingCrosstalkSimulationsQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingSignalQualitySimulationsQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingPrelayoutSimulationsQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingPostlayoutSimulationsQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingaTerminationStrategyQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingPCBLayoutDesignRulesQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingASICDriverSelectionChoicesReferencesCHAPTERSolvingCommonSignalIntegrityProblemsIntroductionReducingCrosstalkReducingReflectionsReducingandEliminatingSimultaneousSwitchingNoise(SSN)ImprovingInadequateTimingMarginsCorrectingIntersymbolInterference(ISI)StepstoTakeWhenCircuitBoardTracesAreTooLossyOptionstoReduceCircuitBoardThicknessStepstoTakeWhenThereAreNotEnoughRoutingLayersStepstoTakeWhenaCircuitBoardMustBeCostReducedStepstoTakeWhenDataDependentErrorsAreCausingSystemFailuresReferencesCHAPTERCalculatingTraceandPlaneElectricalValuesIntroductionHowtoConvertfromDecibelLosstoSignalSwingEstimatingDCResistanceFindingInductanceandCapacitanceWhenthePhysicalDimensionsAreNotKnownFindingStriplineInductanceandCapacitanceWhenImpedanceIsKnownFindingStriplineInductanceandCapacitanceWhenTraceGeometryIsKnownFindingMicrostripInductanceandCapacitanceWhenTraceGeometryIsKnownContentsxiiiMicrostripInductanceMicrostripCapacitanceEstimatingInductanceandCapacitanceofaPlaneInductanceCapacitanceCalculatingTraceLossfromaCircuitModelCalculatingStriplineLossfromTraceDimensionsDielectricLossCalculatingMicrostripLossfromTraceDimensionsDielectricLossFindingStriplineImpedanceFindingExposedMicrostripImpedanceFindingSolderMaskCoveredMicrostripImpedanceWavelengthReferencesAbouttheAuthorIndexxvPrefaceThisisanintroductorytextforengineers,projectleaders,andmanagerswishingtounderstandthefundamentalsofsignalintegrityTheelectricalcharacteristicsofthevarioustypesoftransmissionlinespresentoncircuitboardsarecoveredindepth,withparticularattentiontothedifferencesbetweenthemAlsocoveredindetailarereflections,terminationstrategies,crosstalk,andinformationregardingcircuitboardtechnologySignallossanddifferentialsignalingarepresentedinenoughdetailtoprovidethereaderwithasolidbackgroundintheseimportanttopicsBecausethefocusisonthosenewtosignalintegrity(includingmanagers),chapterscoveringthesignalintegrityprocess,CADtools,thevalueoftestandevaluationcircuitboards,andtroubleshootingstrategiesarepresentedThismaterialisuniqueandisintendedtoprovidethenewcomerwithanoverviewandthemanagerwithanunderstandingofthetasksthatsignalintegrityengineersroutinelycarryoutTheneedtoperformsomeofthesetasks(suchasmodelvalidationorthedebuggingofindividualcircuitmodels)andtheuncertaintyintheresultsfromsimulationareoftenunknowntomanagementandtothosenewtothefieldandarenotalwaysproperlyaccountedforinprojectschedulesExerciseproblemswithdetailedsolutionsallowreaderstotesttheirknowledgeTheseproblemscanbeusedforpracticeorastemplatestosolvesimilarproblemsonactualhardwareSeveraloftheproblemsrequireinformationfromotherchaptersandservetofurtherknittogethervariousfundamentalconceptsThesolutionsareavailableontheArtechHouseWebsiteathttp:wwwartechhousecomstaticreslibthieraufthieraufhtmlThereaderisassumedtohaveabasicbackgroundinelectricalengineering,includinganelementaryunderstandingofvoltage,current,resistance,capacitance,andinductanceNoknowledgeofsignalintegrity,electromagnetics,ortransmissionlinetheoryisassumedThesesubjectsareintroducedinthetextasneeded,oftenwithgraphsTheformulasarekeptsimpleinthosecaseswheremathematicsisused,andtoavoidclutteringthetext,mathematicalderivationshaveintentionallybeenomittedReferencesareprovidedforthosewishingtounderstandthederivations,ortheunderlyingphysicsAcatalogofparticularlyusefulformulashasbeencollectedintoonechapterattheendofthebookforeasyreferenceandtoavoiddefocusingtheearlierchaptersThoseuninterestedinusingformulascanskipthatchapter,butthosewishingtochecktheresultsfromfieldandcircuitsimulations,xviPrefaceorthosewantingtousemathematicstovalidatetheirintuition,willfinditahelpfulresourceThisbookhasgreatlybenefitedthankstothegeneroushelpfromthefollowing:•SimucadDesignAutomationfortheSmartSpicelicensenecessarytocreateanumberofthecircuitsimulationsappearinginthisbook•Simberian,IncfortheDfieldsolverSIMBEORusedtocreateandvalidatealloftheDcircuitmodelsusedinthebook•PolarInstruments,IncfortheSiDfieldsolverthatgeneratedanumberoftheresistance,capacitance,andinductanceresults•CHTechnicalSalesandTTMTechnologiesforprovidingthetracephotosappearinginChaptersand•Tektronix,IncforprovidingthetestequipmentphotographappearinginChapter•TheAWRCorporationfortheuseofAWR®MicrowaveOffice®•LaraineWorbyoftheFraminghamPublicLibraryforobtainingmanyoftheobscurereferencescited•ThelibrariesofWentworthInstituteofTechnology,FranklinWOlinCollegeofEngineering,andWorcesterPolytechnicInstituteOnceagain,theenthusiasticassistanceoftheArtechHousestaffandtheskillfulreviewprovidedbytheanonymousrevieweraremostappreciatedinhelpingtoturnarawmanuscriptintoafinishedtextIalsothankmyfriendandcolleagueJeffCooperforcallingtomyattentiontheagelessstoryofthefirsttransatlanticcablementionedinChapterandpointingoutitsrelevancetotheproblemsfacedbymodernsignalengineersandmanagersMostimportantly,IamespeciallygratefultomywifeAnnWithouthersupport,understanding,andencouragement,thisbookwouldnothavebeenpossibleCHAPTERIntroductiontoSignalIntegrityWhatIsSignalIntegritySignalintegrityistheanalysis,design,andvalidationoftheinterconnectnecessaryforsuccessfultransmissionofdigitalsignalsTodothis,signalintegrity(SI)engineeringborrowsideasandpracticesfrommanybranchesofelectricalengineeringTothosenothavingabackgroundinanalogorradiofrequencyelectronics,thisdiversitycanmakeSIseemmysterious,sometimesinconsistent,andoccasionallydifficulttounderstandLogicdesignersaccustomedtoworkingwithbinarylogiccanfindtheapparentlyimprecise,analognatureofSIparticularlyfrustratingAlthoughknowledgeinRFandanalogelectronicsishelpful,modernSICADallowsnearlyanyonetocreateSIsimulationsandmakepredictionsaboutcircuitoperationHowever,asHenryPetroski

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

评分:

/49

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部

举报
资料