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Understanding_Signal_Integrity.pdf

Understanding_Signal_Integrity.…

上传者: yufei 2011-09-19 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Understanding_Signal_Integritypdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域,主题内容包含UnderstandingSignalIntegrityLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAc符等。

UnderstandingSignalIntegrityLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataAcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheUSLibraryofCongressBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryISBN:CoverdesignbyVickiKaneArtechHouseCantonStreetNorwood,MAAllrightsreservedPrintedandboundintheUnitedStatesofAmericaNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronicormechanical,includingphotocopying,recording,orbyanyinformationstorageandretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublisherAlltermsmentionedinthisbookthatareknowntobetrademarksorservicemarkshavebeenappropriatelycapitalizedArtechHousecannotattesttotheaccuracyofthisinformationUseofaterminthisbookshouldnotberegardedasaffectingthevalidityofanytrademarkorservicemarkUnderstandingSignalIntegrityStephenCThieraufToChristopher,Kevin,and,asalways,AnnvContentsPrefacexvCHAPTERIntroductiontoSignalIntegrityWhatIsSignalIntegrityTheImportanceofSignalIntegrity:TheFirstTransatlanticTelegraphCableWhatIsaPulseTimeandFrequencyDomainsLineSpectrumsRecreatingaPulsewithSineWavesWhyDoestheFrequencyDomainMattertoSignalIntegrityEngineersUpperBandwidthPowerIntegrityandSimultaneousSwitchingNoiseWhatIsSimultaneousSwitchingNoiseWhatIstheDielectricConstantandLossTangentMainPointsReferencesCHAPTERTheSignalIntegrityProcessIntroductionWhyPerformaSignalIntegrityAnalysisWhatIsaTypicalSignalIntegrityWorkflowSignalIntegrityWorstCaseAnalysisSiliconWorstCaseIOModelsWhatCombinationofEnvironmentalEffectsAreWorstCaseUsingSIAnalysisResultsDuringDebugElectricalOverstressesMainPointsReferencesviContentsCHAPTERSignalIntegrityCADandModelsIntroductionIOModelsWhatAreTransistorLevelModelsWhatAreIBISModelsModelingTransmissionLinesSParametersWhatAreSParametersWhatIsInsertionLossWhatIsReflectionLossWhatAreTouchstoneFilesFieldSolversWhatAreDFieldSolversWhatAreDFieldSolversMainPointsReferencesCHAPTERPrintedTestandEvaluationBoardsIntroductionTestBoardsTestBoardsasaChipDebugPlatformMarginingPowerSupplyTestingDecouplingCapacitorEfficacyTestingSensitivitytoClockQualityEvaluationBoardsRollofthePrintedCircuitLayoutShopFabricatingandAssemblingtheBoardAlternativeMethodsforDesignandFabricationMainPointsReferencesCHAPTERPrintedCircuitBoardConstructionIntroductionHowIsaMultilayerCircuitBoardConstructedHowAreConnectionsMadeBetweenLayersWhatIstheViaAspectRatioWhatIstheSignificanceofCallingaCircuitBoard“FR”WhyIsThereSuchVariabilityinDkBetweenLaminateManufacturersWhyIstheSameBoardProducedDifferentlybyVariousFabShopsWhatAreSomeAlternativestoFRContentsviiCircuitBoardTracesMicrostripStriplineWhatIsaMilandWhatDoesaTraceThicknessinOuncesMeanWhatCopperTypesAreUsedtoFormTracesandWhatAreTheirCharacteristicsWhatIsSurfaceRoughnessandWhatAreTypicalValuesAreTracesRectangularMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERTransmissionLineFundamentalsIntroductionWhatIsaTransmissionLineWhatIstheSignalReturnPathCircuitModelofaTransmissionLineImpedanceandDelayUnitsandElectricalLengthHowDoesaSignalTravelDowntheLineWhatVoltageGetsLaunchedDownaTransmissionLineHowDoestheCurrentintheReturnPathBehaveHowDoesCurrentFlowinReturnPathsThatAreNotGroundWhatIstheBehaviorWhenOneReturnPathIsaRelatedPowerPlaneHowDoestheReturnCurrentFlowWhenthePowerSupplyIsNottheSignalingVoltageWhenDoesaConductor,Via,orConnectorPinActLikeaTransmissionLineWhyDoestheSignalRiseTimeMatterButNotthePulseWidthWhyDoesPropagationDelayTimeDependontheLineLength,ButImpedanceDoesNotMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERUnderstandingMicrostripandStriplineTransmissionLinesIntroductionDCResistanceandResistivityStriplineandMicrostripCapacitanceWhatIstheEffectiveDielectricConstantWhatAretheDifferencesBetweenMicrostripandStriplineCapacitancesviiiContentsHowDoesFrequencyAltertheLossTangentWhatIsConductanceandHowIsItDeterminedStriplineandMicrostripInductanceHowDoestheSkinEffectChangetheTrace’sResistanceWhatIstheProximityEffectHowDoestheSkinEffectChangetheInductanceUnderstandingStriplineandMicrostripImpedanceUnderstandingStriplineandMicrostripPropagationDelayTimeHowDotheDielectricandEffectiveDielectricConstantsAffectDelayTimeHowSensitiveIsDelayTimetoChangesintheDielectricConstantMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERSignalLossandtheEffectsofCircuitBoardPhysicalFactorsIntroductionWhatAreTransmissionLineLossandAttenuationWhatEffectsDoLossesHaveonSignalsHowIsLossSpecifiedConvertingBetweenDecibelsandPercentageLossWhatCreatesTransmissionLineLossandHowIsItCharacterizedLossDifferencesBetweenMicrostripandStriplineTracesHowDoImpedanceandLoopResistanceAffectConductorLossHowDoesSurfaceRoughnessIncreaseConductorLossSurfaceRoughnessinPerspectiveWhatCanBeDonetoReduceConductorLossesUnderstandingDielectricLossesDifferencesinDielectricLossesBetweenStriplineandMicrostripEffectsofTemperatureandMoistureWhatCanBeDonetoReduceDielectricLossesSummaryofSignalLossandDistortionCharacteristicsEffectsofResinContentandGlassWeaveonDelayTimeandImpedanceEffectsofTraceShapeMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERUnderstandingTracetoTraceCouplingIntroductionUnderstandingMutualCapacitanceandInductanceWhatAretheCapacitanceandInductanceMatricesContentsixWhyDoSomeFieldSolversReportCapacitanceswithNegativeNumbersHowDoesSwitchingAltertheTraceInductanceandCapacitanceHowIstheCapacitanceAffectedHowIstheInductanceAffectedWhatEffectDoesCouplingHaveonImpedanceandDelayWhatAreOddandEvenModesCantheOddandEvenModeEquationsBeUsedwithMoreThanTwoTracesWhyIstheEvenandOddModeTimingtheSameforStriplineButNotMicrostripByHowMuchDoestheEvenandOddModeImpedanceChangeWhatAretheCircuitEffectsWhenSwitchingCausestheImpedancetoChangeHowIsReceiverTimingAffectedbyInandOutofPhaseSwitchingMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERUnderstandingCrosstalkIntroductionHowIsCrosstalkCreatedandWhatAreItsCharacteristicsFarEndCrosstalkCalculatingFEXTWhatAreTypicalKfValuesFEXTSummaryNearEndCrosstalkCalculatingNEXTWhatAreTypicalKbValuesNEXTSummaryHowCloselyDoCalculationandSimulationAgreeHowWellDoDFieldSolversAgreeGuardTracesConnectingtheGuardTraceMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERUnderstandingSignalReflectionsIntroductionHowAreReflectionsCreatedAPhysicalAnalogyforTransmissionLineReflectionsTheReflectionCoefficientxContentsWhatDeterminestheReflectionCoefficientValueHowDotheReflectedWavesCombinewiththeIncidentWavesDifferenceBetweentheResponseofaPulseandaStepWhatIstheBehaviorWhenThereAreMultipleReflectionsWhatIstheBehaviorWhenThereAreManyPulsesReactiveDiscontinuitiesMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERTerminationStrategiesIntroductionSourceSeriesTerminationSelectingtheResistanceValueEffectofDriverResistancePowerSavingsParallelandTheveninTerminationSelectingVttandVtermTheveninTerminationConnectingRtermDirectlytoVddorGroundDiodeTerminationDiodeTypesACTerminationTopologiesSingleLoadPointtoPointTerminationMultipleLoadPointtoPointTerminationMultidropLinesResponseWhenSignalRiseTimeIsVeryShortResponseWhenSignalRiseTimeIsComparabletotheTransmissionLineDelaysStubsandBranchesBranchesMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERDifferentialSignalingIntroductionWhatAretheElectricalCharacteristicsofDifferentialSignalingHowIsaDifferentialPairObservedWhatIsanEyeDiagramWhatIsIntersymbolInterferenceHowAretheEffectsofLossCorrectedContentsxiWhatAretheElectricalCharacteristicsofaDifferentialTransmissionLineWhyIstheDifferentialImpedanceTwicetheOddModeImpedanceHowAreDifferentialTransmissionLinesTerminatedHowShouldaDiffPairBeTerminatedWhenthePropagationIsNotFullyOddModeWhatPreventsCreatingOddModeSignalsHowAreDifferentialTransmissionLinesCreatedManufacturingTradeOffsBetweenLooselyandTightlyCoupledPairsElectricalTradeOffsBetweenLooselyandTightlyCoupledPairsWhatAreSomeSuggestedDiffPairLayoutandRoutingRulesObtainingtheProperDifferentialImpedanceSignalTraceBetweenDiffPairsKeepingSignalTracesFarAwayfromDiffPairsAvoidReturnPathSplitsRouteonSameLayersMinimizeLayerHoppingUseDifferentialViasMatchOverallTraceLengthsMatchLengthsonEachLayerEnsureThatNoiseIsEquallyCoupledtoBothTracesMainPointsProblemsReferencesCHAPTERTraceandViaArtworkConsiderationsforSignalIntegrityIntroductionMiteredCornersRoutingNeartheBoardEdgeSerpentineTracesHowAreSerpentineDelayLinesModeledEffectsofCornersHowLongShouldtheSegmentsBeGuardTracesViasViaCircuitModelWhatFactorsDetermineViaCapacitanceWhatFactorsDetermineViaInductanceWhatAretheEffectsofDifferentAntipadDiametersWhatAreNonfunctionalPadsCantheViaImpedanceBeAdjustedWhatAreDifferentialViasxiiContentsMainPointsReferencesCHAPTERIdentifyingCommonSignalIntegrityProblemsIntroductionQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingPCBStackupQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingCrosstalkSimulationsQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingSignalQualitySimulationsQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingPrelayoutSimulationsQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingPostlayoutSimulationsQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingaTerminationStrategyQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingPCBLayoutDesignRulesQuestionstoAskWhenReviewingASICDriverSelectionChoicesReferencesCHAPTERSolvingCommonSignalIntegrityProblemsIntroductionReducingCrosstalkReducingReflectionsReducingandEliminatingSimultaneousSwitchingNoise(SSN)ImprovingInadequateTimingMarginsCorrectingIntersymbolInterference(ISI)StepstoTakeWhenCircuitBoardTracesAreTooLossyOptionstoReduceCircuitBoardThicknessStepstoTakeWhenThereAreNotEnoughRoutingLayersStepstoTakeWhenaCircuitBoardMustBeCostReducedStepstoTakeWhenDataDependentErrorsAreCausingSystemFailuresReferencesCHAPTERCalculatingTraceandPlaneElectricalValuesIntroductionHowtoConvertfromDecibelLosstoSignalSwingEstimatingDCResistanceFindingInductanceandCapacitanceWhenthePhysicalDimensionsAreNotKnownFindingStriplineInductanceandCapacitanceWhenImpedanceIsKnownFindingStriplineInductanceandCapacitanceWhenTraceGeometryIsKnownFindingMicrostripInductanceandCapacitanceWhenTraceGeometryIsKnownContentsxiiiMicrostripInductanceMicrostripCapacitanceEstimatingInductanceandCapacitanceofaPlaneInductanceCapacitanceCalculatingTraceLossfromaCircuitModelCalculatingStriplineLossfromTraceDimensionsDielectricLossCalculatingMicrostripLossfromTraceDimensionsDielectricLossFindingStriplineImpedanceFindingExposedMicrostripImpedanceFindingSolderMaskCoveredMicrostripImpedanceWavelengthReferencesAbouttheAuthorIndexxvPrefaceThisisanintroductorytextforengineers,projectleaders,andmanagerswishingtounderstandthefundamentalsofsignalintegrityTheelectricalcharacteristicsofthevarioustypesoftransmissionlinespresentoncircuitboardsarecoveredindepth,withparticularattentiontothedifferencesbetweenthemAlsocoveredindetailarereflections,terminationstrategies,crosstalk,andinformationregardingcircuitboardtechnologySignallossanddifferentialsignalingarepresentedinenoughdetailtoprovidethereaderwithasolidbackgroundintheseimportanttopicsBecausethefocusisonthosenewtosignalintegrity(includingmanagers),chapterscoveringthesignalintegrityprocess,CADtools,thevalueoftestandevaluationcircuitboards,andtroubleshootingstrategiesarepresentedThismaterialisuniqueandisintendedtoprovidethenewcomerwithanoverviewandthemanagerwithanunderstandingofthetasksthatsignalintegrityengineersroutinelycarryoutTheneedtoperformsomeofthesetasks(suchasmodelvalidationorthedebuggingofindividualcircuitmodels)andtheuncertaintyintheresultsfromsimulationareoftenunknowntomanagementandtothosenewtothefieldandarenotalwaysproperlyaccountedforinprojectschedulesExerciseproblemswithdetailedsolutionsallowreaderstotesttheirknowledgeTheseproblemscanbeusedforpracticeorastemplatestosolvesimilarproblemsonactualhardwareSeveraloftheproblemsrequireinformationfromotherchaptersandservetofurtherknittogethervariousfundamentalconceptsThesolutionsareavailableontheArtechHouseWebsiteathttp:wwwartechhousecomstaticreslibthieraufthieraufhtmlThereaderisassumedtohaveabasicbackgroundinelectricalengineering,includinganelementaryunderstandingofvoltage,current,resistance,capacitance,andinductanceNoknowledgeofsignalintegrity,electromagnetics,ortransmissionlinetheoryisassumedThesesubjectsareintroducedinthetextasneeded,oftenwithgraphsTheformulasarekeptsimpleinthosecaseswheremathematicsisused,andtoavoidclutteringthetext,mathematicalderivationshaveintentionallybeenomittedReferencesareprovidedforthosewishingtounderstandthederivations,ortheunderlyingphysicsAcatalogofparticularlyusefulformulashasbeencollectedintoonechapterattheendofthebookforeasyreferenceandtoavoiddefocusingtheearlierchaptersThoseuninterestedinusingformulascanskipthatchapter,butthosewishingtochecktheresultsfromfieldandcircuitsimulations,xviPrefaceorthosewantingtousemathematicstovalidatetheirintuition,willfinditahelpfulresourceThisbookhasgreatlybenefitedthankstothegeneroushelpfromthefollowing:•SimucadDesignAutomationfortheSmartSpicelicensenecessarytocreateanumberofthecircuitsimulationsappearinginthisbook•Simberian,IncfortheDfieldsolverSIMBEORusedtocreateandvalidatealloftheDcircuitmodelsusedinthebook•PolarInstruments,IncfortheSiDfieldsolverthatgeneratedanumberoftheresistance,capacitance,andinductanceresults•CHTechnicalSalesandTTMTechnologiesforprovidingthetracephotosappearinginChaptersand•Tektronix,IncforprovidingthetestequipmentphotographappearinginChapter•TheAWRCorporationfortheuseofAWRMicrowaveOffice•LaraineWorbyoftheFraminghamPublicLibraryforobtainingmanyoftheobscurereferencescited•ThelibrariesofWentworthInstituteofTechnology,FranklinWOlinCollegeofEngineering,andWorcesterPolytechnicInstituteOnceagain,theenthusiasticassistanceoftheArtechHousestaffandtheskillfulreviewprovidedbytheanonymousrevieweraremostappreciatedinhelpingtoturnarawmanuscriptintoafinishedtextIalsothankmyfriendandcolleagueJeffCooperforcallingtomyattentiontheagelessstoryofthefirsttransatlanticcablementionedinChapterandpointingoutitsrelevancetotheproblemsfacedbymodernsignalengineersandmanagersMostimportantly,IamespeciallygratefultomywifeAnnWithouthersupport,understanding,andencouragement,thisbookwouldnothavebeenpossibleCHAPTERIntroductiontoSignalIntegrityWhatIsSignalIntegritySignalintegrityistheanalysis,design,andvalidationoftheinterconnectnecessaryforsuccessfultransmissionofdigitalsignalsTodothis,signalintegrity(SI)engineeringborrowsideasandpracticesfrommanybranchesofelectricalengineeringTothosenothavingabackgroundinanalogorradiofrequencyelectronics,thisdiversitycanmakeSIseemmysterious,sometimesinconsistent,andoccasionallydifficulttounderstandLogicdesignersaccustomedtoworkingwithbinarylogiccanfindtheapparentlyimprecise,analognatureofSIparticularlyfrustratingAlthoughknowledgeinRFandanalogelectronicsishelpful,modernSICADallowsnearlyanyonetocreateSIsimulationsandmakepredictionsaboutcircuitoperationHowever,asHenryPetroski

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