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理解自然.pdf

理解自然

九月虺
2011-09-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《理解自然pdf》,可适用于职业教育领域

UnderstandingNatureCaseStudiesinComparativeEpistemologyTheInternationalLibraryofEnvironmental,AgriculturalandFoodEthicsVOLUMEEditorsMichielKorthals,DeptofAppliedPhilosophy,WageningenUniversity,Wageningen,TheNetherlandsPaulBThompson,DeptofPhilosophy,MichiganStateUniversity,EastLansing,MI,USAEditorialBoardTimothyBeatley,UniversityofVirginia,Charlottesville,USALawrenceBusch,DeptofSociology,MichiganStateUniversity,EastLansing,USAAnilGupta,CentreforManagementinAgriculture,Gujarat,IndiaRichardHaynes,DeptofPhilosophy,UniversityofFlorida,Gainesville,USADarylMacer,TheEubiosEthicsInstitute,UniversityofTsukuba,Ibaraki,JapanBenMepham,CentreforAppliedBioEthics,SchoolofBiosciences,UniversityofNottingham,Loughborough,UnitedKingdomDietmarMieth,UniversityofTübingen,Tübingen,GermanyEgbertSchroten,UtrechtUniversity,Utrecht,TheNetherlandsTitlespublishedinthisseriesarelistedattheendofthisvolumeHubZwartUnderstandingNatureCaseStudiesinComparativeEpistemologyHubZwartRadboudUniversityNijmegenTheNetherlandsISBNeISBNLibraryofCongressControlNumber:©SpringerScienceBusinessMedia,LLCNopartofthisworkmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,microfilming,recordingorotherwise,withoutwrittenpermissionfromthePublisher,withtheexceptionofanymaterialsuppliedspecificallyforthepurposeofbeingenteredandexecutedonacomputersystem,forexclusiveusebythepurchaseroftheworkPrintedonacidfreepaperspringercomContentsPartIIntroductionComparativeEpistemologyUnderstandingNature:ScientificallyandOtherwiseTowardsaComparativeEpistemologyofDivergentKnowledgeFormsCrossSections:ASynchronicApproachGoingThroughtheArchives:PreliminaryIssuesEpistemologicalNeurosisinFrankensteinOutlineAntecedents:ComparativeEpistemologyasanOutcomeEpistemologyasTherapyKant:WhyaThirdCritiqueComparativeDialecticsPhenomenology:ScienceanditsDiscontentsGastonBachelard:PreparingtheGroundforaComparativeEpistemologyPartIIAnimalEpistemologyWhatisanAnimalAComparativeEpistemologyofAnimalsReasoningAnimals:OntheTruthfulnessofLiteratureandScienceTheComical,theTragicandtheBiblicalViewClassifying,DissectingandSlaughteringAnimalsDarwin:Prelude,ClimaxandAftermathAnimalsasEpistemologicallyPrivilegedBeingsvWhatisaWhaleMobyDick,MarineScienceandtheSublimeWhyMobyDickAnIntroductionWhatisaWhaleTheEpistemologyofSelfexposureVersustheEpistemologyofSelfrestraintOnClassifyingWhalesWhalingandPhilosophy:TheMeditatingSailorAndGodCreatedGreatWhales:ThePhilosophyoftheSublimeWilltheWhalePerishTheEthicsofMobyDickConcludingRemarksWhatisaDogAnimalExperimentsandAnimalNovelsPrelude:TheYearandtheTriumphofRealismAShortHistoryoftheResearchAnimalClaudeBernard:TheEpistemologyofDestructionResearchAnimalsasPartnersIvanPavlov’sChronicMethodAnimalExperimentsinLiteraryDocumentsAnExperimentalDogNovelTheExperimentalAnimalselfTheBirthofaResearchAnimal:Ibsen’sTheWildDuckandTheOriginofaNewAnimalScienceIntroductionPreliminaryRemarksTheWildDuck:CloseReadingTheEmergenceofaNewResearchParadigm:SpaldingandMorganTheWildDuck:CloseReadingANewScientificPracticeTheScientificGazeTheScientificandtheRomanticGazeEthicalDimensionWellbeingoftheResearchAnimalIntegrityoftheResearchAnimalTheDeathoftheResearchAnimalFromAweinspiringNaturetoManagedEnvironmentPartIIIPlants,LandscapesandEnvironmentsAquaphobia,Tulipmania,Biophilia:AMoralGeographyoftheDutchLandscapeIntroductionAnElementaryHistoryviContentsSimultaneousReformations:ShiftingPhysiognomiesTulipmania,ortheBeautifulandtheSublimeGrowingTensionsPoetryastheArtofRemembranceRomanticismandtheEmergenceofaMore“Natural”NaturalScienceChallengedIdealsDownwiththeDikesTamingMicrobes:Ibsen’sDrStockmannasaContemporaryofPasteurandKochIntroductionStockmannasaManofScienceStockmannasaWhistleblowerStockmannasaMicrobeHunterTamingtheMicroandtheMacromonsterPeaStoriesWhywasMendel’sResearchIgnoredinandRediscoveredinIntroductionTheImperfectionoftheBiographicalRecordMendel:ACaseStudyMendel’sPredecessorsSeparateandRecombinePlayingChesswithNatureScienceCommunicationTheYearJulesVerne’sOeuvre:ALiteraryEncyclopaediaofScienceandTechnologyTotheCentreoftheEarthVerne’sWorkasanEncyclopaediaofArtsandSciencesExtremophilia:ExperimentalResearchUnderExtremeConditionsElementaryImagination:Verne’sWorkas“Teratology”PartIVConclusionEpistemologicalExercises:TowardsaTypologyofKnowledgeFormsWhatisKnowledgeAnEpistemologicalTypologyofLiteraryFormsTheNineteenthCenturyContentsviiTwoCulturesAGrandIdea(“HowLargetheWorldis…”)ProspectsforFurtherResearch:SomeCaseStudiesinBroadOutlineLiteratureNameIndexviiiContentsChapterComparativeEpistemologyUnderstandingNature:ScientificallyandOtherwiseInIbsen’splayTheLadyoftheSea,writtenin,themaincharacter(Ellida)reluctantlyconfessedtoherhusband(Wangel)thatsheisstillunderthespellofamysteriousrapportwithasailorsheonceknew,atatimewhenshewaslivingwithherfatherfaroffontheNorwegiancoastWangelwantstobeinformedinamoredetailedmannerabouttheirrelationshipEllidatellshimthattheyspentmostoftheirtimetalkingtoeachotherWangelOfwhatdidyouspeak,thenEllidaWespokemostlyabouttheseaWangelAbouttheseaEllidaYesAboutstormsandcalmOfdarknightsatseaAndoftheseaintheglitteringsunshinydayswespokealsoButwespokemostofthewhales,andthedolphins,andthesealsthatlieoutthereontherocksinthemiddaysunAndthenwespokeofthegulls,andtheeagles,andalltheotherseabirdsIthink–isn’titwonderful–whenwetalkedofsuchthingsitseemedtomeasifboththeseabeastsandseabirdswereonewithhimTheirdialoguehintsattheexistenceofaformofknowledgeabouttheseaanditsinhabitantsthatisquiteunlikescientificknowledgeItisdifferent,butnotnecessarilydeficientRather,ithasanepistemologicalprofileofitsownIthasitsownsourcesofinformation,astyleofitsown,relyingonverbal,informalpathwaysofcommunicationItisamore“intimate”formofknowledge:thesubjectseemstobeone,moreorless,withitsobject,seemstocoincidewithit–Ellida’sallusionshintatparticipationratherthanobjectificationItisknowledgeofanexperientialnature,basedoncarefulobservationsandsoelaborateandrichthatapparentlythemysterioussailorcanconverseaboutit,perhapseven“lecture”aboutit,endlesslyItisnotthekindofknowledgeoneislikelytoencounterinscholarlywritingsRather,itseemstoevolvefrommoreintuitivewaysofknowingnature,perhapsoneshouldevensay:frommore“natural”waysofgaininginsightintothefluxanddynamicsofpristinecoastallifeThesubjectorobservantisattunedtonatureMoreover,whereasscholarlyformsofdiscoursewillIbsen()CfGutenbergversion:http:wwwgutenbergnetetextldysetxtHZwart,UnderstandingNature©SpringerScienceBusinessMediaBVcomplywithacademicformats,literarytexts(novels,poems,plays)seemmoreapttocaptureandarticulatethis“other”,moreintimatetypeofknowledge,albeitofteninafragmentaryorallusivemannerWeareaccustomed,however,toidentify“real”knowledgeofnaturewithscience,andforgoodreasons,soitseemsItisnocoincidencethatofthetwoleadinginternationalscientificjournals,oneiscalledNatureandtheotherScienceThesetitlesrefertothetwobasicpolesoftheknowledgeprocess,theobjectandthesubjectpoleTheyseemtocoverthewholeepistemologicaltrajectoryAndindeed,scienceandnatureareintimatelyconnectedAtfirstglance,natureseemstohaveprimacyItseemstogowithoutsaying,tospeakforitself,thatnatureisprimordial,andsciencederivativeInthebeginningthereisnature,presentingitselftous,andscienceisa“representation”Butifwelookattheirrelationshipmoreclosely,thingsarenotthatstraightforwardInacertainwaywecouldalsosaythatprimacybelongstoscience,becauseitissciencethatallowsnaturetorevealitself,topresentitselftousinacertainmannerItcreatestheepistemologicalconditionsthatallownaturetobecomevisibleandmeasurableNatureisnotsimplythere,shemustbemadediscernableWithoutscience,ourknowledgeofnaturewouldberatherlimitedandsuperficialourexperienceofnaturewouldnodoubtbeimpoverishedandlesspreciseSciencehasprovideduswithhighlyreliabletechniquesandinstruments(egmicroscopes)aswellaswithpowerfulideas(suchastheideaofconductinganexperiment)thatallowustodiscerndimensionsofnaturethatwouldremainmoreorlessinaccessibleifweweretorelysolelyon“nonscientific”stylesofobservationInshort,bothpolesseemequallyimportantWithoutnature,sciencewouldmakenosense,buttheoppositeisalsotrue:nonaturewithoutscienceWithoutscience,wewouldseenatureinacompletelydifferentandratherdiffuselightScienceconstitutestheclearingthatallowsnaturetoemergeThisbookstartsfromtheconviction,however,thatthereareotherwaysofknowingaboutnaturebesidesscienceAtfirstglance,thismaynotseemallthatcontroversialItseemsobvious,forexample,thatthereissomethinglikepracticalknowledgeconcerningnature,suchastheuncodified,experientialknowledgeofgardeners,sailors,wanderersorpetownersSomeonewhotravelsthroughaparticularlandscapeonfootonaregularbasisislikelytoacquireacertainamountofknowledgeaboutsuchasiteAnotherimportantformofknowledgeconcerningnatureistheknowledgearticulatedbyartists,suchaspoets,novelists,landscapepaintersorevencomposersJohannWolfgangGoethe(–)haswrittenmanypoemsonflowersthatbearwitnesstohisintimateknowledgeofplantforms,althoughnoteverybodywillregardhisknowledgeasbeing“scientific”inastrictsenseStoriesbyIvanTurgenev(–),situatedintheRussiancountryside,withitsendlessbirchforestsandmistyponds,relyonhis“firsthandknowledge”(Troyat)oflandscapes,birds,mammalsandtrees,accumulatedthroughyearsofcarefulobservationandaclose“reading”ofruralenvironmentsTheGermanlandscapepainterCasparDavidFriedrich(–)studiedthesceneriesthathepaidtributetoinhispaintingsverycarefullyandthoroughlyOnecouldsayofhispaintings,suchasRiesengebirge,forexample,thatthereis“truth”inthem,even“knowledge”Andthisevenappliestomusic,soitseemsWecanComparativeEpistemologylistentoWaldesrauschenbyFranzLiszt,forexample,asafascinatingandevenbewilderingplayofnotesandchords,butwemayalsoappreciateitasagenuineefforttoallowarecognisableforestexperiencetocometolifeOr,togiveyetanotherexample,itisclearthatJeanSibelius(–),inhissymphonicpoemFinlandiaaswellasinvariousotherworks,succeededincreatingatruthfulandconvincingmusical“image”oftheFinishlandscapeApparently,heknewthislandscapeextremelywellandthisenabledhimtoreallycallittolifeinhissymphonicmasterpiecesApoembyGoethe,astorybyTurgenev,apaintingbyFriedrichoramusicalscorebySibeliusmaytellusmoreaboutaparticularflowerorsitethan,forexample,abotanical,geologicalorecologicalpublicationinNatureorScienceArtistsmayallownaturetoemerge,tocomeforwardinacertainmanner–andsodoesscienceNeithertheartisticnorthescientificrenderingofnaturecanberegardedasastraightforward“representation”Rather,inallthecasesmentioned,natureisexperiencedundercertainconditionsParticularaspectsofnaturearerevealedwhereasothersareneglectedoreveneclipsedAndtoacertainextentwemaysaythattheartist’snaturereallyisdifferentcomparedtothenatureof(particularbranchesof)scientificresearchUntilrecently,however,epistemologyasaphilosophicaldisciplinewasalmostexclusivelydevotedtoreflectingonthestructureandreliabilityofscientificknowledgeTheobjectiveofthisbookistocontributetotheemergenceofamorecomprehensiveepistemology,onethatiswillingandabletocriticallyreflectonthestructureandreliabilityofotherknowledgeformsaswell,inthecontextofacomparativeepistemologyTowardsaComparativeEpistemologyofDivergentKnowledgeFormsEpistemologyasaphilosophicaldisciplineisdevotedtoansweringquestionssuchasWhatisknowledgeHowtoassessthereliabilityandtruthfulnessofvariousknowledgeformsInthisbook,knowledgewillberegardedasaprocessinthecourseofwhichnatureasϕ σις,ieassomethingwhichinitiallypresentsitselftousasincomprehensible,inaccessible,unpredictableanddiffuse,becomesincreasinglytransparentanddiscrete:objectifiedandaccountablenatureInordertocapturethebasicmomentumoftheknowledgeprocess(theworkofscience),wecouldrefertothef

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