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首页 心智探奇 How The Mind Works by Steven Pinker.pdf

心智探奇 How The Mind Works by Steven Pinker.pdf

心智探奇 How The Mind Works by Stev…

上传者: 翠屏将军 2011-09-11 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《心智探奇 How The Mind Works by Steven Pinkerpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含PENGUINBOOKSHOWTHEMINDWORKS'Awitty,erudite,stimulatingandprovocativebookth符等。

PENGUINBOOKSHOWTHEMINDWORKS'Awitty,erudite,stimulatingandprovocativebookthatthrowsmuchnewlightonthemachineryofthemindAnimportantbook'KenanMalik,IndependentonSunday'Hehasagreatdealtosay,muchofitgroundbreaking,someofithighlycontroversialaprimerinremarkablesciencewriting'SimonGarfield,MailonSunday'Aslengthyasitis,itwillproduceabookinthereader'sheadthatisevenlongerForitalterscompletelythewayonethinksaboutthinking,anditsunforeseenconsequencesprobablycan'tbecontainedbyabookChristopherLehmannHaupt,TheNewYorkTimes'WittypopularsciencethatyouenjoyreadingforthewritingaswellasforthescienceNoothersciencewritermakesmelaughsomuchHeisatopratewriter,anddeservesthesuperlativesthatarelavishedonhim'MarkRidley,TheNewYorkTimesBookReview"Thehumour,breadthandclarityofthoughtmakethisworkessentialreadingforanyonecuriousaboutthehumanmind'RaymondDolan,ObserverABOUTTHEAUTHORStevenPinker,anativeofMontreal,studiedexperimentalpsychologyatMcGillUniversityandHarvardUniversityAfterservingonthefacultiesofHarvardandStanforduniversitieshemovedtotheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology,whereheiscurrentlyProfessorofPsychologyandDirectoroftheCentreforCognitiveNeurosciencePinkerhasstudiedmanyaspectsoflanguageandofvisualcognition,withafocusonlanguageacquisitioninchildrenHeisafellowofseveralscientificsocieties,andhasbeenawardedresearchprizesfromthetheNationalAcademyofSciencesandtheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,ateachingprizefromMIT,andbookprizesfromtheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,theLinguisticsSocietyofAmericaandtheLosAngelesTimesHisclassicTheLanguageInstinctisalsoavailableinPenguinHOWTHEMINDWORKSStevenPinkerPENGUINBOOKSPENGUINBOOKSPublishedbythePenguinGroupPenguinBooksLtd,WrightsLane,LondonWTZ,EnglandPenguinPutnamInc,HudsonStreet,NewYork,NewYork,USAPenguinBooksAustraliaLtd,Ringwood,Victoria,AustraliaPenguinBooksCanadaLtd,AlcornAvenue,Toronto,Ontario,CanadaMVBPenguinBooks(NZ)Ltd,WairauRoad,Auckland,NewZealandPenguinBooksLtd,RegisteredOffices:Harmondsworth,Middlesex,EnglandFirstpublishedintheUSAbyWWNortonFirstpublishedinGreatBritainbyAllenLaneThePenguinPressPublishedinPenguinBooksCopyrightStephenPinker,AllrightsreservedThenoticesonpageconstituteanextensionofthiscopyrightpageThemoralrightoftheauthorhasbeenassertedPrintedinEnglandbyClaysLtd,StIvespicExceptintheUnitedStatesofAmerica,thisbookissoldsubjecttotheconditionthatitshallnot,bywayoftradeorotherwise,belent,resold,hiredout,orotherwisecirculatedwithoutthepublisher'spriorconsentinanyformofbindingorcoverotherthanthatinwhichitispublishedandwithoutasimilarconditionincludingthisconditionbeingimposedonthesubsequentpurchaserFORILAVENILCONTENTSPrefaceixJStandardEquipmentThinkingMachinesRevengeoftheNerdsTheMind'sEyeGoodIdeasHotheadsFamilyValuesTheMeaningofLifeNotesReferencesIndexVlldPREFACEAnybookcalledHowtheMindWorkshadbetterbeginonanoteofhumility,andIwillbeginwithtwoFirst,wedon'tunderstandhowthemindworksnotnearlyaswellasweunderstandhowthebodyworks,andcertainlynotwellenoughtodesignUtopiaortocureunhappinessThenwhytheaudacioustitleThelinguistNoamChomskyoncesuggestedthatourignorancecanbedividedintoproblemsandmysteriesWhenwefaceaproblem,wemaynotknowitssolution,butwehaveinsight,increasingknowledge,andaninklingofwhatwearelookingforWhenwefaceamystery,however,wecanonlystareinwonderandbewilderment,notknowingwhatanexplanationwouldevenlooklikeIwrotethisbookbecausedozensofmysteriesofthemind,frommentalimagestoromanticlove,haverecentlybeenupgradedtoproblems(thoughtherearestillsomemysteries,too!)Everyideainthebookmayturnouttobewrong,butthatwouldbeprogress,becauseouroldideasweretoovapidtobewrongSecond,JhavenotdiscoveredwhatwedoknowabouthowthemindworksFewoftheideasinthepagestofollowaremineIhaveselected,frommanydisciplines,theoriesthatstrikemeasofferingaspecialinsightintoourthoughtsandfeelings,thatfitthefactsandpredictnewones,andthatareconsistentintheircontentandintheirstyleofexplanationMygoalwastoweavetheideasintoacohesivepictureusingtwoevenbiggerideasthatarenotmine:thecomputationaltheoryofmindandthetheoryofthenaturalselectionofreplicatorsixxIHOWTHEMINDWORKSTheopeningchapterpresentsthebigpicture:thatthemindisasystemoforgansofcomputationdesignedbynaturalselectiontosolvetheproblemsfacedbyourevolutionaryancestorsintheirforagingwayoflifeEachofthetwobigideascomputationandevolutionthengetsachapterIdissectthemajorfacultiesofthemindinchaptersonperception,reasoning,emotion,andsocialrelations(family,loverS,rivals,friends,acquaintances,allies,enemies)Afinalchapterdiscussesourhighercallings:art,music,literature,humor,religion,andphilosophyThereisnochapteronlanguagemypreviousbookTheLanguageInstinctcoversthetopicinacomplementarywayThisbookisintendedforanyonewhoiscuriousabouthowthemindworksIdidn'twriteitonlyforprofessorsandstudents,butIalsodidn'twriteitonlyto"popularizescience"Iamhopingthatscholarsandgeneralreadersbothmightprofitfromabird'seyeviewofthemindandhowitentersintohumanaffairsAtthishighaltitudethereislittledifferencebetweenaspecialistandathoughtfullaypersonbecausenowadayswespecialistscannotbemorethanlaypeopleinmostofourowndisciplines,letaloneneighboringonesIhavenotgivencomprehensiveliteraturereviewsoranairingofallsidestoeverydebate,becausetheywouldhavemadethebookunreadable,indeed,unliftableMyconclusionscomefromassessmentsoftheconvergenceofevidencefromdifferentfieldsandmethods,andIhaveprovideddetailedcitationssoreaderscanfollowthemUpIhaveintellectualdebtstomanyteachers,students,andcolleagues,butmostofalltoJohnToobyandLedaCosmidesTheyforgedthesynthesisbetweenevolutionandpsychologythatmadethisbookpossible,andthoughtupmanyofthetheoriesIpresent(andmanyofthebetterjokes)ByinvitingmetospendayearasaFellowoftheCenterforEvolutionaryPsychologyattheUniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbara,theyprovidedanidealenvironmentforthinkingandwritingandimmeasurablefriendshipandadviceIamdeeplygratefultoMichaelGazzaniga,MarcHauser,DavidKemmerer,GaryMarcus,JohnTooby,andMargoWilsonfortheirreladingoftheentiremanuscriptandtheirinvaluablecriticismandencouragementOthercolleaguesgenerouslycommentedonchaptersintheirareasofexpertise:EdwardAdelson,BartonAnderson,SimonBaronCohien,NedBlock,PaulBloom,DavidBrainard,DavidBuss,JohnConstable,LedaCosmides,HelenaCronin,DanDennett,DavidEpstein,AlanFridlund,GerdGigerenzer,JudithHarris,RichardHeld,RayJackendoff,AlexKacelnik,StephenKosslyn,JackLoomis,CharlesOman,BernardSherPrefaceximan,PaulSmolensky,ElizabethSpelke,FrankSulloway,DonaldSymons,andMichaelTarrManyothersansweredqueriesandofferedprofitablesuggestions,includingRobertBoyd,DonaldBrown,NapoleonChagnon,MartinDaly,RichardDawkins,RobertHadley,JamesHillenbrand,DonHoffman,KellyOlguinJaakola,TimothyKetelaar,RobertKurzban,DanMontello,AlexPentland,RoslynPinker,RobertProvine,WhitmanRichards,DanielSchacter,DevendraSingh,PawanSinha,ChristopherTyler,JeremyWolfe,andRobertWrightThisbookisaproductofthestimulatingenvironmentsattwoinstitutions,theMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyandtheUniversityofCalifornia,SantaBarbaraSpecialthanksgotoEmilioBizzioftheDepartmentofBrainandCognitiveSciencesatMITforenablingmetotakeasabbaticalleave,andtoLoyLytleandAaronEttenbergoftheDepartmentofPsychologyandtoPatriciaClancyandMarianneMithunoftheDepartmentofLinguisticsatUCSBforinvitingmetobeaVisitingScholarintheirdepartmentsPatriciaClaffeyofMIT'sTeuberLibraryknowseverything,oratleastknowswheretofindit,whichisjustasgoodIamgratefulforherindefatigableeffortstotrackdowntheobscurestmaterialwithswiftnessandgoodhumorMysecretary,thewellnamedEleanorBonsaint,offeredprofessional,cheerfulhelpincountlessmattersThanksgoalsotoMarianneTeuberandtoSabrinaDetmarandJenniferRiddellofMIT'sListVisualArtsCenterforadviceonthejacketartMyeditors,DrakeMcFeely(Norton),HowardBoyer(nowattheUniversityofCaliforniaPress),StefanMcGrath(Penguin),andRaviMirchandani(nowatOrion),offeredfineadviceandcarethroughoutIamalsogratefultomyagents,JohnBrockmanandKatinkaMatson,fortheireffortsonmybehalfandtheirdedicationtosciencewritingSpecialappreciationgoestoKatyaRice,whohasnowworkedwithmeonfourbooksoverfourteenyearsHeranalyticaleyeandmasterlytouchhaveimprovedthebooksandhavetaughtmemuchaboutclarityandstyleMyheartfeltgratitudegoestomyfamilyfortheirencouragementandsuggestions:toHarry,Roslyn,Robert,andSusanPinker,Martin,Eva,Carl,andEricBoodman,SarojaSubbiah,andStanAdamsThanks,too,toWindsor,Wilfred,andFionaGreatestthanksofallgotomywife,IlavenilSubbiah,whodesignedthefigures,providedinvaluablecommentsonthemanuscript,offeredconstantadvice,support,andkindness,andsharedintheadventureThisbookisdedicatedtoher,withloveandgratitudeHOWTHEMINDWORKSMyresearchonmindandlanguagehasbeensupportedbytheNationalInstitutesofHealth(grantHD),theNationalScienceFoundation(grants,,and),andtheMcDonnellPewCenterforCognitiveNeuroscienceatMITHOWTHEMINDWORKSSTANDARDEQUIPMENThyaretheresomanyrobotsinfiction,butnoneinreallifeIwouldpayalotforarobotthatcouldputawaythedishesorrunsimpleerrandsButIwillnothavetheopportunityinthiscentury,andprobablynotinthenextoneeitherThereare,ofcourse,robotsthatweldorspraypaintonassemblylinesandthatrollthroughlaboratoryhallwaysmyquestionisaboutthemachinesthatwalk,talk,see,andthink,oftenbetterthantheirhumanmastersSince,whenKarelCapekcoinedthewordrobotinhisplayRUR,dramatistshavefreelyconjuredthemup:Speedy,Cutie,andDaveinIsaacAsimov'sI,Robot,RobbieinForbiddenPlanet,theflailingcanisterinLostinSpace,thedaleksinDrWho,RosietheMaidinThejetsons,NomadinStarTrek,HymieinGetSmart,thevacantbutlersandbickeringhaberdashersinSleeper,RDandCPOinStarWars,theTerminatorinTheTerminator,LieutenantCommanderDatainStarTrek:TheNextGeneration,andthewisecrackingfilmcriticsinMysteryScienceTheaterThisbookisnotaboutrobotsitisaboutthehumanmindIwilltrytoexplainwhatthemindis,whereitcamefrom,andhowitletsussee,think,feel,interact,andpursuehighercallingslikeart,religion,andphilosophyOnthewayIwilltrytothrowlightondistinctivelyhumanquirksWhydomemoriesfadeHowdoesmakeupchangethelookofafaceWheredoethnicstereotypescomefrom,andwhenaretheyirrationalWhydopeoplelosetheirtempersWhatmakeschildrenbrattyWhydofoolsfallinloveWhatmakesuslaughAndwhydopeoplebelieveinghostsandspiritsWHOWTHEMINDWORKSButthegapbetweenrobotsinimaginationandinrealityismystartingpoint,foritshowsthefirststepwemusttakeinknowingOurselves:appreciatingthefantasticallycomplexdesignbehindfeatsofmentallifewetakeforgrantedThereasontherearenohumanlikerobotsisnotthattheveryideaofamechanicalmindismisguidedItisthattheengineeringproblemsthatwehumanssolveasweseeandwalkandplanandmakeitthroughthedayarefarmorechallengingthanlandingonthemoonorsequencingthehumangenomeNature,onceagain,hasfoundingenioussolutionsthathumanengineerscannotyetduplicateWhenHamletsays,"Whatapieceofworkisaman!hownobleinreason!howinfiniteinfaculty!informandmovinghowexpressandadmirable!"weshoulddirectourawenotatShakespeareorMozartorEinsteinorKareemAbdulJabbarbutatafouryearoldcarryingoutarequesttoputatoyonashelfInawelldesignedsystem,thecomponentsareblackboxesthatperformtheirfunctionsasifbymagicThatisnolesstrueofthemindThefacultywithwhichwepondertheworldhasnoabilitytopeerinsideitselforourotherfacultiestoseewhatmakesthemtickThatmakesusthevictimsofanillusion:thatourownpsychologycomesfromsomedivineforceormysteriousessenceoralmightyprincipleIntheJewishlegendoftheGolem,aclayfigurewasanimatedwhenitwasfedaninscriptionofthenameofGodThearchetypeisechoedinmanyrobotstoriesThestatueofGalateawasbroughttolifebyVenus'answertoPygmalion'sprayersPinocchiowasvivifiedbytheBlueFairyModernversionsoftheGolemarchetypeappearinsomeofthelessfancifulstoriesofscienceAllofhumanpsychologyissaidtobeexplainedbyasingle,omnipotentcause:alargebrain,culture,language,socialization,learning,complexity,selforganization,neuralnetworkdynamicsIwanttoconvinceyouthatourmindsarenotanimated,bysomegodlyvapororsinglewonderprincipleThemind,liketheApollospacecraft,isdesignedtosolvemanyengineeringproblems,andthusispackedwithhightechsystemseachcontrivedtoovercomeitsownobstaclesIbeginbylayingouttheseproblems,whicharebothdesignspecsforarobotandthesubjectmatterofpsychologyForIbejlievethatthediscoverybycognitivescienceandartificialintelligenceofthetechnicalchallengesovercomebyourmundanementalactivityisoneofthegreatrevelationsofscience,anawakeningoftheimaginationcolmparabletolearningthattheuniverseismadeupofbillionsofgalaxies)orthatadropofpondwaterteemswithmicroscopiclifeStandardEquipmentTHEROBOTCHALLENGEWhatdoesittaketobuildarobotLet'sputasidesuperhumanabilitieslikecalculatingplanetaryorbitsandbeginwiththesimplehumanones:seeing,walking,grasping,thinkingaboutobjectsandpeople,andplanninghowtoactInmoviesweareoftenshownascenefromarobot'seyeview,withthehelpofcinematicconventionslikefisheyedistortionorcrosshairsThatisfineforus,theaudience,whoalreadyhavefunctioningeyesandbrainsButitisnohelptotherobot'sinnardsTherobotdoesnothouseanaudienceoflittlepeoplehomunculigazingatthepictureandtellingtherobotwhattheyareseeingIfyoucouldseetheworldthrougharobot'seyes,itwouldlooknotlikeamoviepicturedecoratedwithcrosshairsbutsomethinglikethis:|HOWTHEMINDWORKSEachnumberrepresentsthebrightnessofoneofthemillionsoftinypatchesmakingupthevisualfieldThesmallernumberscomefromdarkerpatches,thelargernumbersfrombrighterpatchesThenumbersshowninthearrayaretheactualsignalscomingfromanelectroniccameratrainedonaperson'shand,thoughtheycouldjustaswellbethefiringratesofsomeofthenervefiberscomingfromtheeyetothebrainasapersonlooksatahandVoxarobothrainorahumanbraintorecognizeobjectsandnotbumpintothem,itmustcrunchthesenumbersandguesswhatkindsofobjectsintheworldreflectedtheiightthatgaverisetothemTheproblemishumblinglydifficultFirst,avisualsystemmustlocatewhereanobjectendsandthebackdropbeginsButtheworldisnotacoloringbook,withblackoutlinesaroundsolidregionsTheworldasitisprojectedintooureyesisamosaicoftinyshadedpatchesPerhaps,onecouldguess,thevisualbrainlooksforregionswhereaquiltoflargenumbers(abrighterregion)abutsaquiltofsmallnumbers(adarkerregion)YoucandiscernsuchaboundaryinthesquareofnumbersitrunsdiagonallyfromthetoprighttothebottomcenterMostofthetime,unfortunately,youwouldnothavefoundtheedgeofanobject,whereitgiveswaytoemptyspaceThejuxtapositionoflargeandsmallnumberscouldhavecomefrommanydistinctarrangementsofmatterThisdrawing,devisedbythepsychologistsPawanSinhaandEdwardAdelson,appearstoshowaringoflightgrayanddarkgraytilesStandardEquipment'Infact,itisarectangularcutoutinablackcoverthroughwhichyouarelookingatpartofasceneInthenextdrawingthecoverhasbeenremoved,andyoucanseethateachpairofsidebysidegraysquarescomesfromadifferentarrangementofobjectsBignumbersnexttosmallnumberscancomefromanobjectstandinginfrontofanotherobject,darkpaperlyingonlightpaper,asurfacepaintedtwoshadesofgray,twoobjectstouchingside

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