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au-hacmp-cheatsheet-20100615.pdf

au-hacmp-cheatsheet-20100615.pdf

上传者: gimonroy 2011-09-08 评分 5 0 146 20 662 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《au-hacmp-cheatsheet-20100615pdf》,可适用于考试题库领域,主题内容包含TheHACMPcheatsheetBuildingaredundantenvironmentforhighavailabilitywithAIXS符等。

TheHACMPcheatsheetBuildingaredundantenvironmentforhighavailabilitywithAIXSkillLevel:IntermediateChristianPruett(pruettcgmailcom)SeniorSystemsAdministratorFreelanceJunDoyouwanttosetuparedundantenvironmentforhighavailabilitybutdon'tknowhowAIXcanhelpyouDiscoverHighAvailabilityClusterMultiProcessing(HACMP)andgainacheatsheetonhowtoconfigureandsetupasimpletwonodeclusterTherearesometypesofcomputingenvironmentsinwhichyoucan'tafforddowntimetheapplicationsanddataaresoimportantthatifonemachinedies,youwantanothertobeabletopickupandimmediatelytakeoverFortunately,inIBMAIX,aspecialpieceofsoftwarecalledHighAvailabilityClusterMultiProcessing(HACMP)canprovideredundancyandhighavailabilitytomeettheseneedsThisarticleprovidesanintroductiontoHACMPandshowshowtosetupandconfigureasimpletwonodeclusterFrequentlyusedacronyms•IO:Inputoutput•NAS:Networkattachedstorage•SAN:Storageareanetwork•VLAN:Virtuallocalareanetwork•WAN:WideareanetworkHACMPatworkTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofHACMPisdesignedtokeepresourceshighlyavailablewithminimumdowntimebygatheringresourcesinwaysthatallowmultipleIBMSystempserverstoaccessthemHACMPmanagesdisk,network,andapplicationresourceslogically,passingcontroltoindividualmachinesbasedonavailabilityandpreferenceFromasystemsadministrationpointofview,themainconceptbehindHACMPistokeepeverythingasredundantaspossibletoensurethatthereishighavailabilityatalllevelsFigurebelowillustratesasimpleHACMPconfigurationFigureSimpleHACMPconfigurationHere,twoSystempserversshareacommonsetofSANstorageandcommunicateontwonetworksTheysharebetweenthemasetofIPaddresses,someLogicalVolumeManager(LVM)resources,andapplicationcontrolsallmanagedbyHACMPOneoftheseserversisconsideredtobe"active"andisincontroloftheseresources,whiletheotherisidleandsitsreadyincaseitisneeded,asshowninFiguredeveloperWorksibmcomdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofFigureActiveandidleserversWhenaproblemoccurswiththeavailabilityofsomeofthephysicalresources,suchassomewiresbeingaccidentallyunplugged,HACMPsensestheerrorsandmakestheotherservertakeoverThereisamomentarypauseintheavailabilityoftheresources,buttheneverythingcomesupasthoughitwereontheoriginalmachine,andnoonecantellthedifference,asshowninFigureFigureHACMPcontrolsfailoverintheeventofaresourcefailureibmcomdeveloperWorksdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofOncethehardwarebecomesavailableagain,theresourcescanremainwheretheyareorgobacktotheoriginalserverItiscompletelyatthediscretionoftheadministratorHowever,hardwarefailuresaren'ttheonlyreasonformakingresourcesmovefromoneservertoanotherYoucanalsousethistechnologyforthingslikeoperatingsystemupgrades,firmwaremaintenance,orotheractivitiesthatmayrequiredowntime,allofwhichaddstotheversatilityandusefulnessofHACMPKeyHACMPtermsThefollowingtermsareusedthroughoutthisarticleandarehelpfultoknowwhendiscussingHACMP:•Cluster:AlogicalgroupingofserversrunningHACMP•Node:Anindividualserverwithinacluster•Network:Althoughnormallythistermwouldrefertoalargerareaofcomputertocomputercommunication(suchasaWAN),inHACMPnetworkreferstoalogicaldefinitionofanareaforcommunicationbetweentwoserversWithinHACMP,evenSANresourcescanbedefinedasanetwork•BootIP:ThisisadefaultIPaddressanodeuseswhenitisfirstactivateddeveloperWorksibmcomdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofandbecomesavailableTypicallyandasusedinthisarticlethebootIPisanonroutableIPaddresssetuponanisolatedVLANaccessibletoallnodesinthecluster•PersistentIP:ThisisanIPaddressanodeusesasitsregularmeansofcommunicationTypically,thisistheIPthroughwhichsystemsadministratorsaccessanode•ServiceIP:ThisisanIPaddressthatcan"float"betweenthenodesTypically,thisistheIPaddressthroughwhichusersaccessresourcesinthecluster•Applicationserver:ThisisalogicalconfigurationtotellHACMPhowtomanageapplications,includingstartingandstoppingapplications,applicationmonitoring,andapplicationtunablesThisarticlefocusesonlyonstartingandstoppinganapplication•Sharedvolumegroup:ThisisaHACMPmanagedvolumegroupInsteadofconfiguringLVMstructureslikevolumegroups,logicalvolumes,andfilesystemsthroughtheoperatingsystem,youmustuseHACMPfordiskresourcesthatwillbesharedbetweentheservers•Resourcegroup:ThisisalogicalgroupingofserviceIPaddresses,applicationservers,andsharedvolumegroupsthatthenodesintheclustercanmanage•Failover:ThisisaconditioninwhichresourcegroupsaremovedfromonenodetoanotherFailovercanoccurwhenasystemsadministratorinstructsthenodesintheclustertodosoorwhencircumstanceslikeacatastrophicapplicationorserverfailureforcestheresourcegroupstomove•Failbackfallback:Thisistheactionofmovingbackresourcegroupstothenodesonwhichtheywereoriginallyrunningafterafailoverhasoccurred•Heartbeat:ThisisasignaltransmittedoverHACMPnetworkstocheckandconfirmresourceavailabilityIftheheartbeatisinterrupted,theclustermayinitiateafailoverdependingontheconfigurationPrepworkAnumberofstepsmusttakeplacebeforeyoucanconfigureanHACMPclusterandmakeitavailableThefirststepistomakesurethatthehardwareyouwillbeusingforthetwoserversisassimilaraspossibleThenumberofprocessors,thequantityofmemory,andthetypesofFibreChannelandEthernetadaptersshouldallbethesameIfyouareusinglogicalpartition(LPAR)orvirtualIO(VIO)technology,beconsistent:Don'tmixhardwarestrategieslikelogicalHostEthernetAdapters(LHEA)ibmcomdeveloperWorksdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofononenodewithstandardfourportEthernetadaptersontheotherNodevelopmentserversIhaveseenmanyenvironmentsinanumberofdifferentcompaniesovertheyearsinwhichthedecisionismadetodeclareoneofthenodesinaclustera"production"serverandtheothera"development"serverThisdecisionistypicallymadebecausecompaniesdecidethathavingaserversitidlemorethanpercentofthetimeincaseofadisasterisawasteofmoneyIcannotstressthisenough:DONOTDOTHISWhenthisstrategyisused,invariablydifferencesinthetwoserversarise,asdevelopmentcausesdifferencesinsoftware,applications,andoperatingsystemfunctionsAndwhenthetimecomesthattheproductionresourcegrouphastobefailedovertothedevelopmentserver(becauseit'salwaysamatterofwhen,notif),thosedifferenceswillpreventthingsfromrunningcorrectlyThesecondstep,whichshouldcoincidewiththefirst,istosizetheenvironmentinsuchawaythateachnodecanmanagealltheresourcegroupssimultaneouslyIfyoudecidethatyouwillhavemultipleresourcegroupsrunninginthecluster,assumeaworstcasescenariowhereonenodewillhavetoruneverythingatonceEnsurethattheservershaveadequateprocessingpowertocovereverythingThird,youneedtoassignandorsharethesamesetofresourcestoeachserverIfyouuseSANdisksforstorage,thedisksforthesharedvolumegroupsneedtobezonedtoallnodesThenetworkVLANs,subnets,andaddressesshouldbehookedupinthesamefashionWorkwithyourSANandnetworkadministratorstogetaddressesanddisksfortheboot,persistent,andserviceIPaddressesFourthandfinally,theentireoperatingsystemconfigurationmustmatchbetweenthenodesTheuserIDs,thirdpartysoftware,technologylevels,andservicepacksneedtobeconsistentOneofthebestwaystomakethishappenistobuildouttheintendedconfigurationononenode,makeamksysbbackup,andusethattobuildoutallsubsequentnodesOncetheserversarebuilt,considerthemjoinedatthehip:makechangesonbothserversconsistentlyallthetimeWithallofthevirtualizationtechnologyavailabletoday,it'sfarmoreworthwhiletouseVIOtocreateapairofproductionanddevelopmentLPARsonthesamesetofSystempserversandhardwareresourcesthantotrytosaveafewdollarsattheexpenseofsacrificingthetruepurposeforwhichHACMPwasdesignedUsethingslikesharedprocessorweights,maximumtransmissionunit(MTU)sizes,andRAMallocationtogivetheproductionLPARsmorecloutthanthedevelopmentLPARsDoingsocreatesanenvironmentthatcanhandleafailoverandassuresmanagersandaccountantsthatfinancesarebeingusedwiselyConfiguringatwonodeHACMPclusterdeveloperWorksibmcomdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofNowfortheactualworkInthisexample,yousetupasimpletwonodeclusteracrosstwoEthernetnetworks:onesharedvolumegrouponaSANdiskthatalsousesasecondSANdiskforaheartbeatandwithanapplicationmanagedbyHACMPinoneresourcegroupNote:ThisprocessassumesthatallIPaddresseshavebeenpredeterminedandthattheSANzoningofthedisksiscompleteUnlessotherwisestated,youmustrunthetaskshereoneachandeverynodeoftheclusterStepInstalltheHACMPsoftwareYoucanpurchasethissoftwarefromIBMdirectly(seeResourcesforalink)thefilesetsallstartwiththewordclusterUsetheinstallpcommandtoinstallthesoftware,muchlikeanyotherlicensedprogrampackage(LPP)StepEditsomeflatfilesPutalloftheIPaddressesassociatedwiththeclusterboot,persistent,andserviceintoeachetchostsfileoneachnodeoftheclusterDothesamewiththeusressbinclusteretcrhostsfileVerifythattheserverhostnamesmatchtheappropriateIPaddressestheserver'shostnameshouldalsomatchwiththepersistentIPaddressStepConfigurethebootIPaddressesRunthesmittychinetcommand,andsetthebootIPaddressesforeachnetworkadapterMakesurethatyouareabletopingandconnectfreelyfromnodetonodeonallrespectivenetworksAlso,doublechecktomakesurethatthedefaultrouteisproperlyconfiguredIfitisn't,runsmittytcpip,gointotheMinimumConfigurationmenu,enterthedefaultroutefortheprimaryadapter,andpressEnterStepMakeapplicationstartandstopscriptsCreatetwosimpleKornshellscriptsonethatstartsanapplicationandonethatstopsanapplicationKeepthesescriptsinidenticaldirectoriesonbothnodesStepDefinetheclusterRunthecommand:smittycmconfiganhacmpclustermenudmnThen,definethecluster,includingnamingitappropriatelyStepDefinethenodesibmcomdeveloperWorksdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofRunthecommand:smittycmconfighacmpnodesmenudmnDefineeverynodewithintheclusteronbothnodesStepDefinethenetworksRunthecommand:smittycmconfighacmpnetworksmenudmnThisdefinesonenetworkperEthernetadapterIprefertousethePredefinedoptionasopposedtotheDiscoveredpath,butthatisuptoyourdiscretionCheckthesubnetmasksforconsistencyStepDefinethebootIPaddressesRunthecommand:smittycmconfighacmpcommunicationinterfacesdevicesmenudmnThisdefinesthebootIPaddressesontherespectivenetworkadaptersThisaddressshouldbethesameIPaddressesyouusedinstepMakesureyoudefinetheseaddresseswithintheproperrespectiveHACMPdefinednetworkStepDefinethepersistentIPaddressesRunthecommand:smittycmconfighacmppersistentnodeiplabeladdressesmenudmnThisdefinesthepersistentIPaddresses,againpayingattentiontopicktheproperrespectiveHACMPdefinednetworkStepDefinetheserviceIPaddressesRunthecommand:smittycmconfighacmpserviceiplabelsaddressesmenudmndeveloperWorksibmcomdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofThisdefinestheserviceIPaddressesStepPerformadiscoveryandrebootBythispoint,thenodesshouldhavetheabilitytocommunicatewitheachotherandkeeptheinformationstoredinthenodes'ObjectDataManagers(ODMs)insyncMakethenodeswithintheclustercommunicatewitheachotherbyrunningthecommand:smittycmextendedconfigmenudmnSelecttheDiscoverHACMPrelatedInformationfromConfiguredNodesoption,andcheckforerrorstofixGenerally,rebootingeachnodecanclearupanyminorproblems,andthisisagoodpointtotestrestartingeachserveranywayStepDefinetheresourcegroupRunthecommand:smittycmhacmpextendedresourcegroupconfigmenudmnDefinetheresourcegroupThen,performthesesteps:SelectallparticipatingnodesintheclusterSettheStartupPolicytoOnlineOnFirstAvailableNodeSettheFallbackPolicytoNeverFallbackThissettingpreventstheresourcesfromgoingbacktotheoriginalserverwhenitisbroughtup,whichisawisethingtodoStepCreateasharedvolumegroupNote:RunthiscommandonlyononenodeRunthesmittyclvgcommand,andcreateasharedvolumegroupWhenyoucreateasharedvolumegroup,youonlyneedtoselectoneofthenodes,becausethediskissharedStepCreateaheartbeatdiskFirst,runthesmittyclconvgcommand,andthenselectCreateaConcurrentVolumeGroupwithDataPathDevicesChooseonenodeandthetargetdiskibmcomdeveloperWorksdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofNext,runthecommand:smittycmconfighacmpcommunicationinterfacesdevicesmenudmnRepeatstep,exceptthistime,selecttheDiscoveredoptionandthetargetdiskStepDefineanapplicationserverRunthecommand:smittycmcfgappextendedThisdefinesanapplicationserverforanapplicationthatHACMPwillmanageUsethescriptsyoucreatedinstepStepConfiguretheresourcegroupNote:RunthiscommandononlyonenodeRunthecommand:smittycmhacmpextendedresourcegroupconfigmenudmnSelecttheChangeShowResourcesandAttributesforaResourceGroupoptionThen,performthesesteps:SelecttheappropriateserviceIPaddressesSelecttheappropriatesharedvolumegroupsandheartbeatdiskSelecttheappropriateapplicationserversStepPerformasynchronizationSynchronizetheclusterconfigurationRunthecommand:smittycmverandsyncSetAutomaticallycorrecterrorsfoundduringverificationtoInteractiveCorrectanyproblemsalongthewayStepStarttheclusterdeveloperWorksibmcomdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofAtthispoint,theclusterisreadytostartOnoneofthenodes,runthesmittyclstartcommand,andpickthatparticularnodeMypreferenceisnottohavetheclusterstartonreboot,becauseifthereisaHACMPrelatedproblemonstartup,itcanbedifficulttotroubleshootitAfterthenodecomesupwiththeresourcesavailable,starttheclusterontheothernodeStepPerformatestfailoverThebestwayIhavefoundtotestHACMP’sadaptabilityistoreboottheactivenodeandletthingsfailovernaturallywhilerunningthetail–ftmphacmpoutcommandontheothernodetowatchasthingsgooverOr,runthecommand:smittyclresgrpmovenodesiteSelecttheMoveResourceGroupstoAnotherNodeoptionStepPerformfailuretestingIfyoureallywanttomakesureyourclusterissolid,performtestingbyliterallyremovingcablesandseeinghowtheresourcesmovebackandforthThemoreyoutest,themorereliableyourclusterwillbeConclusionHACMPisarobustandeffectivetoolforkeepingresourcesavailableonAIXserversAlthoughthisarticlepresentedasimpleintroductionandhowtoforsettingupatwonodecluster,HACMPiscapableofdoingmuchmore,includingapplicationmonitoring,integratingNASresources,andputtinglogicintostartingupresourcegroupsButifyouarelookingtohitthegroundrunning,thebestadviceIhaveistomakeatestclusterandtryeverythingyoucanibmcomdeveloperWorksdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageofResourcesLearn•HACMPLibrary:LearnmoreaboutHACMPinAIXandfindhelpfulresourcesfromtheHACMPLibrary•IBMPowerHASystemMirrorforAIX:LearnmoreaboutIBMPowerHAforAIXversion,thereplacementforHACMP•PowerHAforAIXCookbook:Learnhowtoinstall,tailor,andconfigurePowerHAversion•IBMeServerpSeriesHACMPVxCertificationStudyGuideUpdate:ThisguideshowshowtoimplementhighavailabilityclusterswithHACMPversionx,helpsyouupgradeanexistingclustertothelatestversion,orprepareyoufortheHACMPversionxcertificationexamtoachieveIBMeServerCertifiedSystemsExpertpSeriesHACMPxforAIXL•ImplementingHighAvailabilityClusterMultiProcessing(HACMP)Cookbook:BroadenyourunderstandingoftheHACMPandHACMPExtendedDistance(HACMPXD)architecture•HACMPPlanningGuide:ThisguideprovidesinformationnecessarytoplanandinstalltheHACMPforAIXsoftware•AIXandUNIXdeveloperWorkszone:TheAIXandUNIXzoneprovidesawealthofinformationrelatingtoallaspectsofAIXsystemsadministrationandexpandingyourUNIXskills•NewtoAIXandUNIXVisittheNewtoAIXandUNIXpagetolearnmore•Technologybookstore:BrowsethetechnologybookstoreforbooksonthisandothertechnicaltopicsDiscuss•developerWorksblogs:CheckoutourblogsandgetinvolvedinthedeveloperWorkscommunity•FollowdeveloperWorksonTwitter•GetinvolvedintheMydeveloperWorkscommunity•ParticipateintheAIXandUNIXforums:•AIXForum•AIXForumfordevelopers•ClusterSystemsManagementdeveloperWorksibmcomdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrademarksCopyrightIBMCorporationAllrightsreservedPageof•IBMSupportAssistantForum•PerformanceToolsForum•VirtualizationForum•MoreAIXandUNIXForumsAbouttheauthorChristianPruettChristianPruettisaseniorUNIXsystemsadministratorwithmorethanyearsofexperiencewithAIX,SunSolaris,Linux,andHPUXinawidevarietyofindustries,includingcomputing,agriculture,andtelecommunicationsHeisthecoauthoroftwoIBMRedbooksonAIX,hasservedasaUNIXbookreviewforO’ReillyPublishing,andhasworkedonseveraloftheIBMAIXcertificationexamsHeresidesinColoradowithhiswifeandtwochildrenYoucanreachChristianatpruettcgmailcomibmcomdeveloperWorksdeveloperWorksTheHACMPcheatsheetTrad

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